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E-MARKETING OF BOLLYWOOD MOVIES

A CASE STUDY OF MOVIES WITH NET EARNING ABOVE
INR 100 CRORE

AMIT KUMAR
DPGD/JL10/0627
SPECIALIZATION: E-BUSINESS

Prin. L. N. Welingkar Institute of Management Development & Research

Year of Submission: May, 2012

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is well-established fact that behind every achievement lays an unfathomable sea of gratitude to
those who have extended their support and without whom the project would ever have come into
existence.
I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to Prin. L. N. Welingkar Institute of
Management Development & Research, Mumbai for providing me an opportunity to work on
this thesis as a part of the curriculum.
I am highly indebted to my family for giving me strength and support which was essential to
complete this project.

AMIT KUMAR

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CONTENT

1.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………5

2.

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 7

3.

LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................ 23

4.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ..................................................................... 64

5.

FINDING AND ANALYSIS…………………………………………………66

6.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION .................................................... 69

7.

LIMITATIONS………………………………………………………………..71

8.

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………….........73

9.

APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………74

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This is to certify that the Project work titled…………………………………………........
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
is a bonafide work carried out by........................…………………………………………..
(Admission No.)...................................
a candidate for the /Post Graduate Diploma examination of the Welingkar Institute of
Management under my guidance and direction.

SIGNATURE OF GUIDE:
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Indian Hindi film industry a.k.a. Bollywood is world‘s largest film producer. It produces
close to 1000 movies a year, for that approximately 14 million viewers swarm the theaters each
day and it sold more than four billion cinema tickets every year. With the growing competition
on domestic as well international market Bollywood has started to spend a fortune towards
movie marketing in order to drive the business. Around 30 percent of production cost is assigned
for the marketing in which approximately 20-30 percent is allocated for e-marketing.
The reason to choose this topic for research project was based on the utmost desire to understand
the confluence of latest technology and one of the oldest and most loved forms of entertainment.
The driving force was the simple question i.e.
―How e-marketing is affecting the revenue and success of contemporary Bollywood movies”.
As a student of E-Business, the idea of effectively presenting the unique selling point (USP) of a
film to the online audience and the dynamics that influence the same interests me. This is the
reason why I have chosen ‗E-Marketing of Bollywood Movies‘ as the topic for my project.
The methodology employed for researching on this subject comprised of literature review of
following reports;
 FICCI-KPMG Indian Media and Entertainment Industry Report 2012,
 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017): Report of the working group on Information and
Broadcasting Sector
 Digital Advertising in India, 2012, IAMAI Report
These reports were studied and reviewed thoroughly. This literature review formed the basis of
the dissertation. Further due to unavailability of adequate data related to the marketing expenses
of Bollywood movies with respect to the spends on conventional and unconventional media, I
resorted to a case study approach wherein I studied the marketing campaigns of those movies
whose net collection in domestic market was more than INR 100 Crore.

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The case study approach helped me understand the fine line which divides the conventional
media/methods from the unconventional ones.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_Bollywood_films

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INTRODUCTION
Overview of Indian Media and Entertainment Industry
India is the world's largest producer of films by volume - producing almost a thousand films
annually. Indian filmed entertainment industry consists of movies produced in various genres
and languages and produces the largest number of films in the world. Indian films, especially the
mainstream Hindi film industry (or Bollywood) dominate segments like music and live
entertainment as well as television, where popular films and film based programs attract the
highest viewership. With several high budget Hindi releases lined up across the year, 2012 is
expected to sustain the growth momentum witnessed in 2011. The Indian film industry is
projected to grow at a CAGR of 10.1 percent to touch INR 150 Billion in 2016. The industry is
estimated to be INR 93 billion in 2011 indicating a growth of 11.5 percent vis-à-vis 2010. One of
the major policy initiatives has been the Government of India granting "industry" status to the
entertainment sector in India including the film sector in 2001. This allows the sector to access
institutional finance and clean credit for new projects. Digitization of theatres, higher average
ticket prices and the growth of multiplexes are the primary drivers fuelling growth in the
industry.
Media and Entertainment Industry of India:

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Rajesh Jain, head of media & entertainment, KPMG India said, ―The untapped potential for
growth in media reach, impact of digitization and convergence, better consumer understanding,
sustained efforts in innovation, and enhanced penetration of regional markets, all promise well
for the industry.
PWC released, Indian Media & Entertainment Outlook Report, 2009 predicts a double digit
growth rate for Media & Entertainment sector in coming years.
It states that the print medium still dominates in terms of the size and share percentage. Total
print sizes Rs. 111.5 Billion with a market share of 47.3%. Television comes in close
second with 38.6% market share and total size of 91.0 Billion. But interesting trend is the fast
growth of Online and Radio industry, though OOH s till needs to pick up pace. Online
medium is at a very nascent stage in India in terms of Advertising and it provides a
huge potential. What we need though is a different kind of ad selling model as Google ads
doesn‘t seem to work the same way in India as in the US.
The report also presented some very interesting Stats about Indian M&E sector Over 1,000 movies released annually (largest in the world)
 3.2 billion movie tickets sold annually (largest in the world)
 80 million pay-TV homes (third largest in the world)
 119 million television households
 450 television channels
 Over 300 million mobile subscribers (second largest in the world)
 Over 350 radio stations
 6,000 newspapers published, including the worlds‘ largest circulated daily.

 10,000 music tracks released annually. (That is close to 3 tracks daily)

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BOLLYWOOD
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in
Mumbai, India. It is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film
production in the world, producing almost 1000 Hindi films per year that are viewed by roughly
14 million people per day. Standard features of Bollywood films continued to be formulaic story
lines, expertly choreographed fight scenes, spectacular song-and-dance routines, emotioncharged melodrama, and larger-than-life heroes. However in recent time new breed of film
makers like Diwakar Banarjee, Anurag Kashyap, Imtiyaz Ali, Farhan Akhtar, Zoya Akhtar etc
contribute a lot to Bollywood in terms of innovation and new story ideas.
The Indian film industry has now reached a stage where it is catering national as well global
audiences. Hindi films made in Bollywood, are released throughout in India on both single and
multi screen theatres, and several of them screened overseas as well. Though there have been
infrequent instances of regional films, enjoying a national release or even an overseas release,
virtually all films having a national audience, are made in Bollywood.
The entertainment industry in India has outperformed the economy and is one of the fastest
growing sectors in India. Since 1931 when talkies were there in the country, the film industry has
produced more than 67000 films in more than 30 different languages and dialects. Bollywood
took a leap forward in 2001 when the government gave it industry status, meaning banks were
allowed to lend to it. It became a great sector for foreign investment by corporatized
entertainment companies. IN 1958 the film ―Mother India‖ was nominated for an Oscar, and its
director, Mehboob Khan, wanted to go to Los Angeles for the awards. India was short of foreign
currency, and according to a book about Bollywood by Mihir Bose, Mr Khan had to beg the
government for money for the trip, writing, ―I should be able to show that our government is also
backing me. Otherwise, I will look small and lonely.‖ From there things have changed
dramatically. Now Hollywood is courting Indian film producers: Disney, Viacom, News
Corporation and Sony Pictures have all done deals with Bollywood companies in the past few
years.

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One of the biggest and the most high-profile deal in Indian entertainment industry; Anil Ambani
promoted Reliance Big Entertainment has sealed the funding of its 50:50 joint venture with
Hollywood's iconic director Steven Spielberg's DreamWorks. As per the deal DreamWorks
Studios will get an initial funding of $825 million, which includes equity from Reliance ADAG
to make films for a global audience. Of the $825 million, $325 million will be equity infused by
Anil Ambani as his personal investment, $150 million will come from The Walt Disney
Company as a distribution advance, and the rest will be funded by JP Morgan via debt.
DreamWorks has not had the money to produce new films since it parted ways with Viacom's
Paramount Pictures in September 2008. The new motion picture company formed between
Reliance BIG Entertainment and DreamWorks has been functioning since November 2008 from
DreamWorks' long-time offices in Los Angeles, California.
In another such instances Disney has increased its stake in UTV Software, the parent of an
ambitious young film studio in Mumbai, from 14.9% to as much as 30%. UTV Motion pictures
spends an average amount of $12m on each film they produced. They have co-produced two
movies with News Corporation's Fox Filmed Entertainment, and in the year 2008 the two studios
had released ―The Happening‖, a thriller directed by M. Night Shyamalan that cost them about
$28m each. UTV also has a co-production deal with Will Smith, a Hollywood actor. Plenty to
sing and dance about, in short—if not on the screen, then behind the scenes is going on in the
Bollywood.

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BOLLYWOOD FILM MAKING
This overview is required to understand the exact motivation behind the promotion and publicity
of a movie. In general the movie making business can be summarized as follows:
The scriptwriter or director or a producer comes up with a concept. The producer tells the
scriptwriter to create a script based on this concept. The producer then officially hires his core
team of director, scriptwriter, music director, lyricist, editor, cinematographer and
choreographers etc. The cast for the film decided is based on the requirement of the script. This
process is called casting. Location hunting is done for shooting the film. The director gives an
estimated budget and schedule to the producer for the film shooting. The producer arranges
finances from financers based on this budget. The film is shot. The completed film is processed
in studios and the film is finally ready for release.
At this stage the publicity and promotion phase of the movie begins for the producer. The main
aim of the producer is to sell his movie at a high price to a distributor. India is a vast country and
the market has conventionally been divided in 9 territories by the distributors. A distributor from
each territory buys the rights to distribute the film to the theatre owners in his territories. To get a
high price from the distributors, the producers publicize the film in order to pull crowds to the
theatres. The distributors buy the movie at a price suitable for their territory. The distributors‘
estimate how the film could work in their territory based on the pre-release promotion of the film
and the past record of the people associated with the film (For example, the banner, the director
and actors). If the music of the film has done well in the market, the producer definitely gets a
higher price from the distributors.
Before the release, the producers share some information of the movie to the distributors through
trade guides. The trade guides give the distributors an idea about what the theme of the movie is,
how the movie is being promoted, does the theme suit their territory, which theatres in their
territory would be ready to screen this movie etc. The distributors compare different trade guides
and decide which movie they want to buy. The distributors then release the movie prints to
theatres. The distributors and theatre owners get money through the ticket sales. Producers also
get a percentage share from the ticket sales.
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MARKETING MIX FOR MOVIES
The marketing is all about putting the right product in the right place, at the right price, at the
right time. The ‗marketing mix‘ and the ‗4 Ps‘ of marketing are often used as synonyms for each
other. However the ‗marketing mix‘ is a general phrase used to describe the different kinds of
alternatives organizations choose in the process of bringing a product or services to the market.
The ‗4 P's‘ are the elements of marketing mix and probably the best known way of devising a
marketing plan. They are product, price, promotion, and place.

