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StewartCarter

The

tremolo

string

the

in

17th

century

When BiagioMariniwrote tremolocon l'arco in the vio-

and in the continuo part, metti il tremolo('put [or set]
the tremolo'). The advice to the continuo playerbecame the first composer to use this term in a com- undoubtedlyan organist-is particularlysignificant;he
position for bowed string instruments.Apparentlyrea- is to activatethe tremulantstop. Marini'sadvice to the
lizing the boldness of his stroke,Marinidrew attention other instrumentalistsnow becomes clearer:they are to
to it by adding the subtitle Sonata a 3 con il tremolo. The imitate the undulationsof the organ tremulant.
Marini does not say how this imitation of the organ
term 'tremolo' however, is susceptible to a variety of
this
been
tremulant
is to be accomplished.'Tremblewith the bow'
hence
interpretations,'
passagehas frequently
I
to
mean
to drawit back and forth rapidly,as in the
In
this
could
misinterpreted(ex.i).
study propose identify
the type of tremolo intended by Mariniand to trace its 'modern' tremolo, and indeed some modern scholars
have interpretedit in this way. David Boydenwrites:
developmentthrough the 17thcentury.
correct
can
Cluesto the
Monteverdi... claimed(1638)thathe inventedthemeasured
interpretationof this passage
be found partly in the composer's instructions, partly tremoloby writinga numberof repeatedsixteenthnotes,
from examiningworksby Marini'scontemporaries.The playedin stricttime,to expresswarlikepassionsin a 'styleof
excitement'
ButMarinihadalreadyusedthis
('stileconcitato').
composer'sadviceto the performersis significant:in the kind of measuredtremoloin his
Opus 1 of 1617,and there are
violin parts he has marked tremolocon l'arco ('tremble muchearlier
music,
examplesin othervocalandinstrumental
with the bow'); in the part for trombone or bassoon, in particular
suchpiecesas Jannequin's
chansons,
descriptive

lin parts of his sonata La Foscarina (from Opus 1, 1617)he

or ... AndreaGabrieli'sAria dellaBattaglia... (1590).2

tremolo col strumento ('tremble with the instrument');

Ex.1

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Biagio Marini, La Foscarina: Sonata a 3, con i tremolo, from Affetti musicali ...

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EARLY MUSIC

FEBRUARY

1991

43

p.124 (Johnson Reprint Corporation) 42 EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 . 1688). Hortus chelicus (Mainz.I / 1 Johan Jakob Walther.

this passage is quite similarto Marini's.one equivalent to the slurredtremolo.10The tremolo passagein LaPichiis remarkable.temperatoand molle. B.The instrumentsspecifiedin Riccio'sCanzon la Pichi-two violins and trombone-provides further supportfor such a connection. slurs are tremolo'. imitating the manner of the organ tremulant. Italianprinters.who worked in nearbyWeisenstein.3 GabrielUsper. moderation.he states:'The tremolo is done with a pulsatingof the hand which has the bow. and humility or supplication-represented respectivelyby threemusicalgenera:concitato.There are compelling reasons to doubt Boyden'sinterpretationof Marini.9 Examplesof this kind of tremolo can be found in the music of Marini's Venetian contemporaries.that such a tremolo requiresseparatebows for eachnote.He does not relatehis tremartothe organtremulant.7Probably the earliest reference to it is in marked in the first violin but not in the other parts. In a similar passagefrom a Canzond 4 by with your bow (liketremulantsin an organ). Riccio does not provideslurs.Riccio surelymust haveknown LaFoscarina.Modern writerswho equatetremolowith stileconcitatoconfound Baroqueand modern usage. but I have found no source earlierthan the g1th centurywhich callsthis gesture 'tremolo'.'5 AndreasHammerschmidt. One year later G.3). Riccio publishedhis Terzolibrodelledivinelodi musicali. Referringto a passage in his Capricciostravagante(1627).and at times shake (tremar)the bow arm and the finger of the hand on the neck [of the instrument]. 1638).preface Ganassi's Regola rubertina (1542-3).2 AndreasHammerschmidt. offers similar advice:'In the violin [parts] certain notes will be found. A more plausibleinterpretationof the passagein ex. for Usper precisely indicates what Marini assumed performerswould understand:imitation of the organ tremulantrequiresrepeatedquavers.and it may be that passagessuch as this one have led some modern writersto conclude.3As we shallsee presently.1619) vln.an Italian composer who worked with Schtitzin Dresden. harmonic rhythmand in its use of mild chromaticism.however. In 1619 GabrielUsper published a Sonata a tre for two violins. The effectof the 'modern' tremolo sometimes called Bombi or Schwermer4appears frequently in string music throughout the Baroque and Classical periods.Monteverdisaysthattherearethree principal emotional states-anger. articulatedby a gentlepulsating motion of the bow armwithout stoppingthe bow. dritterTheil(Freiberg. Sonata a tre. move the bow gracefully. continuo 9 44 rmwrrr vi tremoul ^ EARLY MUSIC Jn -7 ~t6 -. In instrumentation. where the author advisesthe playerof the viola de gamba:'Formelancholy words and music.The principaldifferencelies in the notation.Boydencallsit the 'slurred another Venetian. mistakenly.'6The effect is thereforerelatedto the modern portatoor lourestyle of bowing:a seriesof notes of the samepitch aretakenin a single strokeof the bow.-- 6 FEBRUARY 1991 6 5 ?jrjn 6 5 11 .the otherto left-handvibrato.4).i is suggestedby Carlo Farina. It mightbe called'bowvibrato'. II remoo tremolo bsn. Giovanni Rovetta (1626).2) meaning that you play four [notes] in one stroke Musicalischer Ex. bassoon and continuo which containsa tremolopassage (ex.length. Freibergand Zittau.but the emotional qualitieshe associateswith it are consistent with the characterof the passagefrom Marini'ssonata. Andachten." Ex.the gentle organtremulantcorresponds to the third of these types. in order to make the effect conform to melancholy and tormented music. not the first.ascendingin the violin partchromatically through a diminished octave (ex. slurred in groups of four.could be careless about slurs. and also with laterdescriptionsof the organtremulant.for he adoptedthe latter'ssubtitle-con il tremolo-for two works in his collection. namely (ex. from Compositioniarmoniche(Venice. texture.'8 Ganassimentions two types of 'shaking'. I 0 rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrErE-rrr 1 E rrMrr rrrZ tremolo vln.

z BiagioMarini. Slurredquaversappearin similarpassagesin the music of yet another Venetian. Buonamente.with or without slurs.5 With its evidently slow tempo and affective character.perhaps. B. a true child of the earlyBaroque. following the model in Usper's Sonata.'2 tremolo in the first half of the 17th century. probablyslurredin groups of four.then.but one which mayhavebeen contrived to allow time for the organist to draw the tremulant stop.'3 in their stringtremolos repeatedquavers. The tremolo passage from LaFoscarinashouldbe performedin constantquavers. Pellegrino Possenti.'4Marini. title page BibliotekaUniwersytecka) (Wroclaw. he was referringto the imitationof the organ tremulant-the slurred tremolo.uses this passagefor dramaticeffect.basso.Affettimusicali (Venice.1617).the tremolo passage serves as a contrasting interludebetween the two liveliersections.only Tarquinio Merula and Farinafollow Marini'snotation of the tremolo in string parts. Marco Uccellini and BerOf the Italiancomposerswho used the nardo Barlasca. Maurizio Cazzati. and of non-Venetians such as G. When Marinitold his violinists to 'tremblewith the bow'.'6 EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 45 .Dario Castello (1629). It is preceded by a full bar's rest in all parts-a dramatic device. using long notes accomThe others wrote out panied by the directive tremolo.

