You are on page 1of 11



Record: 1
History and computers: The views from selected social studies
journals. By: Yeager, Elizabeth Anne; Morris III, James W. Social
Studies. Nov/Dec95, Vol. 86 Issue 6, p277. 6p. Abstract: Presents
views from selected social studies journals on history and
computers. Exploration of the niche for computer technology in the
teaching of historical thinking; Characteristics of the journal's
attention to computer technology; Examination of two prominent
journals that specialize in history. (AN: 9601151322)
Database: Education Research Complete

History is a method, a particular way, of studying the record of human experience. It is also a body of
information . . . basic to each and every other branch of learning" (Handlin 1967, 8). This statement
comprises three essential aspects of the definition of history: history as the past itself, history as a body
of knowledge of past events, and history as a particular method for studying and interpreting the past
and constructing meaning from events. If one is seeking the most thorough and well-rounded
conceptualization of history, all three aspects are equally essential to the definition and, in fact, reinforce
each other.
Doubtless, many educated people are at least familiar with the first two aspects of history through their
studies in typical history courses. These courses, from grade school through college, likely constitute
the sum total of their encounters with the concept of history. Most students, however, "absorb the
required facts about the past without any real conception of what history is. The everyday view of the
matter . . . supposes that historians must return to the past . . . and bring it back to the present to display
as 'what really happened.' In effect, historians are seen as couriers between the past and present. . . .
[Yet there is an] important difference between 'what happened in the past' and what history is" (Davidson
and Lytle 1992, xvii).
Indeed, how often do students have the opportunity to explore the third, methodological component of
history? A high school student once remarked to us, "History is one of those subjects that just never
caught my imagination. What are you supposed to do when you study it?" Many people perhaps go
through an entire history curriculum without any conception of history as something other than that
which is told. The highly subjective methodological component of history's definition, the one that brings
the subject to fruition and gives it meaning and context, is the one most often overlooked in schools.
Instead, history is often taught and studied in schools as if it were a seamless web with no gaps, no
unanswered questions, and no exploration of things unwritten or undone that underlie the official
knowledge put forth by the typical history textbook. For the most part, history courses in schools appear
to focus on "knowledge that" and to diminish or exclude attention to "knowledge how" (Ryle 1949, 28).
When we write of the "knowing how'" of history in this article, we are referring to engagement in the
active construction of meaning and the exploration of how historical conclusions are made. Because


As teachers incorporate ehis. Rather. Nonetheless. Downey and Levstik 1991. research on the teaching and learning of history has also suggested the likelihood of a strong relationship between the teacher's ability to think historically and the development of the students' historical understanding. which has only recently begun to be explored in the education literature. purpose. considering issues of attribution. and biases. at least. history teachers' knowledge of their subject is a major factor in the way history is taught (e. A number of studies have concluded that students can and do understand historical time in a variety of ways and that they can reason with historical evidence from different sources in order to grasp historical problems and the interpretive nature of history (Leinhardt.. Thornton and Vukelich 1988. Clearly. A third critical dimension of historical thinking is the reading and interpretation of historical texts. The crucial significance of instruction in the development of students' historical understanding has been explored in a number of studies.ezp. the teachers' understandings of the discipline of history and of historical thinking enables them to be more aware of the role of interpretation. and Stainton 1994. Levstik and Pappas 1987. .lib. Wilson. and perspective with regard to the source" (Epstein 1993. Leinhardt. Thornton and Vukelich 1988. one may well expect students of history to inquire into how history is made. .. Shulman 1986) 2/11 . Historical study should provide context for facts and training in critical judgment based upon evidence. Beck. .g. . one must apply the principles of internal and external criticism to a historical document and the evidence it may hold (Handlin 1967. Booth 1980.g. 1972. establishing meaning by casting a critical eye . and Wineburg and Wilson 1989). . This consideration was the focus of a first important study by Wineburg (1991). Shulman. Hallam 1967. Downey and Levstik 1991.unimelb. Some recent education reform reports emphasize the improvement of history teaching through a cultural literacy approach to the subject. interpretations. these findings do not imply that the teachers' mere accumulation of historical facts better prepares them to teach. Furthermore. recent research especially emphasizes the importance of the teacher's historical habits of mind and ability to translate these pedagogical ideas into effective teaching practices (e. The first integral part of this inquiry is the examination of evidence embedded in historical events. A second part of the inquiry requires one to analyze the historian's perspective. However. 