4Ps concept applied on the movie industry
PRODUCT
Film is a product that is primarily need to satisfy its takers i.e. audiences in this case.
A successful film marketing strategy starts with the idea of making a film. A well
researched script supported by an innovative screenplay is in the core of the filmmarketing strategy as it decides the definitive audience who is going to watch the film
in theatres. W h i l e o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f m a r k e t i n g f o c u s o n a t t r a c t i n g t h e s e
audiences, it is this aspect of marketing i.e. ‗the product‘ that aims at satisfying these
audiences.
PRICE
For an audience the pricing structure is what he pays in the theatre for a ticket. In this way,
pricing in the movie industry seems very standardized. Usually in cinema hall, a movie ticket
costs the same for all movies, but if we look into the broader definition of the ‗movie product‘
defined above, then the prices fluctuate widely. A film distribution contract can be devised in
many ways that result in different returns for the producer, the distributor, and even the key
creative talent. Elements that are negotiated include:



Theatrical release schedules
Territories and market segments
Revenue splits, percentages and order of payment
Promotion and Advertisement budgets
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Besides there are a wide range of pricing structures such as theatrical tickets, group 4-wall
rentals, title rentals, title sales, special releases, subscription services, festivals, DVD writes,
downloads, delayed broadcasts, pay-per-view, licenses, bundled deals, cable channels and now
we have movies and games on cell phones, on iPods, on electronic billboards etc.
PROMOTION
Promotion for films takes many forms:
 Print advertising (posters and ads in newspapers & magazines)
 Trailers (screened at cinemas and on Television/radio)
 Internet sites (including Facebook 'fan' pages)
 Viral Videos
 Merchandising — the list is endless books, t-shirts, food, soundtrack CDs, computer
games, toys, cars, mobile phones, anything that can be associated with the brand of the
movie
PLACE
The marketing ‗Place‘ simply defines that, where and how the prospects find the movie
‗Product‘. With the advent of new technology the ‗Place‘ is not limited to theatre or traditional
television broadcast. Now it is accessible easily through variety of modes like pay per view
through direct-to-home (DTH) broadcast, over the internet, through social networking sites, cell
phones and other hand held devices, co-branding and merchandising, music CDs and DVDs and
there are many more innovative ways that are coming on the way.
The digital renaissance has opened a plethora of platform, strategies and formats than ever. Now
we have RSS feeds, Blogs, dedicated websites, game sites, mobile apps etc to receive the movie
‗Product‘ as and when required.

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MARKETING AND BOLLYWOOD
Marketing in movies always existed but never in such a big way as today. Everyone in the
marketplace wants to be seen and heard but the person who manages to do that better than others
walks away with the success. There is a new breed of film makers and production houses who
want to ensure high possibility of making a movie a hit and get maximum footfalls. Consider the
following examples:
5 lakh rupees for anyone who can watch my film alone in the theatre without getting frightened
echoed Ram Gopal Verma for his movie Phoonk.
Ghajini promoters have tied up with leading multiplexes in Mumbai where multiplex staffs have
volunteered to sport the famous Ghajini hairstyle from 9th Dec – 25th Dec’08. They actually
have gone bald like the hero Aamir Khan.

Film marketing is evolving into a growing industry in India. Over the years we have seen a
seamless integration of marketing ideas selling the film and being responsible for its success
rather than the content itself. Gone are the days when the films director and banner was good
enough to draw the audiences. The multiplex crowd of today wants novelty and more than just
storyline and star-cast to watch a movie. The hype and hoopla created by the film marketers goes
down along way in predicting the films success. More and more film makers are adopting out-of14

box strategies to cut through the clutter in the highly competitive business. It is very important to
communicate the USP of a movie to the viewers in most interesting way.
Earlier the parameter of success was the number of days a movie runs on a theatre. Those were
the era of Silver Jubilee, Golden Jubilee, Diamond Jubilee, but now it‘s all the matter of first
week. Today films are released with as high as 3000 prints worldwide and the collection of
weekend decides the fate of movie. Under these circumstances, marketing is the key to ensure a
big opening and to draw audience to the theatres.
According to Digital Dawn: The metamorphosis begins, a report on Indian Media and
Entertainment (M&E) Industry 2012, prepared by FICCI-KPMG, The film industry has reason
to cheer with multiple movies crossing the 100 Crore mark in domestic theatrical collections and
30 Crore mark in Channel and Satellite (C&S) rights. Also there are 132 million internet users in
India that ensures the digital distribution of content as well an effective marketing platform for
advertisers.

Industry size and projections

Source: Digital Dawn: The metamorphosis begins, Indian Media and Entertainment (M&E) Industry Report 2012, by FICCI-KPMG

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The Indian M&E industry grew from INR 652 billion in 2010 to INR 728 billion in 2011,
registering an overall growth of 12 percent. Backed by strong consumption in Tier 2 and 3 cities,
continued growth of regional media and fast increasing new media businesses, the industry is
estimated to achieve a growth of 13 percent in 2012 to touch INR 823 billion. Going forward, the
sector is projected to grow at a healthy CAGR of 14.9 percent to reach INR 1,457 billion by
2016.

Advertising trends and projections

Source: Digital Dawn: The metamorphosis begins, Indian Media and Entertainment (M&E) Industry Report 2012, by FICCI-KPMG

Advertising spends across all media accounted for INR 300 billion in 2011, contributing to 41
percent of the overall M&E industry revenues. Advertising revenues witnessed a growth of 13
percent in 2011 as against 17 percent observed in 2010. Print is the largest contributor
accounting for INR 139 billion and 46 percent of the advertising pie. It is expected to continue
being the most dominant medium for next 5 years, despite the threat from new digital platforms.
Advertising spends are expected to grow at a CAGR of 14 percent to reach INR 586 billion in
2016. The media industry is an ad dependent business and will continue to be so for some time,
largely due to the relatively low ARPUs on account of hyper competition and lower price
elasticity of consumers.

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There has been increased proliferation and consumption of digital media content – be it
newspapers and magazines, digital film prints, and online video and music or entirely new
categories such as social media.

The “new age Consumers”
A new breed of consumer has evolved with India‘s growing young population. There media
consumption habits and preferences for niche content is driving media companies to provide
innovative and direct platforms to get in touch with audiences. The 360 degree marketing
campaign of ‗RA One‘ is an example which had one of the most diversified cross platform
marketing campaigns in the history of Indian cinema, in order to build audience anticipation. It
effectively used traditional and new media in the form of unveiling its first look on a popular
social networking website. In addition, the campaign also leveraged digital and merchandising
platforms to its advantage.

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Publicity of movies
Without publicity what could happen to a movie, can be understand by this interview that was
published on Delhi Times on 12th June, 2012. Times Of India journalist, Anshul Chaturvedi
interviewed actor Manoj Bajpayee and here are the first two questions to understand the
scenario:
The ‘four-times-rejected-for-NSD’ Manoj Bajpayee speaks on the cinematic art of acquired leaching, his willingness
to call up directors to ask for work, and how he’s seen good movies fail for lack of publicity, so he’s not shying
away from it any longer.

DT - You were never the one to be seen at movie promotions. Isn‘t the current campaign –
unfamiliar territory – tiring you?
Manoj Bajpayee - Things have changed a lot; the fact that everything is temporary was perhaps
never as true as it is now. Meri kuch filmon ka jo hashr hua woh mujhe yaad hai, when I faced
situations where the producer could not ensure much visibility for my movies, sometimes from
lack of funds, or from other reasons.
DT - Such as?
Manoj Bajpayee - ―1971‖ is the prime example! It is one of the best films of my career. Uss film
mein har cheez thi. It was the first real film on the Army in a very long time. But due to a lack of
resources, or attention, or visibility, woh kab aayi kab gayi theatres mein, pata hi nahi chala. Yeh
aalam thaa ki jin theatres mein film lagi thi, un ke baahar tak film ke posters nahi lage! Aur usi
film ko National Award mila for the best film of the year!
So I don‘t know whether the promotions work or not – yeh fact hai ya myth – but I am not going
to find out. Sometimes, publicity can be a brain dead thing, but I say, let it be, if it is working for
a film, I am available, because I have suffered the cost of no publicity – not in one film, but in
two, three films very dear to me! If it‘s fruitful conversation, I am very happy – but even when it
is not, I tell people, no, I don‘t mind it (laughs)!

Publicity of Movie
 At producer level
 At distributor level
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At producer level the publicity is done at a large scale with a national or international audience in
mind. The budgets are usually high and the media used are film teaser on TV channels and
cinema halls, radio, digital medium that includes Internet and mobile platforms, national
magazines etc. The star cast of the movie is also associated with publicity at this level. They
participate in chat shows, interview, and reality shows on national television and make
appearances at public places like shopping malls etc. This kind of publicity primarily aimed to
create a ―buzz‖ about the movie. The "making of" a saga which is couple of hours long shown on
the TV gives an insight into what went into the production of the movie. It helps generate interest
in the movie by giving away parts of the story and some scenes, making the viewers curious to
know about more.
At distributor level the publicity is mainly for making the target audience aware about the
theatres where the movie is playing and the timings of the movies. Also, this publicity tries to
reach the audience who may not have access to cable TV or radio. The scope of this publicity is
limited to the distributor‘s territory. The budgets allocated for such publicity is less. The media
used at this level are posters, hoardings, local newspapers or SMSs sent to the registered and
frequent visitors etc.
Since very beginning songs are the essential part of the Bollywood films and used to generate
interest in the movie. The recent years have seen use of a special category of songs called "item
songs", which are included in the movie as a hot property to pull the crowd to theatres. Now a
day, these item songs are aired on TV frequently to publicize the movie. Interestingly in most of
the cases these songs have no direct relation with the movie's storyline.

Different media for publicity of movies
Radio
Statistics suggests that there are 260 radio stations on air across 91 cities. There are 250-300
million radio users today. Also, the consumption time of radio has moved ahead of television. It
is 145-150 minutes per day as compared to the television, which is approximately 140 minutes
per day according to L V Krishnan, CEO at TAM Media Research. Today, 80-90 per cent of

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mobile users exercise radio accessibility. And, this mobility of the radio has increased the usage
of the medium.
Tie-ups with radio channels for film marketing are becoming increasingly common. Common
promotional activities include on-air contests, interviews with film stars and music composers,
shelling out complementary movie tickets, an option to meet the stars in person, music and
movie premiere coverage, etc.
Mobile phones
Bollywood is harnessing the latest technology to reach their audiences. India is the world's
fastest-growing cellular market and has the second largest consumer base after China. According
to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, there were 752.2 million mobile phone
subscribers as of December 31, 2010. The research company Gartner Inc. last year predicted that
82 percent of India's 1.2 billion populations would have a mobile phone by 2014. Bollywood
have used mobile phones before to promote films, but this has mainly been restricted to music
and ringtone downloads or simple text message alerts. In the first move of its kind, Film studio
Excel Entertainment has tied up with one of India's leading mobile phone companies, Aircel, to
push two three-minute trailers of film "Zindagi Milegi Na Dobara" for free to its 55 million
subscribers.
For mobile movie marketing there is a large scope of innovative services. Consumers want SMS
short reviews as well as schedule of theatres on the mobile. There is also scope for television
channels to send out SMS alerts half an hour before a movie is going to be aired. A substantial
segment of the population is favourable to games related to films. More importantly, a large
population prefers to read a film‘s review before seeing it. So television movie channels and film
distributors need to place reviews in WAP portals that are frequently accessed. Contests and
dynamic updates available on cellular networks generate repeat look ups. This way, a buzz about
the theme of the movie marketed is ensured.