it will turn out to be harsh and displeasing.. 3'a~~~~~ j -f O 9):krLL1- _ fr r 9:bj I r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~· ~r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r ~ ~ ~~~ _ _ _ _ _ad 6 . .7r -I I. though they were not always noted in contracts or specifications.Youcould then add if you want a rankof pipes imitating human voices [voci humane]. or those which imitate wind instruments [such as] fifferi or flutes. Pietroand Sta. wanted to emulate the sound produced by the tremulant or 'shaking stop' of an organ. B.skilled and competent will know how to build [such a device] without danger or harmto the organ. and was probably the type employed in most Italian organs in the 16th and 17th centuries.1620) vln. whose teeth are chattering. These registerscan be added to the . but to a device which causes regular undulations in the air flow of the instrument.8 Surely this is the type of tremulant to which Giambatista Morsolino of Bergamo refers in a letter of 1582 to the council of the cathedral at Cremona. insteadof makingthe music languidand sweet. either by allowing wind to escape from the trunk in short bursts ('open' tremulant or tremblantfort). assistedby the tremolo..from II terzo libro delle divine lodi musicali (Venice. or beating within the trunk ('closed' tremulant or tremblant doux). It is not difficultto build. althoughit is difficultto construct one so that it makes a good effect. Ii I I I r lr- _ C I I .Ex. Most large organs of the 17th century had such stops. . similarly with tremolo. 6 "LLLT - r I _ b P~~~~~br iC CWLLT~. . Canzonla Pichi. The latter produced gentler undulations.17the effect therefore was a familiar one. 'tremulant' refers not to a rank of pipes.And these ranks make wonderful effects with the tremolo and the sweetness and grace of these voices. certainlyit is a verygood thing. Thus one finds that althoughtherearemany of them. r I rr i Il __~-_ YLI-: I I I r C rI r IJ. as one finds on the organsof S. thereareveryfew which are good. A man who is highly experienced.Agatain Cremona. and veryhelpfulfor the organ. . I 7 W CLT[ LLLF~I r 2fi --- LTUh r ~ JT 6 Marini and his north Italian contemporaries. then. Ires P II %Y I I - f_- I I r_ I tbn. tremolo T-6r _ 4 I 4# 4 rI rrI * 4 I _ _ _L -Yrrrr II I I _ tremolo r 0 0 I I P a . in ecco con il tremolo. b' j I r r r r r rf r .j FEBRUARY 1991 was the addition of a tremolo. among which 46 1I LLL LW --n LTILTLLT r CL r 6pPp II . And if it happens that the tremolo is not good.4 G.. I 6 wrrrTi LLLF "Cl [a I 7 -- EARLY ' MUSIC r I FT r I I 6" rrrr f I I r I. It was constructed in two different ways.1 - tremolo . I. Morsolino replies: Now the tremolo is nothing otherthan a devicethat one places in the trunk which carriesthe wind from the bellows to the wind chest.But when it is good. Properly speaking. The council had sought Morsolino's advice regarding projected alterations for the cathedral organ. I . Riccio. [sounding] like someone tormented by fever.

confirming that the tremulant could be installed without damaging the cathedral organ.2 GirolamoDiruta offers complementaryadvice: The vocihumane(voceumana)andfifferi(fiffaro. as its name suggests.the Elevationof the Host.m~ 6 .without divisions. . . ori. Marco in Venice. author of L'arteorganica (1608).~'~ .playeduntransposed melodicmotion.with tremolo. 4$:A-L-. where Marini was employed some 35 years later.23 organwith the additionof a smallwind chest. --7R! -- . This shouldbe with the principalalone.--.The principalregisterwith tremolowill with human voices..~~~YlrL· I)L)YC· m .. The vibrato'.and that it is a goodregistrationfor motets in few voices. Organ registrationsare seldom indicated in Italian music.B .- . Costanzo says that you can use the tremolo with the 8' principal and 8' flute for Dirutaclearlyindicatesthat the tremolo was an affective deviceand recommendsits use at an emotionallysignificant point in the Mass.theyserveforplayingattheElevation imiand of Our Lord Most Blood the Jesus Christ. Morsolino's advice was conveyed to the renowned organ-builder Gratiadeo Antegnati of Brescia.-.24 EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 47 .fourthmode(hypophrygian) makestheharmonymournfully ginated as an attempt to emulate the undulating of sad and dolorous.n _ml. .Thismodeandthesecondhave the tremulant as well.playeduntransposed._ iL--I~ ' $.~ W ~ r~11· '-.. I *I . The voce umana.20Morsolino clearly distinguishes appropriate of between these undulating stops and the mechanical almostthesameeffect.'9 existence of a tremulant on an organ at St Mark's in Venice. who offered advice of his own. HolyBody tremulant. conjunction with which they produced an 'acoustical however. with sad melodies.. ·Ir~y. He verifies the tating Passion.. In the six-voice Magnificatfrom his 1610Vespers Monteverdi specifies principale e tremolarefor the phrase humilitatemancillae suae ('the humility of his Ban handmaid')to underscorethe word humilitatem. in ful." Gratiadeo was the father of Costanzo Antegnati.L ~ ILI*· -."'-"~. a characteristic occasionally attributed to makethiseffect. noting that the latter could be used to withtheirsoundthe crueland harshtormentsof His enhance the wavering effect of the former. .or someflutestop.-e. i~ Biagio.-- TrcniolocQn Larco _ _ _ ._ "_ -' " '--- "-'- -* playingslowly.piffaro) Thesecondmode makesthe harmonymourn(hypodorian) were ranks of pipes slightly mistuned to the principal.. · . i ~.as they did in the organthat Mr Claudio [Merulo]da Corregioplaysat S.

harpsichord. BEDE DURHAM CITY I Replicas of Historical Instruments built to order Further details on request THE WOOD OLD YARD. ANDSPINETS VIRGINALS COLLEGE OF ST. Stewart McCoy.howMersenne is even more specific. saying that the organ ever.Tremulantsmust not be used in all pieces. It can be used in preludes and even in and recommendits use in motets. but each organist fixus-certainly an emotionalpoint in the masstext-in shouldjudgefor himself. renaissance band.[the] Sanctus. Further information on the tremolo comes from but only in melancholymusic such as penitentialsongs (BusGermanand Frenchsources. has little effect on pitch. Clare Griffel. This twofold trembling is of course precisely during a bar which lasts two seconds'. Helen Rees.27 tions accordwith written-out examplesof string trem. plucked instruments.appearing the continuo instrument. the most attractivesound is made by one lations in the wind supply would createcorresponding which beatseight times per bar (i. because the tremulant ing written c.chiericallsfor the tremolo in organbassesfor alternatim 'beats'per bar.In a manualon organtest. Manfred Harras.e. viols. Martin Eastwell.likeMorinterpretationof the tremolo passage from La Foscar.especially[if] it is torius call the tremolo 'a lovely voice' (eine fein played very slowly. perhaps then the string tremulant 'beats as it should when it beats eight times player combined his 'slurred tremolo' with left-hand Both descrip. DY99LG MIDLANDS WEST Nr. Jane Ryan Musical Director: Layton Ring Brochures from Mrs. baroque flute and strings. Marlene Austin. Durham DH1 1DE. HAGLEY HALL.1614. Elizabeth Dodd. 5 Birchgrove Avenue.solino's above. HILD & ST. S OFHARPSICHORDS. undube found. His tremolos are likewisetext-related.25 should not use it in a cheerfulor triple-timemelody or text.30 Stimbwerck) statethatwhile manydifferentvarietiesof tremulantcan Whethera tremulantwas of the fortor douxtype. Theyalso fugues.though he does not relateit to olos in 17th-century Italian music.EsaiasCompeniusand MichaelPrae. they further support my many discussionsof organregistration. Gilesgate Moor. Kim Robson. The slurredtremoloby itself.sliedern). I. and at the Cruci. C' .vibrato.26 Marin undulationsin pitch.A parallelsituation can be seen in denominations are common. singing.29 at Qui tollispeccatamundi ('Thou that takest awaythe In 1666MatthaeusHertel statedthat: sins of the world') in four masses. where quaver the organ tremulant. He his Credo Domenicale. recommend use of the tremulant with ina.usuallymakesthe melody pious and devout.3rd AUGUST 1991 NORVIS XXI Sessions for recorders. MAKERS CLAVICHORDS.STOURBRIDGE.31 NORVIS XXI Northumbrian Recorder and Viol School ALAN & NINA GROVE N t k &aryinusiaCJAnstmmems V 7*. David Pinto.which. and the like.accordingto the melody and text. Among the tutors will be Alan Davis.what Ganassidescribes. HAGLEY. Nicholas Gleed.28 If the organ tremulated at approximatelyeight undulatingstops. dancing. in quavers).then quitelikelyMarini'sviolinistswould settings of the Mass Ordinaryin his Organosuonarino have synchronizedtheir 'slurredtremolo' bowing with (1622). 744960 886170 (0562) (0562) (Evenings) Workshop 48 EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 27th JULY .