2526).com. Carey. Shulman 1986. Downey and Levstik 1991. Beck. 22). that is. Drake 1986).ebscohost. accounts. "both as a thing in itself and in its social context. memorizing more and more information about names and places. Blake 1981. including original sources" (7). Moreover. his or her "process of choice [that] is the subjective element inherent in the historian's duty of analysis and synthesis" (Handlin 1967. and Wilson 1985. and Rickert 1987. and Stainton 1994. and explanations of past events. Gudmundsdottir. the Bradley Commission on History in the Schools (1988). Such an investigation encompasses both the people and events that are part of the story and the many historians who study these people and events long afterwards from a variety of perspectives. that is. The historical thinking and understanding of students has received renewed attention in a growing body of educational research. asserted that "history should reach well beyond the acquisition of useful information . of multiple causation.1/16/14 DISCOVERY historians deal with the analysis of evidence to construct reasonable portrayals. Friedman 1982. who observed that high school students demonstrated only a basic knowledge of how to read historical texts (both primary and secondary sources) and tended to accord more credit to their school textbooks than to primary sources for portraying the truth of history. and of the importance of examining events in a broad context (Downey and Levstik 1991). 15).

In particular. or loathe computers. We have examined four major social studies and history journals -. This statement may be.including the interpretation of primary sources and other historical data. . avoid.ebscohost. the knowing how. The thoughtful and creative use of computers in the history classroom may well contribute to building a more powerful history curriculum in the schools. Schlene (1992) asserted. as presented in these publications.lib. In our report. History and Computer Technology In this The History Teacher. We do not intend to debate the extent to which social studies teachers use. aspects of historical inquiry -. that is. .Social Education. Social Studies Journals Over the last five years. they present their students with a richer opportunity for adopting these habits of mind into their own inquiry of how history is made. we seek to explore the niche for computer technology in the teaching of historical thinking. Our intent in this study was not to conduct an exhaustive review of every article on available computer programs in history.unimelb. quite appealing to some teachers and may make others wary. this study presents information on computer-based instruction and software applications in history and their role in actual classroom practice. we have chosen to discuss articles that are representative of these specialized social studies journals in order to illuminate the extent to which these publications are helpful guides to the use of computer technology in the development of historical understanding and inquiry. video cassette recordings and recorders. Most important. the ways to teach history have grown almost beyond imagining . examine how the journals address this technology. teachers today can implement the same technology to interest their students in history" (27). it is clear to us from our research on computers in social studies teaching that little specific information on history teachers' use and potential use of computers exists. Rather. or are they simply gimmicks or repackaged drill-andpractice exercises? We focus here on one dimension of computer technology in the teaching of history that may serve as a starting point for those history teachers who seek to incorporate this technology into their subject: the dissemination of ideas and products through professional social studies journals. Tapping into the same mania that children seem to have for playing Nintendo and PacMan. and computer software packages. and then offer several conclusions on the future of computer technology in the history classroom. Social Education and THE SOCIAL STUDIES have devoted increasing attention ehis. What is the reality and substance of computer technology in the history classroom at present? What forms of technology are available? Are these technologies a substantive means for helping teachers and/or students to develop historical thinking. "Through using computer simulations. it draws from the aforementioned research on history teaching and learning to assess the contributions of computer technology.over the last five years as a means of assessing current possibilities for the use of computer technology in the teaching of we cite examples of forms and uses of computer technology emphasized in the four publications. . THE SOCIAL STUDIES. on the surface. including those in the instructional technology literature. to the development of both teachers' and students' historical inquiry and understanding. and History Microcomputer Review -. or 3/11 .1/16/14 DISCOVERY these aspects of historical thinking into their instruction. love. In fact.