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Internet Marketing
Bollywood has started increasing it‘s spending on digital marketing. Typically, total marketing
budgets of a Bollywood movie comprise 30-40 percent of entire production cost of which 20-30
percent is spent on digital marketing. Around 81 per cent of the online Indian population,
according to a report by Hungama Digital Media, engages in some kind of social interactivity on
the web, making it an ideal place for the film marketers to draw young crowds. Jyoti Deshpande,
Chief Operating Officer and Commercial Director, Eros International, says: "Internet viral
marketing is less about how much you spend and more about how effectively you spend." Today
it‘s almost a norm to launch the website as well Facebook fan page of a movie simultaneously.
Promoting movies through social networking sites such as Facebook, Orkut, blogs like blogger
and micro-blogging sites like twitter etc. helps to build a reputation, create real time
conversations, connect and at the same time engage the target audiences in the online world.
Teasers and Promos
Teasers are meant to tease. A teaser is a short duration promo of a film that creates curiosity
among viewers before the release. It is one of the oldest forms of movie promotion. Besides
theatres, teasers also aired on TV.
Co-branding
―Co-branding is the use of one or more trademarks from two or more companies for the
marketing of specific goods, services or events". Co-Branding of movies is a recent practice in
Bollywood.
In-film advertising
It helps a brand to be present in the content itself and hence becomes inseparable from the
storyline. Such integration of the brand within the script of a film helps in delivering the brand
message in an entertaining and engaging way.

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Merchandising
Film producers and distributors rarely manufacture film-related products themselves, but license
the right to sell these products to other companies, who manufacture related merchandise and
share the advance payment as well royalty of gross revenue with producers and distributors. For
instance, actor Dino Morea's film and celebrity merchandise website, www.coolmaal.net had an
entire collection of tees, watches and shades, the Chulbul Pandey line during the release of
Dabangg. The website also tied up with a multiplex chain so that the merchandise could be an
extension of the viewers' movie going experience.
Music
Music in Bollywood cinema has always been one of the major entertainment sources, so much so
that Indian movies are recognized because of their music. Its reach is universal and hence
promoting top chart busters through music videos, teasers etc. becomes instant hit to a wider
section of the target audience.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
According to ―Report of the Working Group on Information and Broadcasting Sector‖ by
Government of India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, which is part of 12th Five Year
Plan (2012-2017), it has been decided to simplify the procedure for clearance for setting up of
film theatres as well ensuring that a single window clearance system exists for film shooting in
India, for both domestic and international film production houses.
Keeping in view the fact that India produces more than 1000 films annually, the Government is
also planning to promote India as a film destination in film market and film festivals.
If we see Indian film industry particularly Bollywood in the context of the overall Media and
Entertainment (M & E) sector of the Indian economy, its role and importance has to be gauged
not by the size of the industry, but also the fact that film entertainment in India is a key driver for
content on television, music, radio, animation & VFX, and advertising. The popularity of
Bollywood films and its contents including music plays an important role to the size and growth
of other segments of the M&E Sector. The trend of co-branding and merchandising of
Bollywood films led to growth in other sectors too.
According to the report mentioned above ―There is no measurable database in India to estimate
the actual size, annual production investments, accurate box office returns, etc. relating to film
industry in India. This makes the task of facilitating the growth of the Indian film industry more
challenging and there is an urgent need to put in place appropriate mechanisms that ensure
maintenance of certain quantifiable parameters of performance of the film sector, as also a data
bank of industry professionals across various streams of filmmaking. At present data available on
film personnel is confined to industry personnel who are members of various film industry
associations such as Film Federation of India, Film Producers‘ Guild, Indian Motion Pictures
Association, South Indian Film Chamber of Commerce, East India Motion Pictures Association
and many more. None of these organizations can claim to represent the interests of the entire
Indian film sector and as such cannot provide accurate figures for the film sector. The only
measurable data in India in the film sector is the number of films that are certified by the Central
board of film certification each year for public exhibition‖.
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Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) is a statutory body under Ministry of Information
and Broadcasting, regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the
Cinematograph Act 1952. Films can be publicly exhibited in India only after they have been
certified by the Central Board of Film Certification.
The Board consists of non-official members and a Chairman (all of whom are appointed by
Central Government) and functions with headquarters at Mumbai. It has nine Regional offices,
one each at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Hyderabad, New
Delhi, Cuttack and Guwahati. The Regional Offices are assisted in the examination of films by
Advisory Panels. The members of the panels are nominated by Central Government by drawing
people from different walks of life for a period of 2 years. The Certification process is in
accordance with ―The Cinematograph Act‖ (1952), ―The Cinematograph (certification) Rules‖
(1983), and the guidelines issued by the Central government u/s 5 (B). At present films are
certified under 4 categories

U - Unrestricted Public Exhibition
UA - Unrestricted Public Exhibition - but with a word of caution that Parental discretion
required for children below 12 years
A - Restricted to Adults
S -Restricted to any special class of persons

24

2011 was a remarkable year for Bollywood. ―Bodyguard‖, ―Singham‖, ―Ready‖, ―Ra.One‖ and
―Don 2‖ breached the INR 100 Crore mark in domestic theatrical collections. This is what we
may call a new elite club of high revenue generating Hindi cinema.

The 100-crore club implies that the net collection (not gross collection) of a movie is INR 100
Crore. To understand the term clearly, gross collection of a film is the sum total of the money
which is collected at all the ticket counters of cinemas across the country screening that film.
Net collection is what remains with the producers after paying the entertainment taxes.
The norm of hits and flops in the film industry has always gone by the cost-versus-revenue
analysis to determine success. A number of avenues of revenue now exist for a producer in
addition to a theatre screening. Opening up new overseas territories was a winning strategy for
the film industry in 2011. New pockets were developed in Eastern Asia (China, Taiwan, and
South Korea), Western Europe, Australia and Latin America. The 2009 blockbuster ―Three
Idiots‖ followed last year‘s ―My Name is Khan‖ to the South Korean market.
It is a generally accepted principle in the film trade that income from most of the other sources
like satellite television, home video, etc depends largely on the earnings from the theatrical
business of a film. Although there is no time frame, films normally touch the 100-crore figure in
two to four weeks. Today, the business of films has become touch-and-go. Most hits have a run
of only four to six weeks. The latest entry which is not mentioned here in the images is Akshay
Kumar's ―Rowdy Rathore‖. It is the latest film to write a success story at BO and cross Rs. 100
25

Crore net mark at the end of second weekend. The film has been doing well at single screens as
well as multiplexes.

The 100-crore club does not take into account the cost of a film as it goes solely by revenue. It is
for this reason that Shah Rukh Khan, with Ra.One (total cost Rs. 150 Crore approx) and Don 2
(total cost Rs. 80-85 Crore approx), is as entitled to club membership as Aamir Khan, with a
blockbuster like 3 Idiots (total cost Rs. 55 Crore approx) and Salman Khan, with a super hit like
Bodyguard (total cost Rs. 75-80 Crore approx).

Source: www.hindustantimes.com/Brunch/Brunch-Stories/Bollywood-s-100-crore-club/Article1-864033.aspx

26

Emergence of higher marketing threshold
With all this 100 Crore battle, aggressive marketing and innovative promotion tactics became a
commonplace in Bollywood. Over the past three years, the average marketing cost of a film has
more than doubled due to the diversity in methods for promotion, rising advertisement rates and
the pressing need to create sufficient weekend hype and publicity just prior to release. Even to
get a word of mouth campaign going, a film must have a good opening at the box office since
theatrical revenues usually halve with every successive week after release. As such, producers
are forced to invest a minimum amount of INR 3-5 Crore to make their product visible and
attractive in the market place even for small and medium budget films. For high budget films,
this number could be much higher reaching upwards of INR 10 Crore.
Industry participants believe that Print and Advertisement (P&A) costs for small budget films
may be equal to or even greater than the production cost. A concerted effort is underway by the
industry to utilize marketing budgets more effectively through cost effective channels to reach
the target audience of the film.

Source: Digital Dawn: The metamorphosis begins, Indian Media and Entertainment (M&E) Industry Report 2012, by FICCI-KPMG

27

Case Study: Ghajini

The 100 Crore club of Bollywood was the term coined by the super success of Aamir khan
starrer movie ―Ghajini‖. It was a remake of 2005 Tamil psychological thriller film directed by A.
R. Murugadoss. The movie had released within the country with 1400 prints. Reliance Big
Pictures had released 213 prints overseas to earn maximum revenue in initial weeks of curiosity.
On December 25, 2008, the much-awaited Hindi film, 'Ghajini' (a revenge drama) was released
and it went on to become an instant hit. It opened to packed houses and grossed Rs. 32 Crore in
one day worldwide. Its first week collections amounted to Rs. 100 Crore in India. According to
trade observers, it had broken all records set by earlier Bollywood films.
The success of the film was widely attributed to aggressive promotional strategies adopted by the
film maker in conjunction with the lead actor of the film, Aamir Khan, who played a vital role in
the promotion of the film. The promotional strategies included viral marketing, ambush
marketing, television advertising, multiplex promotion, tie-ups with several well-known brands,
and merchandising. In addition to this, a 3D PC game based on the film was also launched.