1620). ": :::I * · ::.f_ . .e. centred in Bologna and Modena. Giovanni Maria Bononcini often uses it throughout a short transitional movement or section (ex.37 (Frankfurt.Tremolooccasionallymeansleftforte Ecco forte 2::. though supporting evidenceis lacking. 98 : 6 76 98 b At - [ J m fclrr 'mr-^^^f~n 43 0t EARLY MUSIC I 76 6 55 FEBRUARY 1991 49 . canto. from Primifrutti del giardino musicale(Venice. First.ms. assumedto include left-hand vibrato. comment.._ `· By the second half of the 17th century the slurred tremolowas certainlya widelyused effect. .~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ quently in the church sonatas of the 'Emilian'school..:iR o X /: 7 0 ) 0X:t0 : io f E . A a a 0 I r rL - c LrrWL r r Wl r1L r rF i vln.. | mim7 Y&r?' I EWrrI3rrTAI 1ir 7 I tir..5)..3Bythe mid-18th century.4 Giovanni BattistaRiccio. II Adagio._OaO Y Ta #s: +=f = c:-: t "~~~-1 t F usedthis wayfor pluckedthan for bowedstrings. 105 vln. tremolo <§r Adagio.I have found no writerwho recommendsthe simultaneous applicationof these two types of trembling in the period between Ganassi'sRegolarubertinaand the ecco forte Ecco f rte i9th century.tremoloreminds Stadt-undUnivertitatsbibliothek) tf c : 00i:: t.1f-: a A--. I Adagio. e tremolo b. Sonata 4. 7 ..7- Ex.r C p J YJ ^ja Am. JJ1 oeJ . L :l ' f J'tI r= 6 6 5 ) t p 2_ J n . La Pichi.34and similar passages appear in the works of Maurizio Cazzati.r ? f .33 His disclaimeris apparentlyintended to mitigate con{~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~::::' fusion between his tremolo (i. mus.0iil .the indicationAdagio. handvibrato.. .:y: t . and Pietro degli Antonii. -i:. . F>-: iWA t . this usage was common amongviolinists.c. ::''-AL :.iA:::43l E i:::: ::e Li . Giuseppe Colombi.. after Modena. left-hand vibrato) and so W1 t 'tS X 1+~·r1~ <. however.5 Giovanni Maria Bononcini. Biblioteca Estense..though in the 17thcenturyit is more often .1666).. p. F. It may be that the slurred tremolo was w__ w * _. r.from II terzolibrodelle olo passagecontainsseveralfeatureswhich areworthyof divine lodi musicali (Venice.35Bononcini'strem.i IYL Lr m? "r B Xl ^r iCfi r ^rrt/.appearingfre.LeopoldMozartcallsleft-handvibrato 'tremolo' adding in a footnote that he refersnot to the frmolOy Tremulanten of the organ but to a Bebung(tremoletto). . '': the imitation of the organ tremulant. tremolo -.

Tremolopassages occur more often in sonatasof the chiesaratherthan the cameratype. groupedby twos. then modulates through D minor. Second.ErcoleBernabeiuses dots underslurson repeatednotes. C major (again).41 ^z e rr Ir A Iwrrrr EtC greater degree of separation of the repeated notes (though the directivesuaviterindicatesthat the execution should not be overlydisjointed). before finallysettling on G major. Surelythe slurredtremolo bowing is what Corellihad in mind in the thirdmovementof Sonataprimafrom his Sonatea tre . and A minor. Few tremolo passages in the 17th century are so harmonically restlessas this one.7 Josepho Antonio Bernabei. The staccato dots seem to imply a Ex.. 8 and 12 of this examplechangesof pitch appearwithin a slurredgroup.music for instrumentalensembles often replaceditems of the Proper of the Mass at .Cazzatiand other composers. affectiveinterludebetweentwo fastermovements.Indeed. Sonata i. p.I I lI J JmUnjJ JJ TJJ^ JjJ i Lr r vln II violone or cimbalo rI i 9 evCrrtm 1 rtrLr :rim]3L^IL LLgI 6 6 6 7 nmLm C g Trrr rCLrrrr :3rrr ^ 9 8 6 5 7 5 6 4 6 5 r tr ri 6 4 42 6 5 t WWr EARLY MUSIC 6 6 FEBRUARY t 5 4 1991 6 4 6 5 6 4+ 3 r -lr I 6 7 5 4 rr Lrxr rrJsJrrr us that tempo or characterdesignations-customarily either adagio or grave-appear frequentlyin conjunction with the tremolo. chelys prima. . Symphonia XII. tremolo passagesmay be the ensemble analoguesof the expressivedurezzee ligature The compositions of the Italian keyboard repertory. E minor.. but many-La Foscarina included-are 'open' harmonically. opera quarta (1694) I vln.1698).6).this one servesas a slow.7).36 harmonicallytransitional characterof this passage is also significant: applying modern terminology with regardto key.but the similarityof this passage to tremolo movementsin worksby Bononcini.1698) (ex.These dots appear frequentlyin connectionwith the slurredtremolo in the 18thcentury.in bars4. from Orpheusecclesiasticus(Augsburg.6 ArcangeloCorelli. At the veryend of the centurya variationon the notation of the slurredtremolo appears.Perhapsthe only atypical featureof this passageis the imitation.Ex. operaquarta(ex. in so far as these two categories can be distinguished.38 In 17th-centuryItaly. suggeststhat he intended it to be performedwith the slurredtremolo bowing.Boydencallsthis the 'staccatoslurredtremolo' to distinguish it from the 'legato'variety.we see that the passagebegins in C major. V1 ^II eIL r r-r -. considered in the light of Corelli's training in Bologna. These stepwisedescendingpatternsresolvethe suspensions which enhance the affective qualities of many tremolo passages.but it is uncharacteristicin that it is flankedby dance movements-a correnteand an allemanda.beginning in one 'key'and concluding in another.without dots. The composerprovides no indication of the tremolo apart from the repeated quavers. in a passage from his SymphoniaXII (in OrpheusEcclesiasticus.37 50 6 7 3 r 5 4 6 4 5 4 - I "I JjL 6 ~ 6 Likemanytremolo passages. from Sonata a tre .