and programs to help teachers create puzzles. Framing the reviews in the context of essential aspects of social studies 4/11 . the author recommends and briefly explains particular software that correspond to each of these aspects. often brief and relatively obscure in the journal's pages. Reviews of computer technology for the doing of history. deserve more prominence. including two studies on ehis. many of the ideas on history have more novelty appeal than historio-graphic merit. "Computers and Social Studies Skills" (Vockell 1992) is a recent. most issues contain a column that features new developments for the social studies. a world history game (White 1992) in which students must find their way through booby traps and secret passages by way of thousands of historical facts. Software products for the social studies are often reviewed. is grounded in historiographic principles. Social Education deals regularly with instructional technology.unimelb. games. promising approach to software reviews in Social First. but the author focused solely on technical aspects and computer jargon. and work sheets for Friday afternoon (White 1993). For example. Second.1/16/14 DISCOVERY to instructional technology trends and issues. skills for living. one historical database was highly recommended by the reviewer as an outstanding history processor with 2. Social Education could broaden its applicability to the teaching and learning of history by probing more deeply into ways that technology can help to advance these principles and support the development of students' historical thinking. audiotapes. He affirms that "by integrating computer technology and effective teaching skills. Typical illustrations of this characteristic include reviews of encyclopedias on CDROM. its regular feature on teaching with documents. film-strips. it emphasized active learning and problem solving through the students' use of productive software.ezp. THE SOCIAL STUDIES is becoming a helpful guide to technology for teachers of social studies in schools. an article on a multimedia database for American history (Fontana 1991) had excellent possibilities for a discussion of the use of primary sources on the computer. when it does discuss uses of computer technology for the history classroom. numerous software products on drug awareness. which.ebscohost. but the review was limited to one short paragraph in a catch-all summary of new as well as a capacity for multiple representations of historical information (White 1990). Social Education frequently addresses topics and practices in history teaching.g.000 pages of documents. tables. many of the technological teaching ideas described in Social Education relate more to social studies in general than to history in particular (e. multicultural studies. teachers can help students develop the skills that constitute some of the major goals of the social studies curriculum" (369). in that journal's definition. Three characteristics of the journal's attention to computer technology are apparent. 1993). written by educational specialists at the National Archives. This journal has had several relevant articles over the past five years. Also. etc. For example. Reviews and anecdotes along these lines that attend exclusively to the history curriculum and to historical thinking are clearly warranted. geography.). several American history drill-and-practice programs with hundreds of recall questions to help students prepare for tests (White 1992. and other primary sources. but Social Education also attempts to cover a broad range of instructional technology. Third. However.. "A Social Studies Computer Lab" (Stevens 1993) was a helpful contribution to understandings of practice in computer technology. and learning kits with posters for the classroom. encompasses video. the journal focuses on the knowing how of technology more than on the knowing how of history. Given the reviewer's apparent knowledge of computer technology and his classroom teaching experience. imaginative teachers in starting their students on the path to active research and investigation in the social sciences. Most significant. The article is noteworthy because. One representative article worth a closer look by teachers is "Integrating Microcomputers into the History Curriculum" (Ramos and Wheeler 1989). Also. and interpreting findings. The History Teacher approaches the subject from an intellectual standpoint and attempts to elevate the teaching of history beyond reading. including identifying sources. gathering and evaluating evidence. first.1/16/14 DISCOVERY teachers' attitudes toward and use of computer-assisted instruction in the social studies. The History Teacher takes a scholarly. and recalling the works of others. The article exemplifies this journal's sound approach to finding a role for computers in the history classroom. James Schick's Teaching History with a Computer: A Complete Guide (Pahl 1990). the article implied that Schick overlooked history teaching on the secondary level. the authors emphasized that there is more to instructional technology than drill-and-practice or simulation games.ezp.unimelb. 5/11 . Four articles have appeared in The History Teacher over the last five years focusing on computers in the teaching of history. History Journals For our study. more important. that he dealt primarily with technical thinking. The most informative article on computers and history teaching in this journal was a comprehensive review of a recent. expert or novice computer users--and by advising teachers not to invest in seductive products that are of little substance and will soon be obsolete. Instead. the ground is fertile for critiques of computer technology based on epistemologies of history and actual classroom practice. would be illuminating. he would have been even more instructive had he explicitly developed the theme of computer technology's potential contributions to historical thinking. the reviewer looked out for the interests of the teachers by criticizing Schick's failure to decide for whom he was writing--teachers or college professors. perhaps along the same lines as the fifth-grade study mentioned above. The authors point to the absence of good. an anecdotal account of some fifth graders' use of database programs in their social studies curriculum (Hunt and Allen 1988) yielded several important insights. two emphasized using computers in student-directed historical research. we also examined two prominent journals that specialize in history. introductory guides to computers in the history classroom and attempt to remedy this situation with practical suggestions and ehis. Additional accounts of teacher and student practice in history classrooms. Its articles emphasize the subservience of computers to established principles of historiography and historical understanding. it emphasizes the doing of history and encourages students to read. not historical thinking.lib. If this is the case. thoughtful approach to the role of computers in the history classroom. and interpret different types of primary sources and historical evidence. They acknowledged that students' access to computers is often limited and. and that Schick's references to cognitive skills and to Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives were decontextualized and superficial. major book. Most noteworthy. These caveats are highly instructive for history teachers who are deliberating the incorporation of intellectually valuable technology into their curriculum. they stressed the role of creative. He is clearly optimistic that the next edition of Schick's book will directly address a high school history teacher audience.