The distribution strategy was also unique. Experts felt that the makers of Ghajini had raised the
bar for film promotion in India. They felt that the rules of film promotion have changed as film
makers were becoming more and more aggressive in their marketing strategies in their bid to
ensure that the movie was viewed by the maximum number of people.
28

E-Marketing strategy of Ghajini
The marketing strategy of Ghajini has tried quite some different online marketing strategies for
promoting the movie.
 Now having a movie website is quite common these days, but in case of Ghajini, not one
or

two

rather

three

websites

were

launched,

www.rememberghajini.com,

www.findghajini.com & www.wallofsuspects.com. While the 1st one is the official
website of the film, 2nd and 3rd links are quite interesting properties around the movie that
raised curiosity and created excitement amongst the users over the story of the movie.
Rather than doing one way communication/broadcast through the film site or simply
sharing content Ghajini‘s promoters involved his fans in the film‘s promotion.
www.wallofsuspects.com: A supporting viral website for the film aims to replicate a
similar concept from the film. To checkout the wall of suspects one needs to have a code
which can be obtained by uploading either self or friend‘s images. One can also provide
their mobile number which can be used to intimate if they win some prize.
www.findghajini.com: Another viral website built around the film. It‘s a viral gaming
application where the users can play the role of Aamir‘s character in the film and try to
find Ghajini through the clues provided.
 The movie tied-up with all famous entertainment portals and run some or other contests.
The movie contests like these were not new but the difference was the one running on
Business of Cinema. This contest was the kind of post-release contest and asks for
feedback about the movie and lucky winners to get a chance to meet leading actor Aamir
Khan.
 3D game CDS were launched based on Ghajini theme and one of the India‘s famous
entertainment based social network http://www.indyarocks.com/ was running a contest
where the winners were to get 3D game CDs.
 Aamir Khan‘s own website http://www.aamirkhan.com/ was totally donned in Ghajini
look, and as Aamir is quite active on his blog personally, he had written some posts on
Ghajini and his feelings around the release of the movie.
29

 After getting involved the fans of Aamir Khan, a strategy was devised to involve the
Mass-Media for the promotion of film. In order to engage media persons and to add a
level
of
personal
touch
to
the
whole
affair
a
web
page,
http://www.rememberghajini.com/media/
was created where media people can upload their pictures to which Aamir can add notes
based on their previous interaction(s) with him. This repository will help him in
remembering those media people more vividly and those who register will in turn get
information kit on Ghajini along with Aamir‘s personal note about them. Ghajini‘s
marketing team also shared movie stills with their site so that they could be used for
promotion.
 Unlike other film sites the sites for Ghajini had not focus much on the synopsis of the
film or the main plot; instead they focused on certain events of the film (finding the
killers etc) and leverages on them. In addition to this there were some hooks which were
meant to form certain associations and build mind maps. Extending the theme from film
after every 15 minutes the user gets redirected (forget everything) to the home page no
matter what page they were at. Remembering the date (Remember Dec 25) on which the
film will be released is another one, quite prominent and common through the sites.
 A viral campaign for Ghajini; ―Worldwide premier of Gajodhar…before time” was
launched through www.oktatabyebye.com (travel community of Makemytrip) and done
by Webchutney.

30

The film shows a character Gajodhar who is out on a holiday and has a very different
rather weird way of noting down all his experiences. Whatever he experiences like ―room
achcha hai‖, ―food is good‖ etc. he gets those tattooed on his body in a nearby tattoo
shop. At the end of his holiday, he comes back and copies all those experiences on
www.oktatabyebye.com.
The unprecedented success of Ghajini makes it a case study of how to create a buzz around a
movie with innovative and aggressive promotional strategy. It is said that 30 percent or 15 Crore
of the 50 Crore cost of the movie has been spent on promotion. The well crafted e-marketing
strategy gave edge to the movie and engaged the audience like never before.

31

Case Study: 3 idiots
3 Idiots is a 2009 Indian comedy-drama film directed by Rajkumar Hirani, with a screenplay by
Abhijat Joshi, and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. It was loosely adapted from the novel Five
Point Someone by Chetan Bhagat. Upon release, the film broke all opening box office records in
India. It was the highest-grossing film in its opening weekend in India and has the highest
opening day collections for a Bollywood film. It made the record for highest net collections in
the first week for a Bollywood film. 3 Idiots has also become the highest-grossing Bollywood
film of all time in India.
The film initially opened up on 1800 prints worldwide. As of February 2012, the film grossed
roughly 385 Crore. Box Office India declared the film an "All time Blockbuster". 3 Idiots is
also the highest-grossing Bollywood film in overseas markets.

After two back to back landmark films of Hindi cinema Munnabhai MBBS and Lage Raho
Munnabhai, expectations from Rajkumar Hirani‘s 3 idiots had been very high. Added to that,
was the combination of producer Vidhu Vinod Chopra, Hirani and Aamir Khan coming together
for the first time. After its release the film sustained all its hype and becomes the highest earner
till date in Bollywood.

32

E-Marketing strategy of 3 idiots
Being a creative marketer himself, Aamir khan understands the importance of digital medium
and uses every platform to capture his audience‘s interest. For the movie 3 Idiots, Zapak Digital
Entertainment managed and executed the entire digital marketing strategy. A whole bunch of
creative and interesting stuff has been created – online games, social networking and mobile
applications that fits with the theme of the movie and connects well with the youth.

‗3 idiots‘ is an example of a very successful 360 degree marketing campaign. Its success story is
written with their innovative techniques and all inclusive marketing strategy. The film managed
to explore multiple touch points and reach out effectively through digital media and experiential
marketing techniques. Zapak, the online gaming portal, created an alternate reality game on
http://idiotsacademy.zapak.com/idiotsmain.php As part of this, Aamir khan traveled through
India, leaving clues about his whereabouts and participants of the game got two weeks to track
him down. People were kept updated about the hunt through http://twitter.com/trackaamir and
specially created Facebook account. On Facebook, a profile called Pucca Idiot has been created
that has more than one lakh fans. The profile has videos and pictures of Khan's journey. Varanasi
33

was the first place Khan visited, disguised as an old man locating the house where his mother
grew up.
 The official website of 3 Idiots – http://idiotsacademy.zapak.com/idiotsmain.php and its logo
were interesting creation. The website takes visitors to different rooms of the Academy –
each of these – the Director‘s office, Hostel, Classroom, Lab, Canteen and Toilets that has
something interesting to offer.
 Music of the movie was released online, instead of any grand location. After the music
release, fans were invited for a video chat with the cast and crew of the movie.
 A number of online videos of trailers, promos, interviews about the movie were released on
http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=3+Idiots&search_type=&aq=f and are getting
huge popularity. The http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvszmNXdM4w&feature=channel
has received nearly 3160507 views.

34

Case Study: Dabangg
Dabangg was home production film of Salman Khan and produced by Arbaaz Khan. It was
released on Eid, 10 September 2010 across nearly 1800 screens in India and abroad. The fi l m
broke m an y re cords at t he box offi ce wi t hi n t he fi rst wee k of i t s rel ease. It
went on t o become t he highest opening day grosser as wel l as the hi ghes t
weekend grossi ng Bollywood f i l m o f a l l t i m e , b r e a k i n g t h e reco rd s ea r l i er
hel d b y 3 Idi ot s. T h e f i l m s e t a n o t h e r b o x o f f i c e r e c o r d , grossing 80.87crore
i n i t s f i r s t w e e k , t h u s b e c o m i n g the highest opening week grossing Bollywood
film, overtaking the previous re cord of 3 Idi ot s . M a d e o n a b u d g e t o f 4 2
C r o r e , t h e f i l m w e n t o n t o collect 212 Crore worldwide.

Box office India declared the film an all-time b l o c k b u s t e r i n t h e s e c o n d w e e k
o f i t s r e l e a s e . I t i s c u r r e n t l y t h e second highest-grossing Bollywood film of all
time and the fourth highest grossing Indian Film of all time. It is also the highest-grossing
Bollywood film of 2010. The fi l m al so went on t o wi n s ever al a wards, wi nni ng s i x
Filmfare Awards, i ncl udi ng t he F i l m f a r e

Best

Film

A w a r d , seven S t a r

S c r e e n A w a r d s and nine Zee Cine Awards. It also won the National Film Award
for Best Popular Film P r o v i d i n g W h o l e s o m e E n t e r t a i n m e n t .

35

Khan Brothers knows it very well that marketing a big product like a movie can be very
expensive business, when the product has limited shield life. After spending Crore of money on
making a movie, the Production House spends more on letting audiences know about it. Movies
have to be a hit on their opening weekend, often on their opening day, otherwise they tend to
disappear very quickly, and the Producer stands to make a loss on their investment.
Though after the success of ―Wanted‖ Salman Khan was already on the demand, it was Dabangg
that secured his entry into the elite club of 100 Crore grosser. Dabangg sells a character to its
audience - a character that is made up of all the cliché‘s one can associate with this genre.

E-Marketing strategy of Dabangg
Dabangg which was made on a budget of 30 cr. had a marketing budget of 12 cr. That is a
whopping 40% of the movie budget. T h e f i l m ' s t h e a t r i c a l t r a i l e r w a s r e l e a s e d i n
c i n e m a s o n 2 3 J u l y 2 0 1 0 , alongside Priyadarshan‘s Khatta Meetha. Th e t wo
and a hal f m i nu t e t rai l er w a s a n i n s t a n t h i t . F e w i n d u s t r y v e t e r a n s s u c h
a s Taran Adarsh, Anupam Kher, Ritesh Deshmukh c l a i m e d i t t o b e b e s t t r a i l e r
of yea, with Adarsh d e s c r i b i n g i t a s , " R o c k i n g ! , S a l m a n K h a n l i k e
n e v e r b e f o r e , e x p e c t a hurri c ane l i ke st art at t he box offi ce ‖. Box offi ce
Indi a d es cri bed i t a s t he most anticipated film of the year. Several short dialogue promos
and trailers featuring the film songs were subsequently released.
In the last few years, web sites have increasingly become part of the marketing mix for
movie c o m p a n i e s .
of M o v i e ,

From

producers

the
make

official
use

release
of

of

video

the

First

uploading

Trailer
sites

l i k e YouTube as source of Viral Marketing. But this movie was made for mass people and
to make it a big hit they have to come up with new strategies.
Arb aaz ado pt ed a n ew m ar k et i ng st r at e g y fo r Dab an gg. He bel i eves t hat hi s
fi l m can do busi nes s for m ore t h an R s. 200 C ro re i f t h at fi l m rel eased i n non m u l t i pl ex t heat r e fo r m as s people. The ticket price in multiplex hall is more than
Rs. 300w h i c h i s v e r y h i g h f o r a c o m m o n m a n . S o , c o m m o n p e o p l e watch
movie by pirated CD/DVD which comes in Rs. 10-20. But if a new film is available in theatre
36

for Rs. 20, 30, 40, 50 then any common man will like to watch film in theatre. So, movie
was r e l e a s e d

across

1,584

single

screen

theatres

for

common

people. This strategy worked against the piracy also, as tickets were cheaper, and number of
people came to watch the movie. Post-release promotion plays significant role in the success o f
t h e m o v i e . W o r d - o f - m o u t h h a s a l w a y s b e e n a f a c t o r i n a m ov i e 's suc c es s
or fai l ur e , but i n t o da y's soc i al l y n et w or ked world, it has become vitally important.
Because of big fan-base of Salman Khan People tweet, post status updates and blog reviews as
soon as they leave the theatre, and their reactions spread globally and instantly.
Reliance Big Home Video have released Hindi blockbuster Dabangg on YouTube. The full
movie has been put on http://www.youtube.com/user/DabanggTheFilm and will be available for
free viewing to audiences in India. Users can also view popular scenes, songs and footage from
the making of the movie. Till date it has been subscribed by 1,929 users and viewed by 780,883.