46and the theorist J.45This treatment of the 'Quantustremor' text became something of a cliche in settings of the Requiem: Johann Kaspar Kerll and H.while the latterincludes an expressive Tocatacromaticaper la levationein his Fiorimusicali (1635).must have worked under ChrisStraususes the toph Straus. che rendidevotione). I. Biber write tremolos at the same point in the Requiem.Ex. a notable examplebeing Sta. Cesti'swavy line-a very graphicsymbol for the tremolo-soon became an important alternativemeansof representingthis effect. all of whom worked in German-speaking lands. and predictablyenough. Buonamente.40Banchieriand Frescobaldi offer evidence for the solemn and expressive nature of this portion of the mass.ci-fix .42A direct connection between the slurredtremolo and the more affectiveportions of the Mass can be seen in the Crucifixusof a concertedmass by the Bolognese monk Lorenzo Penna (ex.both vocallyand instrumentally.39Individual movements of sonate da chiesamay have been used in this fashion. Cesti uses it in II pono d'oro (1666) to reflectthe emotional state of Pallade. 1678) Sinfonia vln.ci-fix continuo 19:cp p Tremolo " 11 Cru. The appearance of the gesturein a vocal part here remindsus that some earlywriterscomparethe organtremulantto the undulations of the human voice. expressingdevotion' (Suonasialla levationecongravitd. from Galeriadel sacroParnaso(Bologna. Messa a 4 e 8 voci se piace. the slurredtremolo.9). and affective sections such as tremolo passages may have served to enhance the emotional impact of the most mystical moments of the service. comes primarilyfrom organ sources. - 1 us e . F.47 Composers in central and northern Germany also assimilatedthis Italianinnovation.43 The slurred tremolo appears in opera as well as church music.us.8)-a passage which calls to mind similartreatmentof the Crucifixusin an organ mass by Banchieri. Andreas Hammerschmidt.Mariadel Giglioin Venice(1668).41 The undulatingpiffaro stops-which create an effect similar to the mechanicaltremulantsand which were often supportedby them-were frequentlyspecified by churches for use at the Elevation. The formersaysthat the organist should 'play at the Elevationwith gravity. P. We have alreadynoted Diruta'sremarkson the use of the tremulantat the Elevation.1626-c. tremolo simultaneouslyin vocal and string parts in a Requiem mass (1631). detta la Verginefeconda. II Tremolo Tremolo violetta I3 c cmnr "t r Tremolo r rr r r rrrr Tremolo _ rr r rr J J jJr violoncello 9: c Tremolo Lr Crrr rrrL rrrrc rrr rrr rr rrr r r r mrjLr canto solo Cru. transportedthere perhaps by emigrant composers such as Marini.44 Italy was of course the source of the Baroque style. largely indirect. Farina.whose remarkson bowing EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 51 .ti-am pro I F important feasts. r 7 with fear (ex. who was in Vienna c.the HapsburgKapellmeister. I C C mmir Tremolo J nn n rr r rrr rLSJr rrmimr mnj] Tremolo r r vln. Supporting evidence.1629. Barlasca and Buonamente.The tremolo appearsin the Dies irae at the words 'Quantus tremor est futurus' ('How much tremblingthere will be') (ex. Italian compositional devices made their way across the Alps. Sperlinguses this portion of the text of the Requiem in a musical example which illustratesTremolanten.who is trembling r 6 4 8 no - bis.8 Lorenzo Penna.lo).

49 HeinrichSchiitzwrites tremulusin the violin partsof a Symphoniaconnecting verses 6 and 7 of his Von Gott will ich nicht lassen (swv366) (ex.sa son 6 trop. Act 4.the effect here is text-related:verse 6 ends with the lines: 'Wir werden nach dem Tod/ tief in die Erd begraben. r r r r .po 1 i j j j1 jJ j r il Va da-no pur in guer . Missa pro defunctis (1631) Ex. 1624) with its imitatione TremulaOrgani.and also Marin Marais's Sujet avec 20 couplets (1689).1545-70).in what is probablythe earliestindication of the tremulant (here EARLY MUSIC - tu r .50 . w -A*AwAV- -AV-VC J u j4 6 called melos suave) in a piece of organ music.1i)./ will uns erwekkenGott'. IIpomo d'oro (1666). FEBRUARY 1991 j - O org.ra Per . 9 c nT -a rr rr r r I ^ . r rr .Ex. - mor r r .c. Predictably.lo voice &vln./ wenn wir geschlafenhaben.crrrrCrr rir c R| rr rr I r I I r PALLADE r r r p Ah' Ah'.b l - l I of -fe. scene iv -AAAAVww -AAAAVw & T .48 midt'spiece is indicativeof a long but scarcelyacknowledgedtraditionof using the tremolo to lend a distinctive characterto a single variation of a set.in which the slurredtremolo Hammerschprevailsthroughoutone entirevariation. and includes Scheidt'sAch du feinerReiter(Tabulaturanova I. 9y - fu est Tremula voice & viola (ChoirII) 52 -c3- -0- rr r 1- 113c- ww r IC c rIr rrI' r r Ir 113 B. The tradition begins with the MullinerBook (c. r G J J i J 6 have alreadybeen cited. j rus .9 Antonio Cesti. r B u org.si Christoph Straus. uses the effect in sacredas well as secularmusic. A most interestingillustrationappears in a set of variations(entitledsimply Balleta 3) from his dance collection of 1639. (ChoirI) Quan Tremula - tus tre viola (ChoirII) Tremula viola (Choir11) Tremula .

Probablyno Germancomposerembracedthe slurred tremolo more enthusiasticallythan DietrichBuxtehude. I susis in that the same effect intended both works. much Thomas Mace speaks similarly of an commendable.Roger North tells of the difficulties he experienced as an amateur gambist in keepingtime.. then play [them] with the same bow.ihr Gerechten (swv367).is inconsistentwith the emotions usually associatedwith the slurredtremolo.and is now commonlyperformedwith a temperedstoccata. like the Shaking-Stopof an Organ.Heinrich Schiitz.'55 Shake with the bow' of the viol. but the frequent use thereof is not . I tremulus 9:r r r r If J If r J fj0 But textual considerationscannot explainthe tremolant which is marked over whole notes in both violin parts and the organpartin FreueteuchdesHerren. but distinguishingthe notes. who employed it liberally in instrumentalworks and concerted vocal works. lastly play without such tremulous distinction.124 (Johnson Reprint Corporation) lz.53Noteworthy here are the double stops and the semiquavers. but make the distinction in the mind . q_ ^ L q _m _./ ol r --_^±I wf I r£ - t o I c6 f L4JIItI MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 53 . tdm IL. ChristopherSimpson states:'Some affect a Shake or Tremblewith the Bow.56In an essay 'Organ entitled As to Musick(c. .North writes: There is another mode of the Gravethat frequentlyoccurs in our Italianizedsonatas. 5 JohanJakobWalther. Symphoniaesacrae.. 58.t . t^ I'fiS-mm wMMARNs rrT r IL o t W. which is to hold out long notes inriched with the flowersof harmonyand with a tremblinghand.. 'Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied'.. as in the Italiantremolo .52 pect JohannJakobWalther'sSerenatafor violin and continuo. Von Gott will ich nicht lassen (swv366).57. and contraryto the genius of that mode. In spite of the variancein terminology (tremulus/tremolant).ii (1647) Ex.which everyone can do.both of which are rarein tremolo passagesby Italiancomposers.dMpgI==C olvll :L It' s p^^ I I- m-^m-. like Farina'searlierCapricciostravagante. The 27-bar Sonata in tremulo which servesas the instrumentalpreludeto his 'cantata' Ad uberaportabimini(part2 of MembraJesu)maybe the longest tremolo passageof the century. His brotherkindlyshowedhim a method: It was but this:play crotchets.54 The slurred tremolo was one of many Italianisms Ir r J r which began to appearin Englishmusic in the 17thcentury. d EARLY . In another essay..Hortus chelicus(Mainz.1695). in even time by an even pass of the hand .. The passage labelled Organo tremolanteincludes the wavy lines used earlierby Cesti.p.51The text of this passage. m-'TrvT ' -o.which I have knowne intituled Tremolo.ii Symphonia vln.which of all parts together resembles the shaking stop of an organ ..5). And that [method] I take to be an abuse.contains representationsof variousmusicalinstruments(illus.. 1688). ±rn'y I - - - -- -- Er. - -A7 m rrmTrn I .