Who Built America.ebscohost. In print form. on CD-ROM (Rosenzweig and Brier 1993). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. spreadsheet programs. the journal is not particularly user friendly. First. in their view. as well as book and software reviews and descriptions of projects currently underway. Although it contains many interesting ideas and applications. they emphasize historical methodology. students can experience the nature of the historian's task by using databases to gather and analyze information. is an aid to historical understanding. For most classroom history teachers. not computer History Microcomputer Review assumes that its readers take an intellectual approach to history instruction. History Microcomputer Review expects its readership to have a fairly sophisticated understanding of computers and a strong technical agenda for incorporating computers into the curriculum. One category of articles emphasizes the use of computers in academic historical research and cites ways that historians can use telecommunications networks. and inventories in order to research rural life in the United States and Brazil in the nineteenth century. a term that refers to computer programs that enable students to pages of text. Moreover. rather than an end in itself. 600 pictures. The apparent advantage to the CD-ROM program is that it explicitly addresses principles of historical understanding by providing students with primary sources and opportunities to examine ehis. the most helpful articles in History Microcomputer Review may be those that review the latest technological developments in the teaching of history. Ramos and Wheeler recommend the use of a particular database. but this seems to require a greater level of computer literacy than many history teachers are likely to 6/11 . One especially intriguing article for teachers in History Microcomputer Review discusses a design for putting a high school history textbook. Moreover. Another type of article has guidelines for creating interactive historical tutorials and would likely appeal to technophiles with advanced programming skills. their ideas are consistently based on fundamental principles of formulating and testing hypotheses. Second. A second journal. Thus. The computer. History Microcomputer Review is devoted entirely to computers in the history classroom. word processors. databases. Although geared towards college students. These include annotated bibliographies of articles from technical computer publications and trade journals. this article should interest any high school teacher who wants to use the computer as a tool for productive historical research. whereas its electronic counterpart on CD-ROM includes 5. and 45 minutes of film on a single disk. as does The History Teacher. it resembles a computer manual and is heavily laced with computer jargon and abbreviations that might intimidate the uninitiated.1/16/14 DISCOVERY illustrations from their own teaching experiences. 60 graphs and charts. the History Microcomputer Review. The authors also suggest the application of "productive" software.lib. The authors make a significant contribution to the discussion of the relationship between data and solid historical conclusions. and report the data they collect. and graphic presentation software. which their students mined for relevant information on censuses.ezp.unimelb. and by writing reports on their findings on a word processor. by doing mathematical computations of data on spreadsheets. wills. and analyzing historical evidence. 4 hours of audio. analyze. Who Built America consists of two 600-page volumes. also attempts to bridge the teaching of history and the use of computers. applying standards of internal and external validity. but it does so with more emphasis on the technological than on the historical. This publication makes two assumptions.

