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Deploying a Hybrid Messaging

Infrastructure Using Office 365:
Exchange Online
Enterprise Messaging Combining On-Premises and
Cloud-Based Technologies

Technical White Paper
Published: June 2012
The following content may no longer reflect Microsoft’s current position or infrastructure. This
content should be viewed as reference documentation only, to inform IT business decisions
within your own company or organization.

CONTENTS
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 3
Hybrid Advantages.............................................................................................................. 4
Cost Savings Due to Cloud Efficiencies
4
Flexible Deployment and Management

4

Microsoft Messaging Infrastructure At-A-Glance .............................................................6
On-Premises Messaging Architecture
6
Hybrid Messaging Architecture

6

Designing for Hybrid Messaging ....................................................................................... 9
Identity Management
9
ADFS Architecture

12

Usage Patterns and Bandwidth

15

Client Performance

16

Service Dependencies

16

Mail Flow

17

Forefront Online Protection for Exchange (FOPE)

19

Migrating Mailboxes to Exchange Online ......................................................................... 21
Migration Approach and Process
21
Phases

22

Supporting Users ................................................................................................................ 24
Lessons Learned and Best Practices ................................................................................ 25
For More Information .......................................................................................................... 27

Situation
Office 365: Exchange Online, offers
Microsoft IT the opportunity to add
flexibility to the messaging
infrastructure and cut costs by
deploying and operating a hybrid
environment

Solution
As part of a long-term strategy,
Microsoft IT onboarded 36,000
mailboxes to Exchange Online with
the goal to migrate 80% of all
mailboxes by 2015. This hybrid
deployment offers the best features
and benefits of both on-premises and
cloud-based approaches.

Benefits
 Seamless user experience using


Outlook Web App and
Outlook 2010 client
Cost savings associated with using
cloud-based messaging that
Exchange Online provides
Flexibility to accommodate
business growth through Exchange
Online without expanding the onpremises infrastructure
SPAM and virus protection through
Forefront Online Protection for
Exchange
Synchronized address book and
single sign-on

Products & Technologies
 Office 365: Exchange Online
 Exchange Server 2010
 Active Directory
 Windows Server 2008 R2

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Although hosted solutions for e-mail messaging have been available for many years, recent
improvements have made it possible to deploy and operate a hybrid environment that makes
the most of both on-premises and hosted services. Microsoft began offering Exchange Online
as its multi-tenant enterprise messaging service in the cloud to customers starting at the end
of 2008 based on Exchange Server 2007 technology with the goal of helping customers and
its own workers realize the benefits of cloud computing. After onboarding millions of
mailboxes from companies of all sizes, building out a scalable and highly available
infrastructure, and upgrading Exchange Online to run Exchange Server 2010, Microsoft IT
pursued an initiative to transition from operating its own on-premises Exchange environment
to operating a hybrid environment. With a hybrid approach, Microsoft IT benefits from
continuing to use previous investments in the existing on-premises infrastructure, with ability
to accommodate business growth by using Exchange Online.
To overcome the engineering and business challenges in transitioning to a hybrid
environment, Microsoft IT focused on ensuring user satisfaction by engaging all teams
involved in the deployment effort. One key objective was to provide users with a seamless
transition and automatic Outlook profile update to Exchange Online yet retain the same
features and functionality of the on-premises service. To ensure the best user experience,
the hybrid architecture incorporates design elements that include the following:

Single sign-on (SSO) using existing Active Directory credentials and Active Directory
Federation Services (ADFS)

Shared address book for a unified global address list (GAL)

One microsoft.com domain namespace for both on-premises and Exchange Online

Centralized administration of mailboxes and mail flow

Synchronized calendar and free/busy scheduling

Landing page to inform Exchange Online users who log in to the Outlook Web App onpremises URL about the appropriate Exchange Online Outlook Web App URL

The Exchange Server architecture enables Microsoft IT to deploy messaging in a hybrid
environment according to the needs of the business and desired project schedule. Microsoft
IT moved mailboxes to Exchange Online after preparing the environmental dependencies
such as identity management, security, and synchronization. In this way, Microsoft IT controls
accounts, retention, e-discovery and other features in a unified way to ensure a centrally
managed, homogenous environment.
This white paper contains information for business and technical decision makers who
operate an on-premises messaging solution and are evaluating possibilities of transitioning to
a hybrid environment that incorporates Exchange Online. The paper assumes basic
familiarity with concepts relevant to messaging technologies, such as Active Directory,
Exchange Server, TCP/IP, and DNS. A high-level understanding of the capabilities of
Exchange Online and Office 365 is also helpful. For more information about Exchange
Online, see http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/office365/exchange-online.aspx.
Note: For security reasons, the sample names of forests, domains, internal resources,
organizations, and internally developed security file names used in this paper do not
represent real resource names used within Microsoft and are for illustration purposes only.

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HYBRID ADVANTAGES
The hybrid architecture results in many benefits for Microsoft IT not only in overall cost
savings, but also in greater flexibility to accommodate business growth while saving time and
money by not having to do capacity planning, update software, maintain servers, or manage
hardware.