37

Dabangg on YouTube – Fast Facts
 1.33 Million views to the Dabangg Channel
 Over 430,000 video views of the movie and related video clips
 An average of 5000 views every day
 250,000 full movie views
 1800 + subscribers on the channel
 2000 community engagements in the last 1 week in the form of ratings, comments and
favorites
The marketing team at Google also has also set up powerful marketing campaign (across Search,
GDN, and YouTube) to create awareness about the film. In addition, Big FM also promoted the
movie on YouTube.

Dabangg is the first Indian blockbuster to be released on YouTube in India on an advertisementsupported model. Hindustan Unilever is the exclusive sponsor for the movie on YouTube India.
The channel is only available to users in India and will be IP-blocked in other markets of the
world.

38

Sweta Agnihotri, COO of BIG Home Video, was quoted as saying, ―We realize that the Internet
is the new TV for the ever-connected youth today. Our vision is to make our content available to
Indian consumers across any screen, any where and at any time of their choice.‖
According to Gautam Anand, Director, Content Partnerships (Japan–Asia Pacific), Google, ―This
initiative marks a major shift in the way movies have been traditionally distributed and opens up
a new business opportunity for movie producers and distributors alike.‖
Over 30% of the views come from discovery - related videos and YouTube search. A good 12%
also comes from embeds from external sites. While, the attention span for the full videos is high
incase of movies like Dabanng (50% attention span), the attention span for short clips (average
length 2 minutes) is above average for Dabangg clips.
Source:http://static.googleusercontent.com/external_content/untrusted_dlcp/www.google.co.in/en/in/intl/en/adwords/wat
chthisspace/pdfs/YouTube_Case_Study_Dabanng.pdf

39

Case Study: Golmaal 3
Golmaal 3 is a 2010 Indian comedy film directed by Rohit Shetty and the sequel to the 2008
super hit Golmaal Returns and the third film in the Golmaal series, which became the first ever
Indian trilogy film series. The film was eventually declared a blockbuster at the box office and is
currently the ninth highest grossing Bollywood film according to worldwide gross collections.

Golmaal 3 released in India and internationally on 5 November 2010 to coincide with the Diwali
weekend, usually considered a profitable time of the year. The film's opening collections on the
first day reached 8.32 Crore and opening weekend net collections stood at 33.5 Crore. Opening
week gross collections were around 62.25 Crore in India and 10 Crore overseas.
The film had a strong second weekend in theatres, grossing 19 Crore. During its second and third
week at the Indian box office, the film grossed 31.75 Crore and 9 Crore respectively, therefore
increasing the film's total to 103.50 Crore. Meanwhile, the film earned $1,132,192 in United
States and Canada, £638,496 in UK and $352,063 in Australia.

40

E-Marketing strategy of Golmaal 3
To promote the movie Golmaal 3 a unique game with Hungama Digital Media Entertainment
Ltd. was launched on Internet. The game is an excellent example of how Bollywood can
leverage the digital medium and that too the gaming industry to tap onto its audience. Hungama
has been responsible for the game right from concept phase to development. 60 exclusive videos
of Tusshar Kapoor have been integrated into the game.

The game is the classic dumb charades game where the users are expected to guess the movies
enacted by Tusshar. Movies like 3 Idiots, Dabangg, Tohfa, Jeet and obviously Golmaal have
been enacted by him. The game promises a high degree of interactivity and engagement with the
consumer and thus would lead to a high brand recall. Social networks are also being used to
increase the game‘s popularity. Bollywood Hungama boasts of 60,000 unique visitors who have
enjoyed the game. Hungama Digital, has bagged bronze in the best use of social marketing in a
promotion marketing campaign for ‗Golmaal Charades‘ – a dumb charades game launched for
the movie Golmaal 3, at the coveted promotional marketing awards of Asia – ‗The Dragons of
Asia‘.

41

Case Study: Ready
Ready is a romantic comedy film directed by Anees Bazmee, starring Salman Khan and Asin in
the lead roles. The film is a remake of the 2008 Telugu film, Ready directed by Sreenu Vaitla.
The film was released on 3 June 2011. Upon release, Ready became the second highest opening
day grosser, as well as the second highest weekend grossing Bollywood film, after Dabangg,
another Salman Khan-starrer.

It also held records for the highest grossing Bollywood film of 2011 and the third highest
grossing Bollywood film ever domestically. It became the first Indian film to release on at least
1000 UFO digital prints and almost 1900 prints in all. As of 2012, the film is the eight highest
grossing Bollywood film ever worldwide.
The film collected 13 Crore net on its first day of business, thus becoming the second highest
opening day grosser across India after Dabangg. The film held the record for the third highest
grossing Bollywood film ever made domestically after its theatrical run. Box office India
declared it to be a Blockbuster, while Taran Adarsh of Bollywood Hungama called it an all time
blockbuster.

42

E-Marketing strategy of Ready
3rd Rock Entertainment has promoted T-Series' film ‗Ready' through four events: a press
conference, a flash mob, an initiative for underprivileged children and a ‗Ready Live Mad
Concert'. 3rd Rock Entertainment has organized a flash mob at InOrbit mall in Mumbai. The
activity will involve a dance performance by the movie's actress Asin. The actress will also hand
out merchandise and visit a Provogue store at the mall while promoting the movie.
In another effort to promote the movie, 18 auditoriums with the capacity of 350 pax each have
been arranged to screen the movie for underprivileged children. Sponsors, Hippo and Bailey, will
provide the children with refreshments.
‗Ready Live Mad Concert' featured performances by live band Superstar SOQ. It also acted as a
platform for new talent among other performances. Salman Khan also performed at the concert.
There was a Provogue fashion show with 60 models at the concert. Planet M, Loop Mobile and
Agni Jewelers were also on board the sponsor wagon.
Hungama digital media launched an online official game for the movie ready that was accessible
through http://www.thegamebox.com/games/ready---the-official-game/play/132, the game was
played by more than 60,000 users online and creates awareness about movie.

43

Case Study: Singham
Singham is a 2011 Indian action film directed by Rohit Shetty starring Ajay Devgan, Kajal
Aggarwal and Prakash Raj in lead roles. It is a remake of the 2010 Tamil film Singam featuring
Suriya. The film is produced by Reliance Entertainment, which co-produced the original Tamil
movie. The film released on 22 July 2011, in 2000 screens worldwide and received huge
response worldwide. It went on to strike as a Blockbuster, and became one of the highest
grossing movies of 2011. It grossed more than 100 Crore at Indian Box-office. The film's official
DVD was released on 23 August 2011. The Delhi High Court, upon Reliance Entertainment's
request, issued an order to all Indian ISPs to block file sharing sites to prevent piracy of
Singham.

Sanjeev Lamba, CEO, Reliance Entertainment said, ―A hard-hitting story, the wonderful
combination of director Rohit Shetty and star Ajay Devgan and some amazing action sequences
have resulted in an extremely successful run for the film. Singham is the first mainstream film
produced by Reliance Entertainment and we are very pleased with the results.‖

44

E-Marketing strategy of Singham
According to Ormax Media‘s consumer based year-end report – Front Page 2011, Singham is the
top favorite film of Bollywood audiences in 2011. The ranking of the top 10 favorite Bollywood
films of 2011 was derived on the basis of ‗Word of Mouth‘ (WOM) score of the film, using data
collected through consumer research throughout the year. The WOM score represents the percent
of audiences who liked the film enough to recommend it strongly to their friends.
Priti Shahani, Chief Marketing & Strategy Officer, Reliance Entertainment said ―Singham has all
the ingredients of a commercial entertainer. We wanted to further extend the experience of the
movie and the character of Bajirao Singham to our audience across platforms. With the Bajirao
Singham game developed by Jump Games we are confident of adding to the hype Singham has
already generated.‖
The official mobile game of the movie Singham, launched by Jump Games is a stimulating mix
of action and racing. Set in the scenic background of Goa, the player takes on the role of Baji
Rao Singham and shoots down the enemies while driving several vehicles ranging from
Motorcycles to SUVs. There are various challenges and features that make the game engaging as
the player climbs up the levels. The player can enjoy hours of gaming with every subsequent
level being unique.
However no special promotional strategy was decided to promote the movie. As the Producer
and the lead actor Ajay Devgan felt that the movie in itself is sufficient to draw the audiences to
the theatres.

45

Case Study: Bodyguard
Bodyguard is a romantic action film directed by Siddique. It is the third remake of the director's
own 2010 Malayalam film of the same name, the second being the 2011 Tamil film Kaavalan.
The film was produced by Atul Agnihotri and features Salman Khan and Kareena Kapoor in the
lead roles. Bodyguard was released on 31 August 2010 across 2250 screens in 70 Indian cities
and with 482 prints across the overseas territory.

The film broke many records upon its release. Within the first day of its release, it went on to
become the highest opening day grosser as well as the biggest grosser ever for a single day up
until then. The film set another box office record, netting 100.10 Crore in its first week, thus
becoming the highest opening week grossing Bollywood film. By the end of its fifth week,
Bodyguard netted a total of

151.5 Crore in India according to www.businessofcinema.com,

where it was declared an 'All Time Blockbuster'. According to CNN IBN news channel, the film
has collected around 253 Crore Gross World wide.

46

E-Marketing strategy of Bodyguard
The marketing budget of Bodyguard was set as 22 Crore rupees which was highest in Bollywood
till its release. Bodyguard - produced by Reel Life, owned by Salman's brother-in-law Atul
Agnihotri - was bought by Reliance Entertainment for Rs 64 Crore, which earned the ADAG
firm co-producer status as well as an equal share in the IPR for perpetuity. Agnihotri reportedly
sold the music rights to T-Series for 6 Crore. Satellite rights have been sold to Star for Rs 27
Crore for seven years.
The official website of movie http://www.bodyguardthefilm.com/ was a big hit among the users.
Jump Games has launched the official game of the Salman Khan - Kareena Kapoor
starrer Bodyguard. The mobile game is an adventurous action game based on the movie. The
game has easy to use controls and offers the players to submit their scores on the leader board to
compare it with other players as well. The game had been downloaded more than 30,000 times in
just over a month, by the end of December 2011.
―Reliance Entertainment‖ also tie-up with ―UFO Moviez India‖ to release Bodyguard over 1,300
UFO digital theatres across India. Bodyguard not only smashed the box office record also has
topped the Google Zeitgeist movies list as the most searched movie from India.

The movie which was released on August 31, 2011 was put online on YouTube by its right
owners on December 16, 2011 on www.youtube.com/boxoffice where Indian film content
partners like Yashraj Films, Rajshri, Eros International, Reliance Entertainment, etc are showing
full length feature films for free in India.
47

Case Study: Ra.One
Ra.One is a science fiction superhero film directed and co-written by Anubhav Sinha. Coproduced by Eros International and Red Chillies Entertainment, the film features Shah Rukh
Khan and Kareena Kapoor in lead roles. With an official budget of 125 Crore, Ra.One was one
of the most expensive Indian films at the time of release, though other estimates placed the
budget at higher levels. A further 52 Crore was spent on the film's marketing, which included a
nine-month publicity campaign, brand tie-ups, merchandise, theme-based video games and viral
marketing.