Our article contains two main implications. The authors suggest that teachers: 1. 5). unlimited computer 7/11 . and discussed may be the crucial factor that will decide whether [students] come to understand and engage in history . all students would have daily. One concerns the availability and accessibility of computers in especially. Many teachers can. However. . and teachers would have the time and energy to gain technical proficiency. reinforces the aforementioned view that students can benefit from their teacher's historical understanding. and appears to underestimate [their] ability to deal with historical content" (1987. 5. 2. rather than to formulate hypotheses which necessitate their creative uses of the softwares' capabilities.1/16/14 DISCOVERY historical evidence. . peruse some of the basic software described here -. . students are not likely to think historically unless their teachers do so. Levstik and Pappas concluded that "the context in which history is presented.ezp. which advances their instruction beyond an inventory of facts (knowing that) to historical methodology and inquiry (knowing how). . integrate computers into courses with historical content rather than making them the primary set of courses.lib. at the very least. A second implication. is that computer technology can play a role in the development of teachers' historical thinking. we wish to expand the ehis. keep the historical content as the focus. This advance constitutes a necessary precondition to their teaching of historical thinking to students and a possible determinant of their students' development of robust understandings of history. Moreover. Conclusions and Implications Ramos and Wheeler's (1989) article in The History Teacher effectively sums up several important principles for using computers to support the development of historical understanding. A teacher's ability and imagination in this regard. the authors assume that it may be easier for some teachers to access and use a computer than for an entire classroom to do so. The present history curriculum is too narrow . Simply put. largely unexplored part of the context for students' learning. . [remind students] to construct hypotheses which are historically significant. Clearly. Ideally. which follows from the first. in this article. 3.ebscohost. . resist the pressure to focus on the methodology and on computer techniques .unimelb. as well as by exposing them to alternative interpretations of historical events. the teaching of historical thinking with the aid of computer technology is a viable. be aware that students tend to fit the hypotheses to their ability to manipulate the We do not wish to imply that all students will learn history better simply by using a computer. be careful not to choose data to fit the methodology (186-187). Many of the ideas and suggestions put forth in education journals are based on the assumptions that computers are standard issue throughout the schools and that all teachers are comfortable incorporating instructional technology into their curriculum.particularly the databases of primary sources -and find ways to modify them for their students. 4. . examined. but we hope readers recognize that there is a supporting role for the computer in the development of their historical understanding.

Telephone (202) 966-7840. Students of history may eventually come to understand that "the past is not history. Pittsburg KS. Pittsburg State University. CA 90840. For orders. Washington. History Microcomputer Review Published twice annually in November and April at Department of History. All memberships include seven issues of Social Education.ezp.unimelb. Annual subscription rates: $55 for institutions.. Add $14 for subscriptions outside the United States. 20016. c/o California State University. October. April/May by the National Council for the Social Studies.lib. Membership dues: $22 for individuals. March: bimonthly in November/December. Illuminating that relationship should lead to enhanced history teaching practices and a more powerful curriculum. NW. call 1-800-365-9753. $15 for students with verification of enrollment. DC. January. Long Beach. only the raw material of it". Comprehensive membership is $65.S. 1319 18th St. REFERENCES ehis. February. the extent to which schools are undertaking the fundamental refashioning of their approach to the teaching of history -. $33 for individuals. Regular membership is $50. THE SOCIAL STUDIES Published bi-monthly by Heldref Publications. 1250 Bellflower Blvd. Research involving history teachers' and students' actual perceptions and classroom use of computer technology constitutes a rich area for deeper exploration. FAX (316) 232-7515. Annual subscription rates: $20 for U.including the application of computer technology -. Information about the journals reviewed for this article The History Teacher Published quarterly in November. $25 for non-U.ebscohost. xxxi). Washington. Student/Retired membership is $25. Telephone (316) worthy of more intensive study.S.. Telephone (310) 985-1653. 3501 Newark St. Membership in NCSS is open to any person or institution. and August in affiliation with the American Historical Association and for members of the Society for History Education. DC 20036-1802. Subscription without membership is $55 per year. NW. a division of the nonprofit Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation. Social Education Published monthly in September.. they will see "how those raw materials come to be fashioned and shaped" as they learn to think historically (Davidson and Lytle 8/11 . Long Beach.1/16/14 DISCOVERY discussion of how teachers can think historically and how they can deal with historical content through computer technology in the classroom. May. Further study along these lines is essential to the exploration of both teachers' and students' understanding of history and the relationship between the two. Telephone (202) Clearly. $28 for institutions. 66762.