Cost Savings Due to Cloud Efficiencies
As a cloud service, Exchange Online provides the opportunities to reduce costs by
eliminating the typical on-premises requirements of purchasing, deploying, and managing
servers. These savings are possible due to Exchange Online features such as the following:

Large 25 GB mailbox size With Exchange Server 2010, Microsoft IT eliminated
backups and relies on a cost-effective, Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD)-based storage.
This solution offers cost savings over the previous Storage Area Network (SAN)
approach, yet it is a high expense to deploy and operate the storage subsystem.
Exchange Online frees Microsoft IT from the need to manage any storage hardware.
Quota management. During the initial phases of using Exchange Online in a hybrid
environment, it is important to manage quotas in case mailboxes need to move back to
on-premises. Microsoft IT uses the same quotas for both environments to prevent the
possibility of having to increase on-premises quotas for specific users, or asking them to
reduce their mailbox size.

Included technical support Exchange Online includes 24/7 phone support for the
internal Microsoft IT support team, which helps to ensure timely responses and reliability.

Automatic failover Similar to the on-premises solution, Exchange Online also provides
automatic failover for resiliency.

Highly available design Exchange Online includes mailbox resiliency technology,
such as the ability to switch between database copies when disks fail, and automatic,
database-level recovery from failures through database availability groups.

Flexible growth and expansion As Microsoft grows and changes, Exchange Online
makes it straightforward to add mailboxes by simply buying additional licenses. This
requires no capacity planning, server purchasing, or deployment.

Flexible Deployment and Management
Exchange Online and on-premises overlap in terms of management functionality. Both use
Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) for task delegation and administration via the Exchange
Control Panel web-based console or through Windows PowerShell using the Exchange
Management Shell. Microsoft IT uses the remote PowerShell capability for managing
Exchange Online from within the on-premises network. Exchange Online gives Microsoft IT
management capabilities relevant to messaging-as-a-service, including recipient policies and
groups, whereas Exchange on-premises provides all management capabilities.
A hybrid approach achieves the best of both worlds by enabling Microsoft IT to accomplish
the following:

Deployment on Microsoft IT’s terms A hybrid approach offers Microsoft the flexibility
to migrate mailboxes as needed to and from Exchange Online. As a way of validating the

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hybrid approach, Microsoft IT started migrating the mailboxes of a small number of
volunteer early adopters, and sets the pace of migration according to its needs .

Infrastructure ownership and control Approaching messaging as a hosted service
and an on-premises service gives Microsoft IT the flexibility to own the entire messaging
continuum for the ultimate degree in infrastructure flexibility. Due to business needs,
some mailboxes may remain on-premises, and others may be migrated to Exchange
Online. If requirements change, Microsoft IT may move mailboxes from one environment
to the other without affecting users.

Centralized management Both Exchange Online and on-premises share a unified
approach to managing mailboxes, policies, recipients, and other Exchange objects. In
the hybrid implementation, Microsoft IT manages all messaging details in a unified and
centralized way.

Customer validation and dogfooding Validating hybrid performance and functionality
as part of dogfooding efforts is one of Microsoft IT’s key goals. Part of the design and
deployment entailed working through many types of possible scenarios to work out any
issues and fine-tune best practices. This goal went beyond implementing quick fixes and
resolving bugs, to validating administrative and support paths to ensure the hybrid
architecture was suitable for enterprise needs.

Single namespace and unified experience Microsoft IT's hybrid design relies on auth
headers in Exchange data, making communication appear internal to both on-premises
and Exchange Online. As a result, Exchange features such as MailTips, and out-of-office
(OOF) messages function and appear as expected to users and recipients.

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MICROSOFT MESSAGING INFRASTRUCTURE AT-A-GLANCE
The Microsoft internal messaging infrastructure supports more than 200,000 mailboxes for
employees, contractors, and business partners across three core divisions involving
hundreds of products and services. As a company, Microsoft operates in more than 100
countries, with the majority of employees working in its Redmond, Washington headquarters.
To support the corporate messaging environment, Microsoft IT manages multiple regional
data centers connected by high-speed WAN links. The network dependencies have been
refined and improved over time to where routing, DNS infrastructure, bandwidth, and other
similar considerations are stable with high levels of redundancy and availability. You can find
out more about the Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 architecture at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff829232.aspx.
Although the technological capabilities of Exchange Server 2010 have enabled Microsoft IT
to reduce costs and increase efficiencies by taking advantage of server consolidation and
more flexible and larger storage, additional opportunities exist with a hybrid approach that
incorporates Exchange Online.

On-Premises Messaging Architecture
The Exchange Server 2010 topology and architecture continues a tradition of following best
practices, incorporating product group recommendations, and meeting business needs based
on real-world performance data. Figure 1 shows a high-level overview of the Microsoft onpremises architecture before implementing a hybrid infrastructure.
Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Black,
Kern at 10 pt

On-Premises Environment

North America,
Dublin,
Singapore

Unified
Messaging
Office 365
Internet

Client
Access

Mailbox

Hub
Transport

Forefront Online
Protection
for Exchange
(FOPE)

Figure 1 On-premises messaging infrastructure
The Exchange Server roles facilitate and separate the necessary functions of e-mail into
servers that handle message filtering, transport, client access, mailbox storage, and unified
messaging. As a best practice, Microsoft IT suggests deploying multi-role Exchange servers
to support a hybrid infrastructure. For more information, including capacity planning, see
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd298121.aspx.

Hybrid Messaging Architecture
As a cloud-based offering, Exchange Online provides messaging-as-a-service with an
architecture that abstracts dependencies such as message filtering into additional services.

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The Exchange Online architecture uses a similar role-based approach as on-premises, but
driven by the following services instead of roles:

Forefront Protection for Exchange (FOPE): as a first-tier message handler for
Exchange Online, FOPE provides protection from viruses and SPAM. Microsoft IT has
used FOPE as a service since 2007 as its message filtering solution.

