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g and12/14/12

subtracting f ractions and mixed numbers-- A complete course in arithmetic

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ARITHMETIC
Table of Contents | Home | Introduction
372

Lesson 25

ADDING AND SUBTRACTING
FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

In this Lesson, we will answer the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

How do we add or subtract fractions?
How do we add fractions with different denominators?
What number should we choose as the common denominator?
How do we add mixed numbers?

Section 2

Subtracting mixed numbers.

A FRACTION IS A NUMBER we need for measuring. (Lesson 20.) Therefore
we sometimes have to add or subtract them. And to add or subtract
anything, the units -- the names of what we are counting -- must be the
same.
2 apples + 3 apples = 5 apples.
We cannot add 2 apples plus 3 oranges -- at least not until we call them "pieces of fruit."
In the name of a fraction -- "4 tenths," for example -- the unit is the denominator, tenths. (Lesson
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therefore. How do we add or subtract fractions? The names of what we are adding or subtracting -. 3. which is to name what we are counting. and especially Example 4. Add or subtract only the numerators. we are counting eighths. and keep that same denominator. 5 2 3 − = . How do we add fractions with different denominators? 2 1 + 3 4 . 5 2 7 + = . 2.the denominators -.) 4 tenths + 5 tenths = 9 tenths." The denominator of a fraction has but one function. 8 8 8 "5 eighths + 2 eighths = 7 eighths.must be the same. In this example. Example 2. the denominators must be the same. Examples 1. the student should know how to convert to an equivalent fraction.21. Example 1. 1. See Lesson 22. Before continuing. 8 8 8 Fractions with different denominators To add or subtract fractions. 2.

A complete course in arithmetic Convert each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the same denominator. Four times 3 12 2 is 8. (Lesson 23." (We multiplied both 1 and 4 by 3.) We converted 1 3 to by saying. Question 3. 12. Choose their lowest common multiple.g and12/14/12 subtracting f ractions and mixed numbers-. Example 3.themathpage. 4 2 + 5 15 www. we multiplied both 2 and 3 by the same number. "3 goes into 12 four times. "4 goes into 12 three times. See Lesson 22.htm 3/7 . namely 4. The lowest common multiple of 3 and 4 is their product." (In that way. Three 4 12 times 1 is 3. Lesson 22. 2 1 8 3 + = + 3 4 12 12 = We converted 11 . 2 1 + . 3 4 12 12 Example 4. What number should we choose as the common denominator? Choose a common multiple of the original denominators. In practice. because we change a denominator by multiplying it.) We choose a common multiple of the denominators. (See Lesson 22.) We will convert each fraction to an equivalent fraction with denominator 12. it is necessary to write the common denominator only once: 2 1 8 + 3 11 + = = . 3 4 Solution. 3.) The fact that we say what we do shows again that arithmetic is a spoken skill.com/ARITH/add-f ractions-subtract-f ractions-1. Question 4. 12 2 8 to by saying.

g and12/14/12 subtracting f ractions and mixed numbers-. 2 1 7 8+2+7 + + = 3 6 12 12 2 1 7 17 + + = 3 6 12 12 2 1 7 5 + + = 1 .com/ARITH/add-f ractions-subtract-f ractions-1. "5 goes into 15 three times. Three 5 15 times 4 is 12. because we are not changing the 12 denominator 12.htm 4/7 . 5 15 15 15 We changed 4 12 to by saying. 2 1 7 + + 3 6 12 Solution." We did not change 7 . Two 6 12 times 1 is 2. Therefore. and 12 is 12.) www. "3 goes into 12 four times. Example 5. 3 6 12 12 We converted 2 8 to by saying. The LCM of 3.A complete course in arithmetic Solution.themathpage. "6 goes into 12 two times. 4 2 12 + 2 14 + = = . because we are not changing the denominator 15 15. we changed the improper fraction 17 5 to 1 by dividing 17 12 12 by 12." We did not change 2 . Finally. 6. The LCM of 5 and 15 is 15." We converted 1 2 to by saying. Four 3 12 times 2 is 8. (Lesson 20.

1 1 3 + = .htm 5/7 . and the rest got C. one eighth of the students got A.g and12/14/12 subtracting f ractions and mixed numbers-. In a recent exam. so 2 is half of 4.A complete course in arithmetic "12 goes into 17 one (1) time with remainder 5.themathpage. 5 7 15 + 14 29 11 + = = = 1 . 1 2 7 + = 2 10 10 1 5 because 2 = 10. Example 8. 5 7 + 6 9 Solution. 2 4 1 1 is how many 's? 2 4 1 2 = .com/ARITH/add-f ractions-subtract-f ractions-1. Therefore. 1 1 + . 2 4 4 The student should not have to write any problem in which one of 1 the fractions is . two fifths got B. and the denominator of the other is even. Let 1 represent the whole number of students. 9 18 Example 7. 6 18 We changed 7 14 to by multiplying both terms by 2. 2 4 Just as 1 is half of 2. 2 For example. What fraction got C? Solution." Example 6. Add mentally Answer. The LCM of 6 and 9 is 18. Then the question is: www. 6 9 18 18 18 We changed 5 15 to by multiplying both terms by 3.

we may arrange the work vertically. To add the fractions. Example 9. When the denominators are different. 5 5 5 6 But is improper. 40 19 . 4 3 2 5 + 2 = 6 . Example 10.A complete course in arithmetic 1 2 + + ? = 1. 6 1 1 = 4+1 = 5 . 5 Free Downloader Search 5 YouTube Therefore. 1 2 5 + 16 21 + = = . 8 5 Now. 40 How do we add mixed numbers? Add the whole numbers and add the fractions separately. 5 5 5 4 Solution. 21 . although that is not necessary.g and12/14/12 subtracting f ractions and mixed numbers-. 8 5 40 40 The rest. The LCM 6/7 . the denominators must be the same. we must change it to a mixed number: 5 46 1 =1 . is the complement of It is 4. the fraction that got C. 8 8 8 3 2 4 6 + 1 = 4 .

8 8 At this point. Copyright © 2012 Lawrence Spector Questions or comments? E-mail: themathpage@nyc.g and12/14/12 subtracting f ractions and mixed numbers-. or Continue on to Section 2: Subtracting mixed numbers Introduction | Home | Table of Contents Please make a donation to keep TheMathPage online.com/ARITH/add-f ractions-subtract-f ractions-1.htm 7/7 . 8 8 8 8 3 3 9 + 1 = 10 .themathpage.rr. 3 6 to -. We will change We added 6 + 3 = 9.by multiplying both terms by 2: 4 8 6 5 11 3 + = =1 . please "turn" the page and do some Problems. Even $1 will help.com www.A complete course in arithmetic of 4 and 8 is 8.