A. Logical thinking in history. A. and L.: Stanford University School of Education. M. 9/11 . Teaching and Learning History. P. Thinking and learning in history.lib.unimelb. O. (April/May 1991): 221-222. ehis. N. J. Hunt. Shaver. L. Davidson. New York: Academic Press. W. New York: Macmillan. Merk. Downey. Teaching and learning in history. H. R. Booth. Harvard guide to American history. Epstein. S.M. Fifth graders do "real work" on the computer. Buck. H. D. J. Schlesinger. 1967. T. and C. 1980. The History Teacher 14: 533-549. Educational Review 32: 245-257. 1972. 1987. Friedman. L. Carey. Hallam. -----. W. edited by W. and S. and C. Rep. New York: McGrawHill. Introduction. Beck. Morrison. 400-410. Educational Review 19: 183-202.J.. M. 1982. F. Fontana. E. N. The role of subject-matter knowledge in learning to teach social studies (Knowledge Growth in a Profession Project S. Unpublished paper. After the fact: The art of historical detection. edited by J. 1991... Drake. I. CC-05). 1-11. No. ED. Observing children learning history. and E. N. Lytle. Friedman. In The developmental psychology of time.G. Allen. New York: Athenaeum. Levstik.. A modern world history course and the thinking of adolescent pupils. Gudmundsdottir. 1988. 1981. eds. 1967. Stainton. The Social Studies (March/April): 78-80. Pappas. Stanford. D. Levstik.ezp. and P. Teaching History 2: 337-346.. L. 1994. Washington. Social Education. 1988. Calif. Using primary sources and historians' interpretations in the classroom. Handlin. 1985.C. Exploring the development of historical understanding.1/16/14 DISCOVERY Blake. 1993. 1986. J.ebscohost.. 1991. Leinhardt. Bradley Commission on History in the Schools. GTV: A geographic perspective on American history. Building a history curriculum: Guidelines for teaching history in schools. Teaching History: A Journal of Methods 11: 50-61. The arts of history: Analysis of secondary school students' interpretations of the arts in historical contexts.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.: Educational Excellence Network. Wilson.. and M. W. In Handbook of research on social studies teaching and learning: A project of the National Council for the Social Studies. Journal of Research and Development in Education 21: 1-5. N. Hillsdale.

and R. L. L. Computers and social studies skills. Ramos. edited by J. 1949. 1990): 273-275. In Advances in research on teaching. H. S. Stevens.ezp./Dec.. Wilson.1/16/14 DISCOVERY Pahl. Wineburg. or email articles for individual use. R. Thornton. Instructional technology: Software review. Rosenzweig. ~~~~~~~~ By ELIZABETH ANNE YEAGER and JAMES W. S. Vockell. Vukelich. Social Education (Nov. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Wilson. S./Dec.S. Rickerr. History Microcomputer Review (Spring): 27-29. Ideas that work: A social studies computer lab. and R. History Microcomputer Review (Fall): 9-14. 1990-1993. MORRIS III ELIZABETH ANNE YEAGER is an assistant professor of social studies education at the University of Florida in Gainesville. Shulman./Dec. E. London: Cassell. and S. 1992. 1993. L. edited by J.ebscohost. Theory and Research in Social Education 15: 69-82.): 366-369. 1992.lib. 1989. In Exploring teachers' thinking. The concept of mind. 1988. 150 different ways of knowing: Representations of knowledge in teaching. J. Schlene. Copyright of Social Studies is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission.S. users may 1993): 396-398. Brier. Brophy. G. and S. American Educational Research Journal 28:495-519. 1992): 10/11 . Conn. Shulman. On the reading of historical texts: Notes on the breach between school and academy. Greenwich. R.. A.: JAI Press. The Social Studies (4): 181-183. ehis.. 104-124. 1987. Using the new technology in the history classroom: An ERIC/ChESS sample. Ryle. 1990. (Nov. and A. MORRIS 111 is an instructor in social studies education at the University of Central Florida in Orlando. L. E. V. 1989. Subject matter knowledge in the teaching of history. The History Teacher 22: 176187. download. Clio! Forgive us our computers. JOHN W. Wineburg. Integrating microcomputers into the history curriculum. 1986. instructional technology news.unimelb.. Wheeler. J. Why read a history book on a computer? Putting Who Built America? on CD-ROM. London: Hutchinson's University Library. However. C. Educational Researcher 15: 4-14. S. S. Calderhead. 1991. Effects of children's understanding of time concepts on historical understanding. White. Social Education (Sept. Social Education (January): 8-10. (Nov. Hutchinson House. 1993. DISCOVERY 11/11