Office 365 directory Exchange Online uses its own directory service for user data. To
handle authentication, the directory service relies on Microsoft Online ID.

Exchange Online messaging As the core service that handles messaging, Exchange
Online includes transport and storage functionality to house mailboxes and facilitate mail
flow.

Figure 2 shows Exchange Online in a hybrid architecture with Exchange on-premises.

Office 365

On-Premises Environment

Perimeter

Microsoft
Online ID

ADFS
Proxy
Internal

Directory
Microsoft
Federation
Gateway

Domain Directory
ADFS
Controller Sync
Federation

Hosted
messaging
service
Internet

Unified Client Mailbox Hub
Transport
Messaging Access

Remote
access
user

FOPE

Remote user authentication
Directory synchronization
ADFS trust
Figure 2 Hybrid architecture
In a hybrid infrastructure, Exchange Online relies on the following additional services to
enable cross-premises mail flow, synchronization, and unified management.

Microsoft Federation Gateway As an intermediary between Office 365 and onpremises services, the Microsoft Federation Gateway provides an identity service that
connects users to the hosted services they want to use. For more information about the

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Microsoft Federation Gateway, see http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/gg638824.aspx.

ADFS To enable single sign-on and communicate with the Microsoft Federation
Gateway, Microsoft IT relies on ADFS.

Microsoft Online Services Directory Synchronization tool To synchronize
mailboxes, the global address list, and other data, Microsoft IT relies on the Directory
Synchronization Tool.

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DESIGNING FOR HYBRID MESSAGING
The successful deployment of a hybrid messaging infrastructure for Microsoft IT requires that
all the dependent on-premises services such as ADFS operate reliably and meet business
needs. These services perform the intermediary data handling between on-premises and
Exchange Online, that make account and messaging synchronization possible, as well as
enabling workers to continue using the Outlook client, Outlook Web App, and mobile devices.
At a high level, Microsoft IT fulfilled the following requirements in the hybrid design:

Service domain to facilitate single domain namespace To forward e-mail from onpremises to Exchange Online, Microsoft IT configured a new DNS service domain for
coexistence named messaging.microsoft.com. Upon sign up, new companies are
automatically given a customizable coexistence domain with the format <custom
domain>.mail.onmicrosoft.com.

On-premises federation through ADFS The ADFS infrastructure is the on-premises
service that provides a trust relationship between on-premises and Exchange Online to
make single sign-on possible.

Exchange federation through Microsoft Federation Gateway The Microsoft
Federation Gateway is the trust broker that enabled Microsoft it to establish a federation
trust from Exchange Online to the on-premises Exchange environment. This enables
synchronization and sharing of Exchange information, such as free/busy data. For more
information, see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd335047.aspx.

The Microsoft IT environment is specifically designed for Microsoft business needs, yet the
technical requirements and steps for deploying a hybrid environment are the same for all
companies. For a guided lab that shows the steps of configuring on-premises and Exchange
Online components, see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/office365/hh744605.

Identity Management
To make the experience seamless for administrators and workers, the messaging
environment must support a single authoritative source of user identity, with associated
authentication, authorization, and permissions management. In a hybrid approach, the
technical solution for a single authoritative source is to populate the Exchange Online
directory with on-premises users, and then keep the two directories synchronized.
As shown in Figure 3, there are three technologies Microsoft IT uses for synchronization to
take place:

ADFS 2.0 To communicate between the on-premises Active Directory environment and
Exchange Online, Microsoft IT relied on the established ADFS infrastructure and created
a relying party trust relationship between the ADFS federation server farm and Exchange
Online. This relying party trust is a conduit for authentication tokens to facilitate single
sign-on.

Microsoft Federation Gateway As an intermediary between Office 365 and onpremises services, Microsoft provides an identity service that connects users to the
hosted services they want to use.

Directory synchronization tool Exchange Online begins using the on-premises
identities the first time that the directory synchronization tool is run. The directory
synchronization tool synchronizes key data every three hours, including mail-enabled

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contacts and groups, global address list (GAL), on-premises-based safe and blocked
senders, and delegation details.

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Office 365

On-Premises Environment

Perimeter

Microsoft
Online ID

Directory
ADFS
Proxy
Internal

Microsoft
Federation
Gateway

Domain Directory
ADFS
Controller Sync
Federation

Hosted
messaging
service
Internet

Exchange
organization

FOPE

On-premises Exchange federation trust
Exchange Online pre-defined federation trust
Directory synchronization from on-premises
On-premises to Exchange Online ADFS trust
ADFS Exchange Online trust to Online ID

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Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Black,
Kern at 10 pt

Microsoft on-premises
Internal
network

AD Domain
Controller

Perimeter
network

Office 365

Microsoft
Online ID

AD FS
Proxy
Exchange
Online

Directory
Synchronization

Microsoft
Federation
Gateway
FOPE

ADFS
Federation

Directory sync
ADFS trust
Federation trust

Figure 3 Identity, synchronization, and single sign-on technologies

ADFS Architecture
The ADFS infrastructure at Microsoft supports single sign-on for over 300 line-of-business
applications hosted on the cloud or by partners and vendors outside of the internal corporate
network. ADFS handles claim requests to verify identities and returns tokens to the
requesting party to enable applications to verify the identity of a user with Microsoft Active
Directory credentials. ADFS relies on federation servers that authenticate users against
Active Directory and issue claims, as well as federation proxy servers that reside in the
perimeter network in front of the federation servers. Clustered SQL servers store
configuration data, as shown in Figure 4.