The film was released on October 26, 2011. The film premiered in Dubai, London and Toronto
between October 24 and 26, 2011, and witnessed the largest Indian cinematic release worldwide
as of 2011.
48

In keeping with the on-going trend of wide releases, the film was released with 3100 prints (400
in 3D) for domestic theaters and 1100 (200 in 3D) prints in overseas theaters. This was the single
largest release for any Indian film.
Ra.One used state-of-the-art animation. Contrary to original trend of India being the outsourcing
hub for VFX work of Hollywood, Ra.One observed reverse outsourcing in VFX technology.
Lead studio Red Chillies VFX worked in collaboration with teams from international studios at
Paris, London and Thailand. The film had 3500 VFX shots with 800 committed to G.One
making it comparable to that in James Cameroon‘s ―Avatar‖.
An aggressive campaign of the movie began almost nine months in advance of the actual release.
For the marketing the film tie-ups with big brands such as Volkswagen, Tag Heur, Western
Union, Ducati, Videocon, Godrej, Coca-Cola, HCL, Horlicks, Home-shop, Nokia and Google.
Ra.One net box office collections crossed INR 100 Crore marks. Star India bought the satellite
rights for INR 38 Crore and T-Series paid INR 15 Crore for music rights. Over 25 brands
associated with the film paid a total of INR 52 Crore. The UK government gave a grant of INR
20 Crore for co-producing the film with a UK based firm. The film made INR 15 Crore from
gaming and merchandising. Sony has developed the Ra-One game for their PS2 and PS3
platform. UTV India games developed digital games based on the film‘s characters. Fast food
chain McDonald‘s India offered Red Chillies manufactured Ra.One toys to their patrons.

49

E-Marketing strategy of Ra.One
Ra.One had the longest and most elaborate marketing campaigns in the history of Indian cinema.
Shah Rukh has left no stone unturned in promoting and marketing Ra.One with an estimated
budget of around Rs. 52 Crore out of which around Rs. 15 Crore is being spent exclusively on
the digital promotions. The star has also collaborated with Google and is the first Indian celebrity
on Google+. Google‘s social networking tools Google+ helps fans in sharing videos and live
chatting with Shah Rukh himself.
Ra.One was the first film website in the Bollywood Industry to hit the highest Alexa India
Rankings. An in-house e-store was developed selling 64 original Ra.One merchandise items.
Another first, a 100 page style guide was created for the character G.One including a miniature
G.One which formed the basis of all creatives for the merchandise and digital assets. A weekly
online graphic novel strip led up to the release date including a print graphic novel which was
distributed to 33 million homes with a leading newspaper. Exclusive videos and promos posted
on Ra.One‘s custom made you-tube film channel got over 2.5 lakh views on the first day of
release and was the number 1 channel for consecutive weeks.
Shah Rukh Khan interacted with his fans through the channel and for the first time a string of
television ads were produced by Google for the promotion. Media planners also actively used
social media to reach out to his 4.2 Million followers. Besides, a social media action game was
created and simultaneously adapted to various media including smart phones, feature phones,
DTH, tablets and Facebook.
For the promotion of Ra.One, producers partnered with Google + and YouTube. This kind of
marketing strategy has not been used before in the industry. Shah Rukh Khan the actor producer
of Ra.One participated in live chats and the movie was promoted through search engines,
AdWords and YouTube. Apart from that, a website for the movie and a graphic novel / digital
comic book and online / mobile games were created. These games were made available on
iPhone and android. Producers also came out with a merchandising strategy. The G.One store
dealt in action figure toys, stationery and more. The movie also pulled off a successful cobranding effort with 23 brands.
50

Ra.One‘s YouTube Channel is a customized channel for the movie on the world‘s biggest video
sharing site. This channel has a VFX-enhanced YouTube video featuring Shah Rukh himself,
probably the first time in India. The channel gives the online viewers or users a chance to play
games and create their own Ra.One promos, view clips and behind the scene shots of the movie,
uncut footage and the thoughts of the star cast. It has garnered around 16,478,117 views and
ranked 29th in the list of Most Subscribed channels of India with a subscriber base of more than
31,662 till date. The movie‘s official Facebook page boasts of more than 4, 00,000 fans and the
number is still counting. The page not only has lots of applications but is substantially
informative and interactive. The official website of the movie is equally interesting with loads of
interactive applications, a complete online store to buy toys and other merchandise related to the
movie.
Source: Digital Dawn: The metamorphosis begins, Indian Media and Entertainment (M&E) Industry Report 2012, by FICCI-KPMG

51

Case Study: Don 2
Don 2 is an action crime film directed by Farhan Akhtar and produced by Ritesh Sidhwani and
Farhan Akhtar. It is a sequel to the 2006 film, Don: the Chase Begins Again and stars Shah Rukh
Khan, Priyanka Chopra, Lara Dutta, Om Puri and Kunal Kapoor while Hrithik Roshan appears in
a cameo appearance.
The release of the film was carried out on 23 December 2011 by Reliance Entertainment, in both
2D and 3D formats, which included the dubbed versions in Tamil and Telugu. Made on a budget
of 70 Crore, Don 2 went on to break multiple box-office records in overseas. A week after its
theatrical run, Box Office India declared the film a "Hit" in India, and in the second week, a
blockbuster overseas. Don 2 became the fourth-highest grossing Bollywood film of all time with
a worldwide collection of

241.5 Crore. The first look of the film was unveiled at the Dubai

International Film Festival. Later movie was showcased at the 62nd Berlin International Film
Festival.
Economics of Shah Rukh Khan’s Don 2, by Komal Nahta on December 23, 2011
In The Hands of the Producers:
All rights sold to Reliance Entertainment

Rs. 80 Crore

Add: Subsidy expected from German government

Rs. 15 Crore

Total revenues

Rs. 95 Crore

Less: Cost of production (excluding Shah Rukh Khan‘s
remuneration)

Rs. 65 Crore

Profit to Producers

Rs. 30 Crore

In The Hands of the Worldwide Distributors Reliance Entertainment:
Cost of acquisition of worldwide distribution rights

Rs. 80 Crore

Add: Cost of 3D conversion, promotion, prints and release

Rs. 25 Crore

Add: Cost of money (interest; since a huge amount of
acquisition cost was paid in advance)

Rs. 5 Crore

Total cost

Rs. 110 Crore

52

Revenues:

Satellite rights

Rs. 36 Crore

Music right

Rs. 9 Crore

Overseas theatrical
business (expected)

Rs. 25 Crore
(minimum; of this revenues of about Rs. 15 Crore have
already come in from pre-sale of rights of some parts of
Overseas circuit)

India theatrical
business (expected)

Rs. 52 Crore (minimum)

Total revenues

Rs. 122 Crore

Therefore, the profit to the Reliance Entertainment will be a minimum of Rs. 12 Crore (Rs. 122
Crore minus Rs. 110 Crore). If the film scores better in Overseas and India, the profit could go
up to Rs. 20 Crore. The return on investment would, therefore, be a minimum of 11 per cent and
it could go up to 19.8 per cent. In filmy parlance, this would be termed a Commission Earner in
the hands of Reliance Entertainment. For the sake of clarity, any film which earns more than 20
per cent on the investment is termed an Overflow film.
Source: http://www.koimoi.com/box-office/exclusive-economics-of-shah-rukh-khan-s-don-2/

53

E-Marketing strategy of Don 2
With Don 2, the use of technology for film marketing has gone noticeably high. The makers of
the film tied up with Google and YouTube for its new media initiatives. Viewers could watch
songs from the film in 3D on their computers using 3D glasses.

The film has also associated with McDonalds and Café Coffee Day in 20 cities to provide free
Internet access using Wi-Fi in their outlets. The filmmakers also tied up with Microsoft India to
launch a "Meet the Don: Mission Berlin" contest that offered the chance to meet Shah Rukh
khan, in addition to a free trip to Berlin. To popularize the contest, Microsoft planned a 360°
marketing campaign which included a television commercial, radio advertisements, digital
banners and retail collaterals. The marketing effort has been 360-degree including even a comic
launch published by Om Books. The comic is on the origin of Don and fills in details on the
making of Don, thus acting as a prequel to the sequel.
www.mydala.com, India‘s first and largest group buying/social commerce portal, has been
selected as the social commerce partner for promoting Don2, through an aggressive multimedia
campaign encompassing group-buying, social media, and various ATL and BTL marketing
promotions.
Under the Mission ―Get Don‖, mydala decided to give thousands of free tickets to watch Don2
through various contests and shopping deals on mydala.com. There are movie tickets to be won
through SMS contests, plus exciting movie merchandise at stakes! More than that for every
54

participant Don 2 movie tickets of leading multiplexes made available at a deeply discounted
price.
Excel Entertainment collaborated with India‘s largest game services company Gameshastra, to
launch a console game. The firm developed a third-person action adventure console game where
the player plays as Don and does actions similar to those done by Don in the film. A social game
called "Don – The Social Mobsters Game" was launched on Facebook and developed by Mango
Games. The game is available on Android, iOS, and PSN for PlayStation 3 platforms.
The official website of the film http://don2thefilm.com/ was huge hit among the users. The trailer
of the film was the most watched video in India on YouTube in 2011.

55

Case Study: Agneepath
Agneepath is an action drama film produced by Hiroo Yash Johar and Karan Johar under the
banner of Dharma Productions. Agneepath released on 26 January 2012 in 2650 screens
worldwide. Made on a budget of 60 Crore, the film broke the highest opening day collections
record in India and became a major critical and commercial success with a worldwide gross of
193 Crore. Box Office India declared the film as a "super hit". Agneepath has since emerged as
one of the highest grossing films of all time in Bollywood. Agneepath broke the record of the
highest opening day collections, with a net of 21.76 Crore on its opening day, surpassing the
previous record held by Bodyguard.

Eros International Media Ltd (EIML), a leading global company in the Indian film entertainment
industry, has released Agneepath, in the international markets. In its opening weekend, the film
has shown collections of Rs 160 million in the international market. Eros released Agneepath
internationally on 337 screens, the highest ever for any Hrithik Roshan film.