[and then] one accents also with more force the rest of the MarinMaraisdescribesa similardevice: bow. Purcelluses it in his Odeon St Cecilia'sDay (1692)-complete with wavyline and the directivetremelo-to accompanythe words 'jarJohnBlow must havehad this passring.00 JM Dent& Sons iiiiiiiiiiiii 54 EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 . Stanley Sadie.where it representsshiveringfrom cold. few Frenchmen use the term 'tremolo' though some use the gesture. and Performing Practice Issues. Organised into three major sections: Places and People. enlightening reading. writing of the viola da gamba.'64 A major new reference work Companion Baroque to Music Compiled and edited by Julie Anne Sadie This important new Companion combines authoritative reference material with lively. either [written] in full or abbreviated'Trem' to advisethose who play stringinstrumentsto make many notes on the same degreein a singlestrokeof the bow. This is also notated very often for the voice.61The affectmay be different from most Italiantremolo passages. Brossard'sDictionnaire (1703) refers to this passage as an illustration of the tremolo: or 'Tremulo'.59 age in mind when he composed a similarsetting for the phrase 'jarring.62 which contains similar effects. as in imitating the organ tremulant. Maps. whetheror not this effect was indicatedby the composer.jarringspheres'in Ode on the Death of Mr HenryPurcell(1696). We have an excellent example of both in the [scene of the] 'Tremblers'in the opera Isisby Monsieurde Lully. MILAN MISINA EARLYKEYBOARDINSTRUMENTS As Craftsmenof manyyears'experience we offerthe finestcopiesof Instruments fromthe 17thand 18thcenturies Wellknownfor reliabilityandmusicalrefinement.but it may referto the suspensions and chromaticism which frequently attend these passages. nmusicexamples and 16pp b/lw.jarringseeds'.12). offering new perspectives on the Baroque era.Etienne Loulie. Michael Talbot and Christopher Hogwood. playedby top worldmusiciansandmanysatisfied customersworldwide Purcell'sFrost Scene was probably inspired by the 'Trembling Chorus' from Lully's opera Isis (1677).but the dissonance and chromaticismare familiar.or Tremantewould be better.and 'Tremolo'. it also contains a detailed chronology. is not a verygood Italianword. Englishcomposersused the slurredtremolo more for pictorialthan for emotional effect.at least-with the slurredtremolo bowing. Jeremy Montagu.63 Apart from Brossard.Peter Holman.60The most famous illustration of the tremolo from 17th-centuryEnglandoccurs in the Frost Scene from Purcell'sKingArthur(ex. Tremolante. quickly. Contributors include .I interpretNorth'sremarksto mean that ItalianateGrave movements written in long notes were sometimes performed-in England.Stillone finds it used very often.illiis Published in February at £35.describesa movement of the bow which he calls doubleexpression:'This is when one has used half or three-quartersof the bow. His referenceto 'long notes inriched by the flowersof harmony'is vague. Baroque Instruments and Forms.

and this [is done] by pressing a little the fingerwhich touches on the hair of the bow. I I[ .low Thou. 'Sujet avec 20 couplets' Pieces a une et a deux violes (Paris.. .13 Marin Marais.. King Arthur (1691) Ex. 9:bbbJ J J lAA AVAVA-VV" rA. roo^^ MP I 113 rnK rise r r r I II n un-wil-ling-lyand j 9:bbJJJJJ_JJ e:rrr slow r I r 1 r II I I II r r I II rr i i rrrIr' I r Hast made me :TT n mi i ra trr'VqFVV :rN r P :cT r rI r rr V from beds of e .slurred in the familiargroups of four quavers.[vi] 'Dots which are markedthus above or below the notes.throughoutthe 13thvariationof Marais'sSujet avec20 couplets(ex.V I [ I PbL [ L- I 'I 44w4wIv P .14 Marais.15). [ex.last - _rr_r rr -m_rrr T.'65This gesture appears. in the remarkable Tombeaupour M.. VAAA y' 'y.. as if they were in differentstrokes. . [1701]).Henry Purcell. tn v 7 Ij 4 WJ A 7 I 4 4 4ji 4 j I I i j I I j I I 4 44 T7: -77 -77 .n I n 0 a a a Ex. r P 9p » .r ' r r ' 4-%j What power art bass. p. Pieces de viole. II -- i iI J pJJm 6-i I.14). 1686-9) 9I r i EARLY MUSIC r FEBRUARY J 1991 I 55 .c.. who from r::r :T.while the chromaticism Ex. I A I i b. -rrr r. with a slur.12 vln. slurredby twos.V_.A[Ak ...- K be .66and in triple stops.l :Tm rr^ r I I I II J rrrrrrrr JJ Verse ^vv^v _____ b 9:bbb A I7Znrrrr PRELUDE WHILE THE COLD GENIUS RISES vln. ..r de S.The multiple stops of both passagesare reminiscentof Walther(illus.13]signifythat it is necessaryto articulate severalnotes in one strokeof the bow.ver . second livre (Paris.JJfJJJT SJJJJJJJ ~~TLm~T JJJJJJJ :m via t JJ 113bb r r rr r bass-*lc*·*___ 1C·~ COLD GENIUS__ a rJrrJ J I - A..6I i i ing snow .5)...e Colombe(ex.b.

n. used to expressfear. violin.p. Colombe. Cc ositions theRecentResearchesin the Music of for repeated notes-usually quavers-are marked with the Era (1988).134.129 should be added.Gagliarden. Pieces a une et a deux violes J viol 113 . Rognoni (Selvade varii passaggi ation.).i6 are very much in the Italian metre sign. 1983).15 Marais.1627). G. though Gluckused it with 1 Origin The slurredtremolowas originallyintended admirable effect.In concerted vocal music it some. Cited in the it is also affective interlude.Winston-Salem. with but minor tration (1843). Printz. long though some of them are not applicableto stringinstruments. a 'trill').ff. Baroque either slurs or wavy lines. He has published 3 Notation There were two basic methods of notan ' articles and edited Isabella Leonarda: Selected ting the slurredtremolo in the 17thcentury. says that the tremolo ondule (slurred alterations.Das Vibratoin derMusikdesBarock(Graz.viii (Vienna. F.preface(canto book).other instruments'use it as well. in the case of the id downbows.67The effect p. Moens-Haenen.A Historyof ViolinPlaying(London. [3]) advisesthatthe tremoloon the succession of upbows and downbows. Diruta (II Transilvano(Venice. implyinga more distinct separ.Furtherdefinitionsfor 'tremolo' association with unslurred repeated quavers. C. appeared.et amorosi(1638).68 Berlioz. Modern 4 Expression The slurred tremolo had strong emo.e.In the first.Cousorrow. present.1988).Left-handvibratomay wart Carteris AssociateProfessorof Music at Wake have accompaniedthe slurredtremolo.This is not the end of the road for this ges.PP. 'So wirddasTremulierenmit pulsierendedHand/ darinnenman appearsalmost exclusivelyin slow passageswith the C den Bogen hat/ auff Art des Tremulantenin den Orgelnimitiret.NC.70 viola de gamba. but G.It is primarilyapplicableto keyboardinstruof the century. and only During this time several variant methods of notation minor changesin its form and use can be seen thereafter. But if Berliozwas among the last to describethe slurred 2 Execution The slurred tremolo is performed L as a historicalartifact-he was also one tremolo-except repeatingseveral(usuallyfour) notes of the same pitc of the firstto define 'tremolo'in a way that was soon to in the same bow stroke.slurredquaverswere sometimes accom.One of notes are accompaniedby the tremolodirective:these the most common definitionsis the alternationof a note with its upper should usuallybe divided into quavers.while in instrumentalmusic it is often used for a rante. p.49.1974). In the absence of slurs. slurs appearin the course of this article.In the last years neighbour (i.Ex. tremolo) is no longer in use.tremoloneverrefersto a rapid (Milan.c.' 56 EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 .ratherthan 'thatfingerwhich playsthe note or unmeasured. ultimately disappearing in the mid-9lth. 3 See C.2/1967).[v]. 5 C.1593/RBuren. I havenow tracedthe slurredtremoloto the end of the The slurred tremolo persisted throughout the 18th 17thcentury.on the bow hair).century. in his treatiseon orcheswould be valid a century later. p. Later short.Compendium 1689/RHildesheim. frantzosichenArien(Dresden.edition in Monteverdi. Farina. 4 See W.ed. When the word tremoloappears in itself' (queldittochefd la voceistessa).d. tional associations.1620/RBologna. Netherlands. either measured violin should be made 'with the finger above the note' (con il ditto superiorea queldelsuono).'Tombeaupour Mr.ments.69As a specific bowing style it still as an imitation of the organ tremulant. suggest a Venetianorigin. m 4 - IK 1 113 r r j\ d O r r I "i 4 p l9\ F r r IT 7 . century in G.Malipiero. de Ste.Tuttele opere. but by 1700 it had 'matured'.though it lost its connectionwith the organ tremulant and ceased to be called 'tremolo'.or tremblingfrom cold. ii. ture by any means. Monteverdi.5" I I I1c- I I I rCr T p S I sh-'-- rr r i I II I i r I I a & r r I t IiS iI I I r r T rTr I I 7 t 7 6 4 I 6 4 iJ ". the 1There are many definitions for 'tremolo' in the 17th century. 'st University. directive tremolo often appears. Chromaticism and suspensions are often tradition. F. 2 D.~ l# b.lightly articulatedwith a gentle 'ecome commonplace: a rapid succession of upbows pressureof the finger on the bow (or.Ander Theil nawer [sic] Paduanen. lute and paniedby staccatodots.Madrigaliguerrieri. ondule The following summary of its development to 1700 and ondeggiamento. Boyden.53. 1965). In the second. musicae signatoriaeet modutimes serves to highlight texts dealing with death or latoriaevocalis(Dresden.as did new synonyms-balancement.lor-iv) statesthat 'playersof the viola. Early sources appearedoccasionally. C r I r Ip I 7 9! - K j I I PI 7 6 4 7 tt and suspensions of ex. In the 17thcentury.