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First Data
Center

Business
Continuity

Second
Data Center

ADFS
Proxy

ADFS
Proxy

Perimeter

ADFS
Proxy
Internal

ADFS
Federation

ADFS
Federation

SQL Server
Cluster
(primary

SQL Server
Cluster
(mirror

ADFS
Federation

Figure 4 ADFS architecture
To accommodate the additional traffic to the ADFS infrastructure due to Office 365, Microsoft
IT more than doubled the size of its ADFS infrastructure. In July 2011, when mailbox
migration first began to Office 365, Microsoft IT operated 12 proxy servers and 12 federation
servers. As onboarding accelerated, Microsoft IT added more servers. In March 2012, after
increasing server numbers, Microsoft IT operated 56 servers, divided evenly between proxy
and federation roles.
The key metrics Microsoft IT uses to determine capacity planning come from the following
product group recommendations shown in Table 1.
Table 1. ADFS performance metrics
Description

Threshold

Details

Authentication token
requests/sec

Below 60

The number of client requests a
proxy server handles per second
during peak load times

CPU load

Below 50%

Average CPU load

The authentication requests per second is the major threshold. Microsoft IT tries to keep this
at an even load of 10-12. During March 2012, Microsoft IT migrated over 14,000 mailboxes,

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with a plan to monitor performance of the existing ADFS environment, and then add
additional capacity. Figure 5 shows an average of requests per second for March.

Figure 5 Average requests per second
As Figure 5 shows, after deployment, the average requests decreased by half from about 20
per second to 14 per second. The number of auth requests per user depends on the location
of the user when making the requests to Exchange Online. Microsoft IT modeled three types
of users, as shown in Table 2 to understand projected server load and plan for ADFS
capacity.
Table 2 User patterns for messaging-related ADFS load considerations
Type of user

Average
daily
auths

Peak
daily
auths

Min
daily
auths

Light:

150

150200

100120

Low usage worker who accesses only
from within the corporate network. Exits
Outlook at end-of-day.

Moderate:

220

350400

150200

Even mix of access from within the
corporate network and travel/mobile.

Power:

290

400600

150200

Majority of Microsoft users. Usage
patterns have many more peaks due to
travel, access from multiple devices.
More remote access from home.

Details

These models served as a starting point to determine how many more servers to add in order
to accommodate the additional traffic expected from migrating mailboxes to Exchange
Online.

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For more information about designing and capacity planning for ADFS proxy and federation
servers, see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg749899(v=WS.10).aspx and
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg749917(v=ws.10).aspx.

Usage Patterns and Bandwidth
An important aspect for the hybrid design is modeling user patterns and user behaviors to
understand how they affect the bandwidth requirements and user experience. The models
Microsoft IT used for ADFS capacity planning do not necessarily address bandwidth and
client experience needs related to messaging, calendaring and other Exchange traffic. To
address these needs, Microsoft IT abstracted several user types, as shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Microsoft usage models for sizing considerations
Activity Per Day

Light

Medium

Heavy

Messages sent

5

10

20

30

Messages received

20

40

80

120

50 KB

50 KB

50 KB

50 KB

Messages read

20

40

80

120

Messages deletes

10

20

40

60

Outlook Web App log offs/logons

2

2

2

2

Outlook 2010

1,300 KB/
day

2,600 KB/
day

5,200 KB/
day

7,800 KB/
day

Outlook Web App

6,190 KB/
day

12,220 KB/
day

24,270
KB/ day

36,330 KB/
day

Average message size

Power User

E-mail Client

Microsoft IT's considerations for bandwidth requirements based on the user models followed
established best practices of evaluating the connectivity at each gateway and monitoring
performance. As migrations increase, Microsoft IT continues to monitor latency, jitter,
collisions, utilization, and other network metrics to spot gateways and locations that need
improvement. For more information about bandwidth planning, see
http://blogs.technet.com/b/uspartner_ts2team/archive/2011/01/10/bpos-or-office-365bandwidth-needs-determination-a-refresher.aspx.
One more performance consideration is the location of users relative to the Exchange Online
data center, and the latency and bandwidth available between users and the data center.
This is relevant both for the initial onboarding migration, due to the gigabytes of data
transferred, as well as for ongoing needs, especially as Microsoft workers increasingly rely on
mobile devices and work from home and while on the road.
Because Exchange Online relies on Internet infrastructure for mail traffic between office
locations and the Exchange Online data center, performance and SLAs cannot be
guaranteed. It is important to gather performance statistics from your environment. Two tools
Microsoft IT uses for validating connectivity are
https://www.testexchangeconnectivity.com/Default.aspx and

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http://speedtest.microsoftonline.com/.