56

E-Marketing strategy of Agneepath
EveryMedia was roped as the digital partner for Agneepath. This strategic move ensures that the
movie reached fans far and wide. The digital promotion of Agneepath not only captured the
attention of the fans, but also went big in terms of monetization. The marketer managed to
capitalize on all the video elements which they released prior to the release of the movie. Not
only that, with contests like the costume contest and the Chikni Chameli contest, the team
managed to keep the fans engaged and excited about the movie release and further helped boost
profits. By making the sale of tickets available through the official Facebook page of Agneepath,
it made booking tickets a lot easier for the audiences, taking marketing to a different level.
Dharma Productions partners with www.mydala.com for the launch of Agneepath to initiate
unique multimedia marketing campaign across 11 cities, where customers and merchants are
joining Vijay‘s or Kancha's gang to fight for free movie tickets, merchandise, discounts and
more. Mydala has also created a live scorecard on its Agneepath page on the mydala website
where you can find how your gang is faring. Scoring is based on every promo code entered into
the system. The gang that gets the most points at the end of the promo period will not only get to
win Agneepath merchandise, movie tickets, mydala vouchers and other prizes, but also a chance
to meet the star cast of Agneepath.
A social commerce marketing plan was created for Agneepath to further add flavor to the war
between Vijay Dinanath Chauhan and Kancha. A special Facebook application, ―Walk the
Agneepath‖, where people can participate in a contest by watching a movie clip and correctly
answering the questions, was created too.
Mr. Apoorva Mehta, CEO, Dharma Productions, Says "In a networked world, traditional
marketing alone is not enough to ensure success of a movie. We are engaging in multiple ways to
create memorable experiences for our Agneepath fans. We have partnered with
www.mydala.com because of domain expertise and experience in creating unique and successful
social commerce campaigns for Bollywood movie launches."
As part of its comprehensive multimedia campaign, mydala.com is promoting the movie across
its entire mydala.com network and beyond, including its website, Facebook channel, twitter
57

channel, and other partner sites. www.mydala.com has also roped in the movie‘s leading stars
Kancha (Sanjay Dutt) and Kaali (Priyanka Chopra) to lend their voices for an aggressive
campaign across leading radio channels in several cities all over India.
As part of promotional drive 2011-12 India Australia series has been labeled as the Agneepath
Series instead of Border- Gavaskar trophy. Hrithik Roshan also shoots a special promo to
promote the series and the movie. In other marketing strategy, producers launched the 'Mandwa
Samachar' which is a newspaper that also serves as the film's press kit and it was given to
audiences across all theatres.
PAYBACK, India's largest multi-partner loyalty program, along with their partner Bookmyshow,
through its campaign to gave its customers once in a life-time opportunity to meet the actors of
Agneepath.
The first official trailer of Agneepath was launched at a press conference in Mumbai on 29
August 2011. Dharma Productions streamed the event live on the production house's YouTube
Channel. The event was attended by the entire cast. The trailer of the film was the third most
watched trailer in India, behind the films, Don 2 and Ra.One.
The look of the movie and its main characters are also revealed strategically through social
networking sites to engage the audience. Film producer Karan Johar tweeted a link that was to
reveal Hrithik's look in Agneepath, humbly asking for a feedback on the same. In no time did the
fans start flooding to the link, the official Facebook page of the film - Agneepath, where
Hrithik‘s look was exclusively revealed. ‗The hulk‘, ‗fiery‘ ‗very macho‘, ‗awesome body‘ &
‗can‘t wait to see more of him‘ was the kind of comments that flooded on the page.
The film associated itself with McDonald's to provide a discount of 50 to customers buying a
meal at the joint. Additionally, few winners were offered a chance to win a lunch date with
Hrithik Roshan. As part of the promotional campaign, star cast of the movie visited Dubai on 19
January 2012, to interact with fans at a shopping mall, followed by an invitational high tea party.
The actors travelled to several places in India including New Delhi, Nagpur and other cities to
promote the film.

58

Case Study: Housefull 2
Housefull 2 is a comedy film directed by Sajid Khan and produced by Sajid Nadiadwala. It is the
sequel to the 2010 film, Housefull and stars Akshay Kumar, Asin Thottumkal, John Abraham,
Jacqueline Fernandez, Ritesh Deshmukh, Zarine Khan, Shreyas Talpade, Shazahn Padamsee,
Randhir Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor, Mithun Chakraborty and Boman Irani in pivotal roles. The film
had an earlier release in the UK on March 31 due to the Easter holidays, and in India on April 5,
2012.

Housefull 2 got a 2700 screen release which is amongst the fourth biggest of all time, behind
Ra.One, Bodyguard and Don 2 and the biggest release of 2012. Housefull 2 was screened in
1,027 UFO digital theaters on first day when it released. It opened very well at the box office and
was declared a Super Hit at the Box Office. Housefull 2 entered into the third week of business
with Rs 102.25 Crore net. The satellite rights of the film were sold in January 2011 for 27 Crore.
The music rights fetched an additional 5.5 Crore.
Housefull 2 is the second most successful film of the year after Agneepath, it is Akshay kumar's
first film to cross the 100 Crore mark and Asin's third most successful film.

59

E-Marketing strategy of Housefull 2
The team of Housefull has come up with a novel strategy to promote their film that makes not
just one but six of its stars accessible to the public. The cast of Eros International and Sajid
Nadiadwal‘s romantic comedy Housefull will be visiting the homes of four lucky winners. In
collaboration with NDTV, the cast of Housefull–Akshay Kumar, Deepika Padukone, Lara Dutta,
Arjun Rampal, Ritiesh Deshmukh and Jiah Khan will travel across four cities and spend a day
with the lucky contest winner‘s family.
3rd Rock Entertainment was the official agency on board to manage the promotional campaign
of Housefull 2. 3rd Rock Entertainment has tied up with MTS as the official telecom partner for
the movie, as a cross promotion platform.

Hungama Digital and makers of 'Housefull 2' launched
'The Game of Fame' on Mobile and Internet platforms. Game of Fame is an online game, where
players get to trade Bollywood stars and movies like on stock exchange to win exciting prizes.
The launch of a digital promotions campaign for the film Housefull was also announced. It
includes a 16 episode video blog on the making of the film, a Social Networking Application and
iPhone, mobile & online game.

60

Commenting on the launch, Niraj Roy, MD and CEO, Hungama Digital media, said 'consumers
today can get a taste of their most awaited films through various digital platforms. Users can
experience with several devices. Also, Movie marketers are constantly exploring the potential of
the digital medium to reach out to people across different ages, segments and genders. Sajid
Khan, director of Housefull 2 said 'we wanted to promote the film on much larger platforms,
which reached out to audiences worldwide".

61

Case Study: Rowdy Rathore
Rowdy Rathore is an action film directed by Prabhu Deva and produced by Sanjay Leela
Bhansali and Ronnie Screwvala. The film features Akshay Kumar in double roles opposite
Sonakshi Sinha. It is a remake of the Ravi Teja starrer Telugu film Vikramarkudu. The film took
a bumper opening at single screens at occupancy of around 95%-100%. It collected around
15.06 Crore net domestic in the opening day. Rowdy Rathore has the fourth biggest opening
weekend of all time with collection of 47.50 Crore.

In Rowdy Rathore, what truly works in the film's favor is a combination of the two stars,
Akshay's perfect timing, and Prabhudeva's fine-tuned southern sensibilities, which come together
to make Rowdy Rathore an out-and-out entertainer. With Rowdy Rathore, Akshay returns to his
trademarked action avatar seven years after he was last seen in one, in 2004's Aan: Men at Work.
'Rowdy Rathore', is still roaring with its huge success and entered into the 100 Crore club on its
11th day. Rowdy Rathore has spelled its magic even long before the release. Reportedly, the
film's satellite rights have been sold for 35 Crore.

62

E-Marketing strategy of Rowdy Rathore
The trailer of the film was launched in an open stadium in Worli, Mumbai on 2 April 2012, and
received over 2,295,756 views in just less than one month on YouTube.
UTV has tied up with radio channel Red FM for organizing a contest titled "Rowdy Hunt" to
look for social do-gooders and others who work towards social betterment — winners of the
contest will accompany star Akshay Kumar to promote the film during his tours. The hunt has
taken place in Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Mumbai and New Delhi, where callers
were invited to share their grievances, and tackle the culprit on a public platform in true
"Rowdy" style. The RJ/host will then select 5 rowdies in each city based on a "Rowdy Meter"
who will then comprise Akshay Kumar's Rowdy Gang in a particular city.
The online promotion of film was done on various platforms. The YouTube channel gets huge
response of the online viewers.

The cast and crew went to Dubai as part of promotional tour. Sonakshi Sinha promoted the film
on Big FM. And on the 26th May, she came to promote the film on Dance India Dance Lil'
Masters on Zee TV and the Zee Network are giving out free cinema tickets to people who are
correct in the Safari Cinema.
Wardrobe Company Dollar Industries has tied up with the producers to promote their products
along with the film. To promote this initiative, Dollar has come up with a new TVC featuring the
‗Rowdy Rathore‘ Akshay. Apart from this, the company is also running a Facebook campaign
wherein one needs keep sharing the pictures of ‗Rowdy Rathore‘ to participate in the contest and
answer simple questions about the movie to win free tickets and exciting prizes. The campaign,
which has just started, has received remarkable response from every corner of the country.
63

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
The subject at hand, as put earlier, is e-marketing of Bollywood movies. There are methods which are being
used traditionally for film marketing like print ads, outdoor posters, TV commercials and radio jingles etc. But
when we talk about e-marketing we specifically shift our focus to those methods of film promotion which are
leverages on Internet. Though still it is in its nascent stage in Bollywood, but catching up speedily. Therefore a
list of only those films are drawn which already created a history by earning more than 100 Crore rupees. A
careful study of the e-marketing strategy of these movies will give a clear insight that what role it plays in the
success of these movies.
1. To study the 4P‘s of the movie marketing.
2. To analyze the importance of marketing in promoting movies.
3. To find the best marketing strategy for promoting the Movie.
4. To know the impact of movie promotions on the viewers.
5. To understand conventional (television, newspaper/magazines, radio, web, outdoor) as well
unconventional (internet, mobile, digital) choice of media by the film marketers.
6. To find out the effect of e-marketing strategies on viewers.
EXPECTED OUTPUT FROM THE RESEARCH
The research conducted as discussed earlier would go a long way in establishing a few facts about my
dissertation which could be helpful in inferring the following:
 Whom should the film marketer communicate to? A movie as a product appeals to

different section of the society and accordingly every section looks for a particular
attribute in the product (a movie in this case) which would appeal to them. However, it is
important to understand that if the decision maker is influenced enough, it would translate into
theatrical viewership thus raking in the big bucks.

64

 What appeals to whom? It’s important to know that what are the products attributes that appeal

to different sections of the society when divided in terms of age groups and gender. So that when the
communication plans designed for the movie it would be accordingly positioned.
 What are the factors that influence the decision? The factors that influence the audience to

see a movie in a theatre helps the film maker/marketer to focus on individual aspects which holds
value for the consumer.
 Which media reaches the most? Now that I have boiled down on the characteristics of the
product, it’s important to know where and how do you communicate with the TG so as to have the

maximum reach.
 Which aspect of film marketing appeals the most? What in terms of the media works the

best with the TG when it comes to film marketing is what I am trying to determine.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research defines a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
The data will be collected to achieve above mentioned objectives.