as is suggested in 18thcenturyflutetutorsas a substitutefor fingervibratoon the lowestnote. 2/1720/R Geneva.than the doux type.1645).1/1642. describedbelow). modern edn in 'T UitnementKabinet.La Benaglia. See J. ed.22. 18 Stop-listsof old Italianorgansverifythe presenceoftremulants in many of them. .1957). shows repeatedsemiquavers. The EuropeanOrgan. riesce poi aspraet spiacevole. Hammerschmidt. but the exampleshe cites are from northernEurope.interalia).is for flautin e fagoto.Istituzioni e monumenti dell'artemusicale italiana.294) says that the earliest organ tremulantswere of the open type.ThePraetoriusOrgan(St.1975).Il registroprincipalecon il tremolo faraquest'effetto. (Elsewhere(p.14. nemlich also [example] finden. con una giunta d'un piccol somero:come han fatto nell'organoche suona M. son quasi d'una medesimaarmonia. Williams. W. p.1939).p. Possenti.etcanzoni .ii (1976). librosesto(Venice. Dunn admonishes performersto avoid the modern 'unmeasured'tremolo. Cazzati. G. J. a modern measuredtremolo). das man mit dem Bogen ihrer viere auff einen Strich (gleichsam wie einen Tremulantenin einer Orgel) machet.)T. SelfGabrielito Vivaldi(New ridge-Field(VenetianInstrumentalMusicfrom York.with dots under slurs (similar to the staccato slurredtremolo. 17See P. associatedparticularlywith regal and reed pipes.1966).[iv].See B.1626) See D.part .1)appearsto be prefiguredat the beginningof the piece (see Marini.Questo tuono.correnti.ben che dificiliss:a farfare buon effett:onde si trove che benche ce ne sian moltiss: pochi per6 sono quelli che sono buoni.p.the fort type being known as GrosserBock. Rovetta. 22 C.pp.et arie (Venice.et buono.24 September1582.1973).modern edn in Merula. in Sonate. ed. 19Letterof G.strumentida fiato. & il Secondo. Miller as Cardanus. ed. et senzapericolo.177)speaksof tremulusdigitison the lira..G. The fugue subjectbegins with repeatednotes.in Vinetia. n.1542-3/RLeipzig.Bunjes. e dogliosa.1978).313)refersspecificallyto Marini'sOpus 1 when she defines tremoloas a 'rapidreiterationof a single note..to Pietroet di s.Sonatadecimaottava. Antegnati. H. most Italian tremulantsof the early17thcenturywere of the closed type. illustratestwo alternativesfor the performanceof the tremolo passage in La Foscarina:the first.He associatesthe tremblantdouxwith Spanish and Frenchorgans.Ersterfliess.4) to the stile concitato. Morsolino to the cathedralchapterof Cremona. et accadeche non essendo detto tremolo buono.1636). 20-22.15-22. Judging from descriptions of their sound and from the voicings with which they were used. Vi si potria poi aggiungere.and recommendssubdividingthe quavers. time to actuatesome stop intendedby the instruction"mettiil tremolo"'W.1642). second series.M. Collegium musicum. bars 1-9). questo vuole il principal solo con il tremolo. Boyden'sconclusions have alreadybeen cited. similmente col tremolo. 1967).in Canzoni de sonare a tre (Bologna.c.p.Sonatasecondain Sonateconcertatein stil moderno (Venice. dritter Theil (Freiberg.A Historyof ViolinPlaying.77-142. Merula. 465-720).Basler Jahrbuchfiir historischeMusikpraxis. 1981). Il Transilvano. 'Es wird derselbe in den Violinen bisweilen etliche Noten.ed. Castello.ed.17) correctlydescribesthe violin tremolo as 'an effect of the bow produced by rearticulatingthe tone within the bow stroke'.294. 1628).422 8 S. C. Uccellini.e la dita de la mano del manico per far l'effetto conforme alla musica mesta & afflitta.ff. Agricola (Musica Instrumentalis deudsch (Wittenberg. Regolarubertina(Venice. 4/1545).'Ganassiis the only 16th-centurywriter who mentions both left-hand vibrato and bow vibrato.1974). p.'Untersuchungen zur historischenAuffassungdes Vibratosauf Blasintrumenten'. Lunelliand P.che sbattadenti.. Il Quarto tuono rende l'armonia lamentevole mesta. et di grand'aiutto ad un organo.. p. in II secondolibrodellecanzone (1/1639.che par un tormentatodallafebrefredda. and (2) for these instruments plus trombone. Et questi registri si potrian far aggiungere all'organo.32-5. 1958).f.p. 10Riccio'sother work with tremolo.but inexplicably confounds it with Monteverdi'sstile concitato. 26 November1582. sonato per6 nelle sue corde naturali con la modulatione mesta .ed. G.p.ed. pp. H. Writingson Music. Musicological Studies and Documents. 6 nocimento alcuno dell'organo.1636/R1965). Rasch.et rieschi. il qualenon 6 molto dificilea farsi.Cited in Cesari.1924). Sutkowski. B. Modern edn R.Citedin Hammerschmidt. finger vibrato. Cardanus (De Musica (ms. libro iv.3/1972). StringSonatas. 'Alleparole. Ma quando e buono.iia (New York. Cesari..breathvibrato. the second shows repeatedsemiquavers.. R.I propose the following options: (1) for the bassoonist and cornettists. Moens-Haenen(Das Vibratoin derMusikdesBarock.Cited in La musicain Cremonanellasecondametddel secoloXVI. pp. La Fatorina.pp.ix). a bowed tremolo'.34.taAgatain Cremona:Etqu6tai registri fanno effettimirabilicol tremolo e la dolcezzaet gratiositadi essevoci: Ma 6 cosa dificiliss:et da grand'huomoil farlibuoni. producesundulationswhich are stronger..1450-1850(Nashua. Das ErbedeutscherMusik. Dunn (B.380) saysthat an organwill havea perfecttremulant'if it beatsin such a way that the tremblingof voices is imitatedin the stops of the organ.and apparently faster.bowed separately(i. n.2/1663. Newman (The Sonata in the BaroqueEra (New York. T. welche so gemeint. Ganassi. p.xviii-xix. Claudiode Correggio in San Marco. & alle fiatetremaril bracciode l'archetto.66-70.15v-23r.26r) speaksof the 'trembling'[zittern]of Polish fiddlers. per certo e cosa molto buona.part ii..overo in qualche registro del flauto sonata nelli suoi tasti naturali con le modulatione appropriate.p. while M. xxxii (1973).e musica mesta operarel'archettocon leggiadromodo. Dunn.La Ubaldain Concentusarmonici (Venice. 16 The passage from La Foscarinacontaining the slurred tremolo (ex.6 vogliate un registrodi canne imitantele voci humaneaiutatedal tremolo. Dickey.p.xvi-xvii. Barlasca. Louis. but fail to specify the type of the device-open or closed. Operecomplete. S. 1962). 1608).iii (Paris.1o3)suggestsonly that the rest which precedesthe tremolo passage may havebeen intendedto allow 'a cembaliston the b. which name suggests that the sound resembles the bleatingof goats. 23 Diruta. x (Madison. Williams (The EuropeanOrgan.134)correctly relatesMarini'stremolo to Farina'sdescriptionof the imitation of the organ tremulant.StringSonatasfromOpusI and Opus8. 1546). Monkemeyer. La Grimaneta. 1646). MusicalicherAndachten.e.Canzon 6 in Sonate.Clearlyboth typesexistedin Germanyat the beginning of the 17thcentury. 15 See the quotation from Newman. 'Tremolodunquenon e altroche un ingegno che si pone nel condutto che porta il vento dai Manticial somero. which is close to the mark.E. L'Arteorganica (Brescia. 14 Severalmodern scholarshave proposedtheir own interpretations of Marini'stremolo..vi. A. Marini. 'Il Secondo tuono rende l'armonia malenconica.3. Klenz (GiovanniMaria Bononciniof Modena (Durham.B. and trans. Principes de la flite traversiere(Paris.vi (Milan.pp.The lattertype.pp.or Bocktremulant (see P.112)she relatesthe tremolo passagein Riccio'sLa Pichi (see ex.come si trovano negli organidi s. 13 See T.') 21 Letterof G.in 'T UitnementKabinet.il che saprafareun valent'huomoconsumato nell'esperienze. 12 I have not yet suggestedhow the winds might emulate the organ tremulantin La Foscarina.xlix (Kassel. Hotteterre.p. Buonamente.6 A. in luogo di far l'armonialanguidaet dolce.6 ch'imitasserogli fifferio traverse. Dunn.La musicain Cremona. " See G.M.'('S'il bat de telle sorte qu'il face imiter le tremblementdes voix aux ieux de l'Orgue.TweedeFantasia and ZesdeFantasia.p.129. NH. Eerstedeel (Amsterdam. Antegnatito the cathedralchapter of Cremona. ix (Amsterdam.P. Smets (Mainz. WI. Canzonquartain Salmi concertatia cinqueet sei voci (Venice. p.1629).' 7 Boyden.p. NC.ve ne servireteper sonar' alla levatione del EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 57 .interalia. Mersenne(Harmonieuniverselle. Marini's tremolocol strumentocould also be interpretedliterallyas an admonition to shake gently the instrument itself.2/1655). slurredin groups of two. 9Seebelow.' 20M.