Client Performance
Microsoft users are accustomed to high performance levels with messaging, expecting all
message delivery to complete less than 90 seconds, maintain 99.99% or higher availability,
as well as deliver fast e-mail operations to read and manage schedules and e-mail items. In
an on-premises deployment, Microsoft IT controls the messaging infrastructure and its
dependencies because all traffic flows internally within the corporate network, or between
users accessing internal Exchange servers over the Internet. A hybrid deployment introduces
additional variables that affect performance because users accessing Exchange Online from
within the corporate production environment do so over the Internet, same as mobile and
remote workers.
The differences among gateways, client devices, and connectivity in Microsoft locations
mean that user experience at times may not be consistent among all sites. Microsoft IT looks
at two factors when considering client performance: the MAPI RPC latency and the overall
client system indicators, such as CPU, disk, and file fragmentation.
RPC latency includes round-trip latency to the mailbox server and server-side RPC
processing. A helpful tool for determining these values is the connection status dialog
accessible by holding down the CTRL key, right-clicking the Outlook icon, and selecting
Connection Status from the Outlook context menu. Microsoft IT uses the following thresholds
when analyzing latency:

Max Avg Proc Time (Exchange RPC Latency) = 25ms

Max Network RTT Time (Network Ping Time) = 300ms

Max Avg Resp Time (Exchange RPC Latency + Network Latency) = 325ms

For more information about client performance, see
http://blogs.technet.com/b/neiljohn/archive/2012/01/23/outlook-performance-troubleshootingincluding-office-365.aspx

Service Dependencies
At its core, Exchange Server has always and continues to deliver e-mail messaging and
calendaring capabilities. Yet, Exchange Server 2010 integrates with other services and
applications such as SharePoint, the Office suite, and Lync Server, both on-premises and
through Exchange Online. This integration along with ADFS and directory synchronization
helps to facilitate the following hybrid Exchange capabilities.

Delegate permissions for administrators To maintain the delegate permissions that
administrators need to support managers and executives, Microsoft IT migrates manager
and delegate mailboxes together. Delegate permissions do not persist in Exchange
Online unless all affected mailboxes are migrated at the same time.

Free/busy sharing and synchronized calendaring As part of federated delegation,
free/busy information is shared between on-premises and cloud-based users. After
Microsoft IT establishes a trust through the Microsoft Federation Gateway and
configures a sharing relationship between on-premises and Exchange Online, it is
possible to share free/busy data. The user experience is transparent because the
Outlook client communicates with the local CAS server, which requests a delegation

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token from the Microsoft Federation Gateway, impersonates the user, and makes
free/busy requests on each user’s behalf.

Public folders Exchange Online does not support public folders. This is not an issue
for Microsoft IT because users whose mailboxes are identified for migration do not rely
on public folder functionality. For more information about public folder best practices in a
hybrid deployment, see http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=27582.

Unified messaging Exchange Online supports unified messaging features for
Exchange, including voicemail, automated attendant, Outlook Voice Access, speech-totext voicemail preview in seven languages, and inline playback.

Outlook Web App redirection In the initial hybrid implementation, Microsoft IT created
a landing page for users who access the on-premises Outlook Web App URL that directs
users to the Exchange Online URL. If a user accesses from within the corporate
network, only one login is required, whereas from the Internet, users see the need to
authenticate twice. While working through the challenges, Microsoft IT collaborated with
the Exchange Server product group to suggest improvements to streamline the
experience. Exchange Server 2010 SP2 incorporates the latest changes with
improvements to the Outlook Web App experience for hybrid deployments. For more
information, see http://blogs.technet.com/b/exchange/archive/2011/12/12/owa-cross-sitesilent-redirection-in-exchange-2010-sp2.aspx.

Mail Flow
Over the course of planning for and deploying the hybrid environment, Microsoft IT validated
possible mail flow scenarios and developed best practices to streamline hybrid deployment
for clients. Many of these configuration options are included in the Exchange Server
Deployment Assistant and as improvements in Exchange Server 2010 SP2 on-premises.
The routing configuration in a hybrid deployment is relatively straightforward. It comes down
to having on-premises or Exchange Online be the authoritative environment, and then
relaying e-mails to the secondary environment. In a hybrid configuration, both the onpremises and the Exchange Online environment see each other as an internal, trusted
environment. Figure 6 illustrates the configuration and mail flow.

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Office 365

On-Premises Environment

Hub Transport

TLS
to greg
to chris, greg

Transport
certificate subject:
mail.microsoft.com

FOPE

Hub
Transport

Global
Catalog
Mailbox

Transport certificate
subject:
mail.messaging
.microsoft.com

to chris

s
to greg

Delivery
queue

Internet

Exchange
Online mailbox
greg@microsoft.com

On-premises
user mailbox
chris@microsoft.com

Mail flow

E-mail to
greg@microsoft.com
chris@microsoft.com

Recipient lookup
TLS encryption
Figure 6 Message flow overview
To enable mail flow, Microsoft IT configured a dedicated send connector on Hub Transport
servers secured by Transport Layer Security (TLS). That traffic traverses the Internet and
enjoys the following protection measures:

Channel privacy Exchange 2010 forces TLS encryption for all messages by requiring
that a SAN or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) on the associated Secure Sockets
Layer (SSL) certificate for the sending server is configured as authorized on the
receiving server.

Receiver and sender authentication To protect against impersonation, Exchange
Server 2010 uses an encrypted auth header and domain validation, including validating
the certificate of the receiving server against a revocation list with the certification
authority (CA).

Exchange Server appends the auth header to messages to mark internal messages as
trusted and authenticated, making messages and MailTips appear as internal in both
Exchange Online and on-premises. The header works together with the certificates and send
connector to ensure mail flow happens smoothly between Exchange Online and onpremises. Figure 7 illustrates the role of the auth header. Because Exchange Server appends
the auth header to all internal communication, features such as OOF notifications and
MailTips work seamlessly for users.