 Primary data:

Primary data will be collected through online questionnaire.
 Questionnaire – Structured, close ended multiple choices.
 Secondary data:

It will consist of information that already exists somewhere in documents. The secondary data
will be collected from the newspapers, expert reports and internet websites etc.
 Internet: - www.google.com, www.wikipedia.com, www.imdb.com etc.
 Industry reports and analysis
 Film critics reports and review
 Books, Magazines & Journals.
65

FINDING AND ANALYSIS
As for the analysis of the survey results, the results have been analyzed as a whole and also after
being grouped in the age wise category and gender wise categories. Following are the results:
Analysis and interpretation
To fulfill my research objective and to co-relate my findings, I have divided my analysis into 4
major sections namely:
 Genre of the movie
 Factors that attract you to see movies in theatres
 Which mediums for film publicity influence you to watch the film
 Promotional tactics which work the most

1. Genre of the movie
Children movies and Animations are the rarely seen categories in theatres, whereas Comedy tops
the frequently viewed category of cinema. Love story and Action films are often preferred. There
was no particular trend observed for thrillers and musicals. Historic films are least preferred.

2. Factors that attract you to see movies in theatres
Star Cast and TV promos were the most powerful attractions for people. Hence marketers try to
play on the high demand Actors and cut best teaser promos for the same. Film Review by newspapers was
also an important determinant of first week footsteps. Hype, Controversies, banner and credibility
came in second place for people to get influenced. Pre-release hype is becoming an influential factor
for people flocking to theatres. Prerelease hype here constitutes the glitz glamour and ground promotions
per say. The music, star cast and story are excluded from this term.

66

3. Which mediums for film publicity influence you to watch the film?
Television also came up as the most influential medium for promoting a film. However other
mediums like outdoors, radio, and internet were age and gender specific. Especially among
youngsters internet in general and social networking sites in particular are main influencing
factor. Movies teasers and promos are getting launched on websites like YouTube and Facebook.
Users are getting influenced and at the same time influencing others in terms of media
consumption habit.

4. Promotional tactics which works the most
Interviews and interactions with the stars on TV come across as an effective promotional activity in general.
But although it catches the eyeballs, it does not lead to the desired result of getting them to the
cinema halls. Promotional events with star cast and PR/Newspaper articles were gaining relative importance in
peoples mind. Newspaper has been best rated for credibility in film promotions.

Findings on the basis of “age group” and “gender”
Age

Male

Female

Group
12-14

They watch movies majorly with their families Girls in this age group also like watching
followed by friends. They are generally the movies with their family followed by friends.
decision maker or their friends influence them to watch They prefer going in groups of friends
a movie with them. Frequency: 9% watch movies at- and hence, a collective decision making
least once a week and 43% catch it once a month. process happens here. Frequency: 34%
23.3% manages to catch it once fortnight.

watch it once a month where as 36% once a
fortnight.

15-19

The male in this group go out very rarely with
their girlfriends, very frequently with their friends an
often to normal with their family, the decision maker
here is mainly the friends whom they see the movie
with. Frequency: 18% watch it more than once a
weekend. 55% watch it once amonth.33% watches it
once a fortnight.

Majorly go out with friends or with family and a
few instances where they admitted going out
with their boyfriends. The major influencers are
the friends or the friend circle. Frequency: More
than 10% watch it once a week and 42.1% once
a month and 32% catch it once a fortnight.

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20-29

Here, watching with family is between normal to seldom For all girls having boyfriends or spouses,
but with friends is very frequent. Watching with they become a major influencer and watch
spouse /girlfriend is from a case to case basis movies mostly with them. However compared
they become the primary influencers else friends are. to boys, they are more family driven and
Frequency: 10.2% watch it more than once a week and friends yet top the list of watching movies
54.5% catch it more than once a month. 35.2% catch it with. Frequency: 14% watch a movie more
once in a fortnight.

than once a week. Once a fortnight is49.5% and
once a month is 36.5%

30-39

They watch movies between frequent and normal
with their friends. Between often and normal with
their families and frequently with their spouses.
The decision maker is their spouses and children.
Frequency: 18% men catch a movie at least a week.
42% once a month and32% watch it once a fortnight.

They watch movies with their friends between
normal and seldom. With their families is
often to normal and with their spouses
often to frequent. Major influencers are
their spouse, children and friend circle.
Frequency: Only 4% watch movies more
than once a week. Once a fortnight is 26% a
and once a month is 51%

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CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
The findings proved the fact that there was no specific genre or medium or tactics that appealed
generally and it was more age and gender specific. Thus marketers have to identify their movies target
audience and apply the general rules of marketing of segmenting, targeting and positioning in appropriate
manner. Film promotional results will vary across these factors as it is definitely influenced by
the activities, interests and opinions of that particular age group, their media and film consumption
habits and their opinion leaders and thought makers.
Post studying all the marketing mediums, innovative measures, marketing framework, case studies and the
primary research conducted, It can be concluded that though the unconventional media are catching up fast
with conventional media, still it is conventional marketing mediums which are more effective for bringing in
the crowds in the first week than its counterpart.
The hypothesis hence cannot be proved or considered void as post my primary and secondary
research I have found that there is no stand that can be taken for such a research. The film
marketers themselves are willing to take a fence sitting approach to this as the mediums
completely differ from film to film and genre to genre.
What does come out very vividly is that formal marketing rules can be applied to films as well and that the
campaign planning depends on a variety of factors like the story or product, the star cast, the
packaging, distributional set-up, exhibitors, national and domestic market, target audience, mediums
available, competition, release date, budget etc. What might work for one movie will not work
for another. Each needs its own treatment and hence one cannot say that conventional would work
for one and unconventional will work for another.
Another fact that emerged was that in youth-centric movies like ―Ra.One‖ and ―3 idiots‖ an
unconventional approach would work and that in more massy movies, conventional techniques
would work better. This is completely untrue. The conventional mediums are as important as the
unconventional ones. In fact the conventional mediums now are being used unconventionally to draw
attention.

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Yes, what emerges is the need for out-of-box-thinking and the creative cap to be worn. By being
me-too of another films strategy and aping it the novelty factor is lost, hence every time there it is like a new
challenge for the marketer.
Concluding this research I would say that there is no linear approach to whether conventional mediums
should be deployed or unconventional. What needs to be understood are the factors in
consideration and saying the right thing at the right time with a streamlined objective. There is no
100% guarantee for success but definitely will help to a great extent to the get the crowd in for the first week
and post that.

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LIMITATION
UNIVERSE SIZE
As stated earlier, the product under consideration has a mass appeal, as the average movie-goer
can be a 12 year old school kid to a housewife. Hence it is not really possible to boil down to the exact
population size. When I say the movie-goers·, the term itself covers a lot of people with no actual check so as
to derive a realistic & relatively accurate number. Hence the universe of cinema audience who consume the
product in theatres has to taken as an arbitrary figure.
Considering the population of this country, this figure cannot be less than 20000 by any stretch of imagination
and the sample size value seizes to vary much when the population size is more than 20000. Thus with
population size x>20000·, confidence level of 95% and percentage value of 50%, at a sample size of 764
we have a confidence interval of 3.54%. Simplistically put, the results of the survey are 95% accurate
with a variation bandwidth of +/- 3.54%. Now for the distribution of the sample size…For the sample
population, I have majorly concentrated in Delhi due to limitation of resources and time constraints.
I have made a conscious attempt to leave rural sections from the survey, the reason for the same being limited
media exposure and small growth driver for the industry. I understand that the major growth prospect for the
industry would be increasing number of multiplexes and overseas market as the target audience
chunk remaining more or less the same world over, the growth driver has to be growing gate
ticket size in terms of currency. Hence I have concentrated on the age category from 12 years to 40+ years
in my survey.
Also the age wise distribution matches with the consumption pattern of cinema as a product, as furnished by
leading industry researchers. To following graph present a fair idea about this:

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The numbers given in the above figure shows the percentage value in each category. For my final analysis, I
employed two filters in terms of consumption pattern and consumption behavior i.e. people who do not
consume the product in theatres or those who prefer not to, have been left out of the final
analysis; also those who consume at a frequency of once in three months or less than that have been
excluded from the final analysis. This leaves us with a number equivalent of 622 respondents which translates
into a confidence interval of +/- 3.92%.
The mode of collection of responses has been majorly through online questionnaires.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.hindustantimes.com/Brunch/Brunch-Stories/Bollywood-s-100-crore-club/Article1864033.aspx
http://www.indiastat.com/media/21/filmsandcinemas/61/stats.aspx
http://marketingchitchat.wordpress.com/category/movie-marketing/
http://www.mediaknowall.com/gcse/Blockbuster/MovieMarketing.html
http://www.movieindustrymarketing.com/cgi-bin/gt/tpl.h,content=18
http://www.imdb.com/
http://www.filmreference.com/encyclopedia/Independent-Film-Road-Movies/MerchandisingTHE-MERCHANDISING-PROCESS.html
http://www.businessofcinema.com
http://www.wikipedia.org/
http://wogma.com
http://hochpoch-ppd.blogspot.com

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APPENDIX
RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE
The objective of this questionnaire is to understand the psyche of the masses (audience) that flock to theatres
when a film releases and what pulls them there. The idea is to understand the effect of conventional vs.
unconventional promotional techniques to draw in the audiences.
1. Do you watch Bollywood movies in theatres?
A. Yes

B. No

2. If Yes, how often do you see movies in theatres?
A. More than once a week
B. Once in fortnight
C. Once a month
D. Less than once in three months
3. Where do you see the movies mostly?
A. Multiplexes
B. Single theatre
C. Local screen
D. Open-air theatre
4. With whom do you normally see a movie in theatres?
Rarely
Group of Friends
Family Members
Girlfriend/Boyfriend/Spouse

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Normal

Frequently

5. Kindly give your order of preference, which genre of movies would you sees in theatre?
Type of Movie

Rarely

Normal

Frequently

Comedy
Thriller
Action
Animation
Musical
Children
Epic/History/Mythology
Love Story

6. Who influences your decision to watch a particular kind of movie?
A. Friend(s)
B. Children
C. Girlfriend/Boyfriend/Spouse
7. To what extent do the following mediums, when used for film publicity; influence you to
watch a movie in theatre?
Least

Normal

Most

TV
Print
Radio
Internet/Digital
Medium
Outdoors

8. What drives you to see a movie in theatres in the first week of its release?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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9. Which was the last Bollywood movie you saw in theatre?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10. Please rate the marketing campaign of that movie?
A. Very bad
B. Bad
C. Neutral
D. Good
E. Very good
11. Please name a movie in recent times which you think was marketed well?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

12. To what extent, does the following aspects of film marketing campaign appeal to you?
Type of Promotion

Least

Normal

Most

Promotional event with movie star cast
TV Commercial
Print/Outdoor Advertisement
News Article/PR Activities
Digital/Internet/Social Media marketing campaign
Interviews/Interaction with cast and crew

13. Name
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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14. Gender
A. Male
B. Female
15. Age (Years)
A. 12-14
B. 15-19
C. 20-29
D. 30-39
E. 40+
16. Profession
A. Employed
B. Self Employed
C. Unemployed
D. Housewife
E. Student

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