xxxix (1953). Marcase. Hau.67. 69.Cependant ence. God will awakenus. 118. Green.Das Violinspiel above. ed.which imitates the organ tremulant. Frescobaldi..viii.Blume as OrgelnVerdingnis.Tyler.1968). One might then conclude that the slurred Instrumentalwerke.Collected some writersattributethe same characteristicto the mechanicaltrem.in ibid. ou entier. xxvi.Forhis laterworkscontaining 55 C.111:Buxtehude. 1970). 41 A.). 47 J.Das Schriften'Archivfir Musikwissenschaft. pp. Bononcini. Johann Schenk. 21. Oeuvres. 1933).). 86.Isis (1677). J. 4° 38.A Historyof ViolinPlaying.VonProbirungderOrgeln(ms.85-92. Beat. For Marais.xliv (Kassel.39-40.12. Orgel Schliissel(1666).1958). in A. danck. in AnderTheil Newer Paduanen . ulant (see above.iv (London.Notenbeispiele.1918). 33 L. 30. ed. Sperling.365-71. SonataIII. B. pp. ed. Simpson.see S.When we have senne was the preferredone for the organ tremulant. see Sonata undecimain Sonate a due violini .iv (Berlin. G. p. Schtitz. mbi.(diss. 1/1622).d. ed.Werke(Hamburg.ix. p. The Division Viol. lors qui'il bat huit fois dans le temps d'une mesure qui dure deux secondes d'heure. Banchieri. iii.243 stein. Banchieri. K. mental Music'.261-2. Works. ed..Seealso S. 88. J.1936). p.330). 'English Organ Music of the Renaissance' pp.1968).528-53. see Sonataquinta.pp.v. Gurlitt. Modern edn in Hammerschmidt.1635).Act 4.12.1981).ou en abrege Trem. tre.'MatthaeusHertel'stheoretische da violino solo (Frankfurtand Leipzig.380. iii (ed. Mah28 See above.).in TabulaturanovaI (Hamburg. part 2. (Freiberg. n.90. score). Lunelli.p.p.d. Stiehl. xvii (Kassel.'EnglishOrganMusic of the Renaissance II'. 53 See also Walther'sSonata VIIIand Imitationedel Cucuin Scherzi theor. 'Il bat comme il faut. 138-41. n. (London. ou Tremanteseroientbien meilleurs. MA. 40 See above.1688/RNew York. 38 See Boyden. 45 See above. 39 See S. For furtherillustrationsof the tremolo in music by Germancomindirectlyimitates the human voice.p. de Brossard.Italien.NeueAusgabesamtlicherWerke.1987).& Tremolante.Notenbeispiele.Das Vibratoin derMusickdes Barock. Principiamusica (Budissin. pp.64. NC. pour avertirsur tout ceux qui jouent des Instrumensa Archetde faire 58 EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 . Grusnick(Kassel. JohnWilson (London. p. however-and that some tremulantsare con52 Boyden (A Historyof Violin Playing. p.MQ. of EarlyVocal and Instru34 See W.p.As Tagliavininotes (pp. iv (1922/RHildesheim.no. and n. G. Schiineman. 54 D.4.in G. Das Vibratoin derMusikdesBarock. but argues for either vibrato or 'modern'measuredtremolo in swv367. de Lajarte.15. Musick's Monument(London.186 (Bologna.).. S.p.pp.' 44 Regardingthe use of the tremolo in Italian opera. Buxtehude. G. ed.282-5.and v.J.72h. P. PP.'Registrazioniorganistichenei Magnificatdei Vespri Monteverdiani'.Appendiceall'organosuonarino(4/1638/RBologna.109-20. opera quarta pp.p.54-5. 92.ed.. [188-]).ed. PP.xxii (1969)..P. 43 See above.137. F.1624).p.1o.82-102 dition to be avoided. ii. H.139.Dictionairede musique(Paris. ii (1967).con alcunepertromba(Bologna.see ex. Klenz.Works. pp.1985).Ersterfliess.Denkmalerder Tonkunstin Osterreich. Smith College. no.1959).229.xvii. B.pp.16oo-c. 61 Markedtremoloin one non-autographsource. 25 See A.2o.129. ed. da diversieccelentiautori(Bologna.' universal.370-71).336-58. Mozart. 1676/R Paris.For ColoRogerNorthon Music.See also Buxtehude. tremulantsbeat fasterin the upper ranges.Early music series.254 48 A.187.ou Tremulo..1978) 37 Comparable 60 Excerptin Moens-Haenen. Suiten (Hamburg. 'tremolo'.1674).1703/RAmsterdam.1926).SantissimoCorpo.1614). Tagliavini.. 63 S.'AdrianoBanchieri.n. Preludioand pp. Modern edn in Corelli. c.but it was not slept.79. see posers. 17thcenturiesis indicativeof a desireto 'humanize'the instrumentby makingit imitatethe most perfectof all instruments. Das Vibratoin der Musik des Barock. v (ed. see.n.4. Scheidt. 146.Rivista italiana di musicologia.'Tremulo..1964). 1705).This is obvious in the case of the voceumana. C.31]. Cited in G. Snyder(New York.54-84.TheEarlyGuitar: in Deutschlandvor1700(Leipzig. Praetorius. GrindlicheViolinschule (3/1789/RLeipzig.Harmonieuniverselle.'The Developmentof the Orchestraand Orchestrationin Italian Opera c. ed. K.Chry.The quotation on the tremolo is on p.L'Organosuonarino:Translation. xxi (Leipzig. C. EinPP. Lully.10 tremolos.1957).22. Purcell.p. 1962). 56 T.. pp.Compenius and Praetorius(Orgeln. 36See Klenz. 32 Regarding tremoloas left-hand vibrato for bowed strings. Tiede. U.see especiallypp. imitando con il sonare li duri & aspri tormenti della Passione. North..1903/RWiesbaden. Hammerschmidt.. 1676).98. 26 E.in Sonatea due. interalia. p.1680).'TheUses of the Sonatada Chiesa'. and Moens-Haenen.534). 1925-37):ii (ed. For Degli Antonii. H. Berlin.1956). Staatsbibliothek.73-4. VierA History and Handbook.pp. 1930).Ms.341. Regardingpluckedstrings.JAMS.n'est pas un trop bon mot 42See R. 81.xiv. Modern edition (piano-vocal Bonta.Tuttele opere. 78-9. pp.23) state that some 51Modernedition in H. Harms.2. 29-30. (1923/RGraz.D.(Flor. of Birmingham. 1980).1960).Sonataa3 [no.in Scieltadelle 59Modern edn in H.pp. renholz (Leipzig.Mastersof 31 The interest in vibrato shown by organ builders in the 16th and the Violin. 1964). 29 The tempo suggestedby Compeniusand Praetoriusand by Mer50'Afterdeath we will be buried deep in the earth. Organosuonarino(Venice.SymphoniaesacraeII (1647).but pp.s.97.24.Ad uberaportabimini.45. GiovanniMaria Bononcini of Modena (Durham.and musicalexamplesnos.lxix Jahrhundert.23 27 Mersenne.pp.ed.1963). Transcriptionand Commentary'(PhD diss. Becker. n. La Casalaand La Marescota. Beckmann.89-97.p. Banchieri.24.this registrationis omitted from Malipiero'sedition of the Vespers(Monteverdi.ed.AchdufeinerReiter. iv (London. T.Works.1665).Modernedition in Scheidt. Capricciin Hortuschelicus(Mainz.d.xi tremolo for string instruments. passagesmay be found in Corelli's Concertigrossi.1750'.ed.Northampton.91.16-38.Conclusioninel suonodell'organo(4/1638/RBologna. Fantasia(excerpt). scene i. .75.170-71)agrees that the structedso as to operateat two differentspeeds. Sonataa 2 violini soli (1641)(excerpt).. 49 See Lowinsky. and D.part2 of MembraJesunostri. Beckmann.Fiori musicali(Venice.264 57 R.from Erster Theil ZweystimmigerSonaten u. Hertel. & Sanguede N.176.or through a changein wind pressure. IndianaU.Ballet a 3. 30M. Buxtehude. Werke.See Purcell. Bittinger(Kassel. see Janet E.e cinque.8.15.vi/l. l'usagefait qu'on le trouvetres souvent. 1953).' 24 See L. Erbe deutscher Musik. P.46-7. W.d. G.Das Erbedeutscher 35 Cazzatihas been cited earlierin connection with his work in the Musik.pp.26] and Sonataa 2 [no.1o).pp. 'EinsteinMusic Collection .22-3 58RogerNorth on Music.Schriftendes MusikwissenschaftlichenInstitutsder UniversitatKiel. Mace. 57.Orchesteraus dem17. register-pull. Dennison (Borough suonate. 62 J.1676). Giesu Christo. 2/1665/Rn.p.see J. eitherby means of a slurredtremolo should be applied in swv366.the humanvoice.Chefsd'oeuvresclassiquede l'operafrancaise.Studie documentidi storiaorganariaVeneta. cited in Moens-Haenen. p.in LeNymphedi Rheno.68. W. (See E.Chor. 46 Modernedns in DreiRequiem fiir Soli. 1973). lo01.slowerin the bass-a con.1. sander.p. p.1639).[52].quattro. Compeniusand M.422. Lowinsky.p.ed. Joachimand F.2o). nos.nn. (Leipzig. Paula.. DenkmalerdeutscherTonkunst. Adler. firsthalf of the century(see above.1968).62. pp. P.