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Office 365

On-Premises Environment

Hub Transport

Certificate
Subject

Transport
certificate subject:
mail.microsoft.com

Hub
Transport

Global
Catalog
Mailbox

TLS
XOORG
Data

2
FOPE

1

Transport certificate
subject:
mail.messaging
.microsoft.com

2

s

3
Delivery
queue

Internet

1

Exchange
Online mailbox
greg@microsoft.com

On-premises
user mailbox
chris@microsoft.com

To Exchange Online
1. Add internal auth header
2. FOPE records sender certificate subject
3. Verify certificate subject, promote if valid

To on-premises

Recipient lookup
1. Add internal auth header
2. Verify certificate subject, promote if valid
TLS encryption
Mail flow on-premises to Exchange Online
Mail flow Exchange Online to on-premises
Figure 7 Auth header
The auth header is relevant in the following mail flow scenarios for Microsoft IT:

E-mail flow between Exchange Online and on-premises When an on-premises user
sends an e-mail to a user whose mailbox resides in Exchange Online, the on-premises
Hub Transport server verifies that the SAN or FQDN of the SSL certificate matches the
configured value. If the certificate subject is valid, then Exchange appends internal
header to the e-mail and sends it to Exchange Online. The message bypasses the Edge
server on premises. The reverse direction follows a similar path where the DNS and SSL
configuration along with the send connector on the Hub Transport server enable
encrypted mail to flow. The built-in features of Exchange Server give Microsoft IT the
functionality needed to configure mail flow.

E-mails between Exchange and Internet hosts For other e-mail communication to
and from Internet hosts, Exchange Online and on-premises use the standard Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) mail flow as detailed in http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/ff645372.aspx.

Forefront Online Protection for Exchange (FOPE)
In the classic on-premises architecture, an Edge server running in a perimeter network
provides initial mail filtering for anti-virus and antispam protection as well as SMTP relaying.

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For Exchange Online, FOPE provides a similar service. FOPE includes high accuracy SPAM
filtering with over 98% of SPAM filtered, and 100% of viruses filtered by using multiple virusscanning engines. FOPE also gives Microsoft IT a control center for advanced policy rules
and reporting. Although it is possible to use an Edge server on-premises for mail filtering and
SMTP relay in a hybrid architecture, Microsoft IT uses FOPE. The first contact point of
handling e-mail messages is very important in the overall architecture, especially in the
dependencies required when not using FOPE. The Exchange Deployment Assistant
addresses this importance in the guidance it provides and accommodates both scenarios for
initial mail handling. For more information about FOPE, see
http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/en-us/forefront-online-protection-for-exchange.aspx.

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MIGRATING MAILBOXES TO EXCHANGE ONLINE
The exact process that Microsoft IT followed in migrating to Exchange Online entailed many
months of planning, validating scenarios, and working to improve the client and user
experience. Because its mission includes real-world validation and early adoption of
Microsoft technologies, the deployment process did not follow a more typical path. These
efforts support customer needs. For example, before the changes introduced in on-premises
Exchange Server 2010 SP2, the configuration requirements entailed over 50 distinct steps,
which SP2 reduces to just six. As Microsoft IT migrates more mailboxes to Exchange Online,
the migration velocity can increase from 5,000 to 15,000 mailboxes per month.
At a high level, the deployment entailed making the following changes:

Configure single sign-on As a recommended prerequisite to a hybrid Exchange
deployment, the on-premises credentials and user data should be used to authenticate
with Exchange Online. Microsoft IT already operated an ADFS infrastructure, and
configured it to support Exchange Online. On the Exchange Online side, after signing up
for Exchange Online and verifying domain ownership, Microsoft IT configured the
Microsoft Federation Gateway to work with its ADFS infrastructure through a trust
relationship.

Synchronize directories and data In order to onboard user mailboxes, users must
exist in Exchange Online. Microsoft IT configures directory synchronization to populate
Exchange Online with users from the Active Directory environment.

Configure DNS and certificates Exchange relies on DNS entries for autodiscover,
which is necessary for a seamless online migration with no user interruptions. After
migration, Outlook uses autodiscover to detect the mailbox move, and upon restart uses
the Exchange Online service. Microsoft IT configured the MX records to point to FOPE.

Deploy/configure necessary on-premises Exchange dependencies To enable the
full range of Exchange features and services, such as mailbox search, Outlook Web App
redirection, MailTips, free/busy sharing, message tracking, and archiving, Microsoft IT
made the necessary on-premises configuration updates to work with Exchange Online.
The Exchange Hybrid Configuration Wizard in Exchange 2010 SP2 automates many of
the configuration steps.

Verify mail flow The auth header is crucial to bypass filters and mark internal
messages as originating from trusted sources. Microsoft IT configured and verified mail
flow between Exchange Online and on-premises, as well as Internet hosts.

For deployment steps and instructions to deploy a hybrid environment, the best practice is to
use the Exchange Deployment Assistant, which includes the latest steps. To access the
Exchange Deployment Assistant, see http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/exdeploy2010/default.aspx.

Migration Approach and Process
One of the advantages of a hybrid infrastructure is that it enables Microsoft IT to move
mailboxes to and from Exchange Online without affecting availability, performance, or the
user experience. The same core messaging and calendaring functionality remains available
to users during the move without service interruption. The migrations are made as online
mailbox moves, so users do not need to synchronize data after migration. In practical terms,
this means Microsoft IT may schedule mailbox moves at any time if all the dependencies and

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prerequisites are met for preparing and configuring settings, as well as informing users. The
overall process is as follows:

Test usage scenarios. Before Microsoft IT migrates mailboxes, it performs end-to-end
system testing that includes all possible usage scenarios. This testing helps to discover
and remedy system configuration and integration issues. Although the engineering staff
audits configurations, sometimes real-world issues arise, especially with new changes.
Thorough testing also enables Microsoft IT to better understand the environment and
build a decision matrix to identify the users who can move their mailboxes to Exchange
Online.

