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# The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's

modulus and tensile strength, defined as one newton per square metre.[1] Pressure is a measure
of force per unit area. It is named after the French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and
philosopher Blaise Pascal.
Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa ≡ 100 Pa) which is equal to
1 mbar, the kilopascal (1 kPa ≡ 1000 Pa), the megapascal (1 MPa ≡ 1,000,000 Pa), and
the gigapascal (1 GPa ≡ 1,000,000,000 Pa).
On Earth, standard atmospheric pressure is defined as 101.325 kPa. Meteorological barometric
pressure reports typically report atmospheric pressure in hectopascals, [2] corresponding to about
0.1% of atmospheric pressure. The main corresponding imperial and US customary unit is
the pound per square inch (psi); in the context of meteorology, the inch of mercury may also be
encountered.
Contents
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1 Definition
o 1.1 Origin
2 Miscellaneous
3 Uses
o 3.1 Hectopascal and millibar units
5 Notes and references

Definition
The pascal can be expressed using SI derived units, or alternatively solely SI base units, as:

[3]

Where N is the newton, m is the metre, kg is the kilogram and s is the second.
This SI unit is named after Blaise Pascal. As with every International System of Units (SI) unit
whose name is derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of itssymbol is upper
case (Pa). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with
a lower case letter (pascal), except in a situation where any word in that position would be
capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title.
Note that ―degree Celsius‖ conforms to this rule because the ―d‖ is lowercase.— Based
on The International System of Units, section 5.2.

Pressure units

V

T

Pascal

Bar

Technical

Standard

atmosphere

atmosphere

Torr

Pounds per
square inch

8948×10−2 7.8692×10−6 105 ≡ 106 dyn/cm2 1.450377×10− 3 4 0.8046×10−2 ≈ 1 mmHg 1. The name pascal was adopted for the SI unit newton per square metre (N/m2) by the 14th CGPM in 1971.5592 14.980665×10 5 1.933678×10− 51. an instrument to measure air pressure. but these exist merely for backward-compatibility with some older ideographic character-sets and are therefore deprecated.01325 1 bar 1 at 1 atm 1 Torr 1 psi 0.0197 0. The same definition is used in the compressor and the pneumatic tool industries (ISO 2787).101325 MPa = 760 Torr[5] = 14.5006×10− 1.06 14. and in the aerospace (ISO 2533) and petroleum (ISO 5024) industries.98692 750. physicist.696 psi. E (Pa) (bar) (at) (atm) 1 Pa ≡ 1 N/m2 10−5 1. In 1985 the IUPAC recommended that the standard for atmospheric pressure should be harmonized to 100.9678411 735.0197×10−5 9.315789×10− 3 3 3 6.000 Pa = 1 bar ≈ 750.69595 1.359551×10− 1.980665 1. .01325 bar = 1013.03069×10−2 6. and philosopher noted for his experiments with a barometer.0332 ≡ p0 ≡ 760 14.01325×105 133.[4] Miscellaneous Standard atmospheric pressure is 101325 Pa = 101.25 hPa = 1.325 kPa = 1013. the eminent French mathematician.8948×103 (Torr) (psi) 7.22334 1.50377 ≡ 1 kp/cm2 0.333224×10− 1.71493 2 ≡ 1 lbF /in2 Origin The unit is named after Blaise Pascal.25 mbar = 0. This definition is used for pneumatic fluid power (ISO R554). The Unicode computer character set has dedicated symbols ㎩ (U+33A9) for Pa and ㎪ (U+33AA) for kPa.3224 6.06 Torr.

Today many meteorologists prefer hectopascals (hPa) for air pressure. the bar was redefined as 100. In materials science. steelat approximately 200.[6] but it is often rounded off to 100 kPa in practice. hemp (fibre) at 58. but also to the energy density of electric. J/m3. meteorologists in Canada use kilopascals (kPa). In the former mts system. Airtightness testing of buildings is measured at 50 Pa or 0. which are equivalent to millibars. Other.0 mmH2O = 9. This applies not only to the thermodynamics of pressurized gasses. since the hecto prefix is rarely used. older units of measure occasionally used for pressure are millimetres of mercury (Torr) and millimetres of water (1. Medical elastography measures tissue stiffness non-invasively with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging.[7] Hectopascal and millibar units Main article: Bar (unit) Meteorologists worldwide have for a long time measured atmospheric pressure in bars. while similar pressures are given in kilopascals in practically all other fields. Since officialmetrication. including the United States.1 mm) of water. which is equal to one kilopascal. the bar was divided into a thousand millibars to provide the granularity that meteorologists require. the unit of pressure is the pièze (symbol pz). megapascals (MPa = N/mm2) or gigapascals (GPa = kN/mm2) are commonly used to measure stiffness or tensile strength of materials. tooth enamel at 83.magnetic.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] . and gravitational fields. which is equal to one decipascal. After the introduction of SI units.0665 kPa. Consequently. which is only slightly lower than standard air pressure on Earth.Uses The pascal (Pa) or kilopascal (kPa) as a unit of pressure measurement is widely used throughout the world and has largely replaced the pounds per square inch (psi) unit. and diamond at 1220. except in some countries that still use the Imperial measurement system.80665 Pa). many preferred to preserve the customary pressure figures. Examples of (approximate) Young’s moduli for several common substances (in gigapascals) include nylon at 2–4.2 inches (5. and often displays the Young's modulus or shear modulus of tissue in kilopascals.000 pascals. The older kilogram-force per square centimetre corresponds precisely to 98. aluminium at 69. the unit of pressure is the barye (symbol ba).[8][9] although in some other countries hectopascals are still in use. Geophysicists use the gigapascal (GPa) in measuring or calculating tectonic stresses and pressures within the Earth. copper at 117. which was originally equivalent to the average air pressure on Earth. The pascal is also equivalent to the SI unit of energy density. In the cgs system.

.As of 17 November 2011 the hectopascal is used in aviation as the altimeter setting. 1 hectopascal (hPa) ≡ 100 Pa ≡ 1 mbar. 1 kilopascal (kPa) ≡ 1000 Pa ≡ 10 hPa ≡ 10 mbar.