p.Paris. Methode de violoncelle(Paris. 67 In the 18th centurythe slurredtremolo appearsoccasionallyin pastoralcontexts.Celase marqueaussifort souvent pour les Voix.parti. Ms.p.see B. . A.Pieces deviole.2.i.4.Levasseur. p.p.i (New York. slurred and marked with dots. forte piano CyrilHUVE.8. Vm.11. 65 M. Hsu..Rebel.At the point at which the narratorsays'fremissementen le voyant'('tremorsupon seeing it'.Regarding balancement. The term frdmissementwas occasionallyused by laterFrenchcomposersin referenceto the slurred tremolo (see J.11.1824). Methode pour apprendrea jouer la viole. nous avons un excellent exemple de l'un & de l'autre dans les Trembleurs de l'Operad'Isis de Monsieur de Lully.6-7 EARLY MUSIC Chateau de la Garenne-Lemot CLISSON (France) 13th International Music Course BAROQUE.see A.' 64 E.ed.d. Res. pp.see Baillot. F. Loulie.1737])and to a similarvocal effect. Grandtrait .. ii (New York.148.LesElemens[Paris.22.1980).1981). the surgicalapparatus)the viol has repeated semiquaversin double stops.). SeeMarais. A Handbookof FrenchBaroqueViol Technique(New York.2/1855[1/1843].19 70 Berlioz.62.221r. 'Comfort ye.See Moens-Haenen.d.(Paris. no. Harpsichord MasterClass 27 July . [1701]). 66 The title for this workhas been suppliedby J. see Marais. 1798/R Geneva. romanticpiano furtherinformation: Academie Internationale de Clisson New personalsubscriptionrates for 1991: UK and Europe£29 USA and rest of the world $55 Writenow to OUP JournalsMarketingDept.226.p. 69 Hector Berlioz. f. 68 All three of these terms. Bailleux. my people' Modern edn F. p. NY.et cela en appuiant un peu le doigt qui touche en dessus le crin de l'archet. 1804/R Geneva.See G.comme pour imiterle Tremblantde l'Orgue.TheInstrumentalWorks. no. Paris.Das Vibratoin derMusikdesBarock.Cateland Baudiot.'See JohnHsu. J.e.n.D. Chrysander(19ol/R Melville. QuaiCeineray 44041 NANTES CEDEX (FRANCE) Phone:40. 'Les points marques ainsy au dessus ou au dessous des nottes Liaison [example] Signifientquil faut d'un seul coup d'archetarticulerplusieursnottes comme si elles etoient de coups d'archetdifferent.41. 1974).'C'est lorsqu'on a exprimela moitie ou les trois quartsde l'Archeton exprimeencor avec plus de force ce qui rested'Archetet celaviste.250.27 AL 0 R E ATLANTIQUE (see addresson p. Marais.Handel.The InstrumentalWorks.1986).2 August 1991 JaapSCHRODER.secondlivre(Paris. n.violin Jaapter LINDEN. like tremoloitself.NouvelleMethodede la mecaniqueprogressivedu Jeu de Violon(Leipzig. Grandtraitdd'instrumentation et d'orchestration moderne.D. are susceptibleto a variety of interpretations.for viola de gamba(with continuo) and narrator. A furtherillustrationof the slurredtremolo can be seen in Marais's Tableaude l'operationde la taille (in Cinquiemelivre.).p. Campagnoli.' For a facsimileof this page.sur le meme degre plusieursNotes d'un seul coup d'Archet. Bibliotheque Nationale. CLASSICAL and ROMANTIC 19 .1725). cello PatrickCOHEN. Regardingondeggiamento. Methode raisonneepour apprendrea jouer de violon (Paris.134.Regardingonduld. F.25 July 1991 KennethGILBERT. Hotel du Departement 3. p.p.3) EARLY MUSIC FEBRUARY 1991 59 .Hsu.Messiah(1742).[vi].M.