Scope mailbox migration Microsoft IT creates a list of potential users to be moved,
gathers statistics about their mailboxes, and makes decisions about the migration order
based on a decision matrix. This decision matrix depends on the business and IT needs.
For example, Microsoft IT made the decision to simplify infrastructure and operational
support by adopting the default configuration and reduce customization as much as
possible. This may mean not introducing some features and functionalities. One of the
examples is not migrating any mailboxes who are using a legacy telephone system and
only migrating mailboxes with Lync 2010 Enterprise Voice to Exchange Online. This
decision saves Microsoft IT third-party gateway costs and associated support overhead.
It also simplifies the Exchange Unified Messaging configuration, and enables Microsoft
IT to focus its efforts in driving Lync 2010 Enterprise Voice as the default telephony and
collaboration platform. Microsoft IT is working to transition majority of mailboxes to
Exchange Online to reduce costs and still offer users the best experience.

Verify configuration This includes ensuring that Exchange Online is prepared with the
appropriate objects, directory synchronization functions, and mail flows between
Exchange on-premises and Exchange Online. This step also serves as a safeguard to
verify that there are no schedules service windows or current outages with dependent
services.

Update user computer To ensure that users have the latest Outlook client version and
required software such as Microsoft Online Services Sign-in Assistant, Microsoft IT uses
System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) to package the required software and
deploy it on user computers.

Migrate mailboxes After notifying users of the migration schedule, Microsoft IT
migrates mailboxes and sends notices upon successful completion.

For more information about determining how many mailboxes to migrate, the anticipated
migration timeframe, and other migration performance details, see the migration performance
guide at http://community.office365.com/enus/b/office_365_technical_blog/archive/2012/03/29/new-exchange-online-migrationperformance-guide.aspx.

Phases
The rate at which Microsoft IT migrates mailboxes is closely tied to the rate that
improvements and change requests from previous phases are implemented as features.
Between the phases, Microsoft IT allowed for a period of one to two weeks to implement
changes and constantly improve the user experience and migration process. The phases
were as follows:

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Phase 1: Environmental validation The purpose of this phase is to discover and fix
any system configuration errors and integration issues by creating test accounts and
performing usage scenarios.

Phase 2: Early adopter validation The early adopter volunteers troubleshoot, gather
logs, and provide constructive feedback to the project teams. In this phase, Microsoft IT
migrates 10 to 20 mailboxes per week, stopping at approximately 100 mailboxes.

Phase 3: Expanded early adoption During the expanded early adoption phase,
Microsoft IT migrated the accounts of 1,000 additional volunteers who are eager to
explore new options in technology. The migration proceeded in phases, stopping when
major issues are discovered and resuming upon resolution.

Phase 4: Executive opt-in To stress-test the approaches developed, Microsoft IT
reached out to executives to migrate entire teams and reach the number of mailboxes
necessary to perform larger scale performance testing. In this phase, Microsoft IT also
introduced a stabilization period of 21 days where no changes are made, and statistics
gathered to gauge availability and stability.

Phase 5: Company-wide signup Following team migration, Microsoft IT opened up
signups to volunteers company-wide, having resolved any underlying high-severity
issues.

Phase 6: Company-wide adoption Once the hybrid infrastructure meets the shared
goals of Microsoft IT, product developers, and other infrastructure team members,
Microsoft IT plans to migrate all mailboxes to Exchange Online, unless there is a
business need to remain on-premises.

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SUPPORTING USERS
During the transition to a hybrid infrastructure, Microsoft IT minimizes support tickets by
informing users and designing architecture with the goal of least user impact. The typical
process for any Microsoft IT improvement project includes a focus on user education. This
entails a broad, multimedia approach of making help available to users on their own terms,
including the following:

Online help Microsoft IT developed online help to answer frequently asked questions,
provide user self-help capabilities, and inform users about working with Exchange Online
by suggesting best practices.

E-mails detailing project schedule and status As a best practice, Microsoft IT
informs users personally when a scheduled task affects them, and follows up after
completing the task with status details.

Updated knowledge for front-line operators The support and escalation path
remains the same for users due to the centralized controls that a hybrid infrastructure
offers. However, as part of preparing for mailbox migration, Microsoft IT collects incident
details and transfers the resolution specifics to internal front-line operators as well as the
support team for Exchange Online to aid in issue resolution. To help facilitate this
knowledge sharing, Microsoft IT established a supportability team to do deep analysis of
each ticket and identify trends in order to support and prioritize change requests made to
the Exchange product group.

Validation team Due to the need to validate many possible customer scenarios and
features for all the scenarios, Microsoft IT created a dedicated validation team. This
team has oversight to validate possible customer configurations, record findings,
recommend improvements, and create best practices. Exchange Server 2010 SP2 onpremises incorporates some of the findings of this team as product improvements to
simplify customer hybrid deployments. This team also validates features and
functionality for Microsoft users to ensure a smooth transition process.

Feedback loop When Microsoft IT migrated the earliest mailboxes, this was done with
the intention to obtain migration and usability feedback. The early volunteer users relied
on a feedback portal to give real-time feedback as a smile, frown, improvement idea, or
issue. This feedback loop complemented the one-week and one-month post-migration
survey users filled out to help Microsoft IT gauge overall user experience such as
migration experience and usage performance. This helped Microsoft IT to identify
improvement areas for infrastructure, configuration and product design changes.

Self-help tool. Microsoft IT treats both on-premises and Exchange Online as a single
service, and the helpdesk supports both groups of users. It is important to be able to
identify the environment that hosts the mailbox, therefore Microsoft IT created a Web
portal that provides information about the mailbox location, Outlook Web App link,
ActiveSync, and other information pertaining to that user.

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LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES
Over the course of designing, deploying, and operating a hybrid Exchange infrastructure,
Microsoft IT learned many lessons for the best approaches in running a hybrid environment.
Although some of these are applicable to the Microsoft production environment specifically,
the following best practices apply to hybrid Exchange deployments in general:

Use available migration tools and wizards Many of the findings that engineers,
architects, and implementers made are implemented in the configuration wizard and
supporting tools that Microsoft makes available to anyone using Office 365. Whenever
an easier solution of configuration step may be automated or implemented as a product
change, Microsoft IT worked to transfer their knowledge into a standard for all
customers.

Focus on core architectural elements At first glance, a hybrid infrastructure takes a
potentially complex Exchange architecture and topology, and introduces additional
configuration requirements, and management overhead. Once the underlying
dependencies, such as ADFS, Internet ingress and egress, and network latency are
established and configured with adequate performance, Microsoft IT found that a hybrid
deployment still maintains centralized administration, and introduces little architectural
complexity while preserving a unified user experience.

Adopt a services-based perspective With Exchange Online, every aspect
(SPAM/virus protection, Microsoft Federation Gateway, messaging, and so on) is
provided as a service and not as a feature or component. It is helpful in understanding a
hybrid architecture to consider some aspects of on-premises as service counterparts, to
abstract the architectural elements and understand their dependencies and
relationships. For example, as a counterpart to the Office 365 directory, there is Active
Directory. In any overlap that happens between services, it is important to remember that
there must be a way to achieve a single, synchronized version that is transparent to the
user. Enabling technologies such as ADFS and the Microsoft Federation Gateway
facilitate this seamless integration.

Audit common sources of misconfiguration Microsoft IT investigates upstream and
downstream possible causes to isolate root causes and remedy them. When
troubleshooting typical on-premises components, there is not always a corresponding
cloud counterpart, which makes it challenging to do direct comparisons and remedy
issues. Microsoft IT proactively audits the most common possible issues as a
preventative measure to reduce the troubleshooting necessary. One useful tool already
mentioned to help with common troubleshooting and auditing tasks is the remote
connectivity analyzer located at https://www.testexchangeconnectivity.com.

Identify send as relationships Whereas users may specify delegate rights,
administrators assign send as rights to grant someone control over a specific mailbox.
These send as rights do not synchronize automatically as you migrate mailboxes.
Microsoft IT determines on-premises send as permissions through PowerShell before
migrating mailboxes, and uses PowerShell scripting to apply the same permissions after
migrating mailboxes to Exchange Online,

Engage infrastructure team early Mailbox migration to Exchange Online results in email traffic traversing the Internet across provider backbone routers instead of internal
WAN networks and internal routers. This change may require increasing capacity and
sizing of the Internet proxy egress infrastructure, ADFS, bandwidth, gateway IP

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configuration if doing Network Address Translation (NAT), Exchange on-premises hub
transport configuration, and so on. It is important to engage the various teams
responsible for all these services early and carry out capacity re-engineering to ensure
project success. For example, Microsoft IT discovered that a cause of intermittent client
connectivity to be caused by a flood threshold of the proxy array, and quickly reached
out to the associated team to engineer and implement a new solution.

Support the support department With a new service, support personnel must be
trained on possible issues, and how to isolate and troubleshoot root causes. Having
tools that identify mailboxes as on-premises or in the cloud helps when isolating root
causes.

Practice change management. With new technology adoption, users generally want to
start using the new and exciting features. Yet with messaging, there is a high
expectation that the service needs to be reliable with high service availability, which may
not be possible at very early deployment stages. Microsoft IT mitigates this by ensuring
users have all possible collaboration tools so that when one service is not available,
workers may continue to carry out their tasks. For example, when e-mail service is
unavailable, users can continue to collaborate with colleagues through Lync 2010 via
instant messaging or voice call. They may also work on documents via SharePoint or
send documents via Lync. At Microsoft, many early innovators and adopters are very
keen to be early adopters because service outages do not severely affect their ability to
work. After Microsoft IT achieves stability with a new service, it migrates the rest of the
company. This methodology satisfies all user needs, creates high satisfaction, gives
Microsoft IT the ability to support the developers in testing, and create a better product.

Communicate with users Active communication to users via Web portal, newsletter
and e-mails keep users excited about the program and informs them about new features
or issues. Microsoft IT rewards and recognizes users who provides the most constructive
feedback and support, which maintains user motivation and commitment to dogfooding
additional products and services.

Audit gateway configuration Microsoft IT audited two configuration details for
gateways: flood thresholds for TMG gateways, and Outlook client port exhaustion when
using NAT. For more information about TMG configuration, see
http://community.office365.com/en-us/w/exchange/office-365-move-mailbox-fails-withtransient-exception.aspx.

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