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St.

Erkenwald (338-352)

Celia Pérez Gracia
Rosa Piñuel Vega
Héctor Portela Albarrán

Text and Translation:
338 And with reverence a rowme he raʒt hyr for ever.
And with reverence he granted over them a place for ever.
339 I heere þerof my high God and also þe, bysshop,
Therefore, I praise my high God and also you, bishop,
340 Fro bale has broʒt us to blis, blessed þou worth!’
From bale has brought us to bliss,be blessed!’
341 Wyt this cessyd his sowne, sayd no more,
With this his utterance ceased, he said no more,
342 Bot sodenly his swete chere swyndid and faylid
But suddenly his sweet face faded away and disappeared
343 And all the blee of his body wos blakke as þe moldes,
And all the colour of his body was as black as clods.
344 As roten as þe rottok þat rises in powdere,
As rotten as the decayed matter that rises in powder.
345 For as sone as þe soule was sesyd in blisse,
For as soon as the soul was possessed by bliss,
346 Corrupt was þat oþir crafte þat covert þe bones,
Corrupt was that other matter that coverted his bones,
347 For þe ay-lastande life þat lethe shall never
For the everlasting life that shall never cease.

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St. Erkenwald (338-352)

Celia Pérez Gracia
Rosa Piñuel Vega
Héctor Portela Albarrán

348 Devoydes uche a vayneglorie þat vayles so litelle
Eliminate each vanaglorie that avails so little
349 þen wos lovyng oure Lord with loves uphalden
Then our loving Lord was raised up with loves
350 Meche mournyng and myrthe was mellyd togeder
Much mourning and mirth was mingled together
351 þai passyd for the in procession and alle þe pepull folowid
They passed further in procession and all the people followed
352 And all the belles in the burgh beryd at ones.
And all the bells in the town rang out at once.

Phonological Analysis:
-AND (x3):
OE <and> >PdE <and>
OE [and]>(1)ME [and] > (2)ModE [ænd]> PdE [ænd] strong form/[ənd] weak form
1.No lengthening because of homorganic consonant group because it is an unstressed
word.
2.1653:Fronting
-WITH:
OE <wiþ> > PdE <with>
OE[wiθ+>(1)ME *wið]>ModE [wið]>PdE[wɪð]
1.Voicing because it is an unstressed word.
-A:
OE <a> > PdE <a>
OE[a]>(1)ME [a]> PdE[ə] weak form

2

Free change. v. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 1. r. 2. 3 . 2.18th century: Tendency of the short vowels to be lengthened when followed by s.) -HYR: OE <hiere> > PdE <her> OE[hiere]>(1) (2)ME[hir(ə)]>(3)ModE[hər]>(4)[hɜ:r]>(5)[hɜ:]>PdE [hɜ:] 1. r+consonant. v. r. r.St. ss.Loss of the vowel of the second syllable due to lack of stress.Epenthetic schwa. f. ss. th.20th century: Loss of r in final position. 4. 4.Reduction of OE diphthongs (monophthongization 2. 20th century: Loss of r in final position. 5. Weakening and loss of endings.No lengthening because of homorganic consonant group because it is an unstressed word. r+consonant.Great Vowel Shift (G. 18th century: Merger of er. r. -HE: OE < hē> > PdE <he> OE[he:]>ME[he:]>(1)eModE[hi:]>PdE[hi:] 1. 3.S. ur and wor into ər. -EVER: OE <æ̅fre> > PdE <ever> OE*æ:vre+>(1)(2)ME *Ɛ:vr+>(3)(4)[evər]>(5)ModE[evə]>PdE[[evə] 1. 3.V.Shortening because it is an unstressed word. -FOR: OE <for> > PdE <for> OE[for]>ME [for]>(1)ModE [fɔ:r]>(2)[f ɔ:]>PdE[f ɔ:] 1. th. 18th century: Tendency of the short vowels to be lengthened when followed by s. ir. f.

Free change. Voicing because it is an unstressed word. V. 20th century: Loss of r in final position. 5. 2.S. Voicing because it is an unstressed word. No voicing because it is not an unstressed word. OE [of] (doublet) OE <of> >PdE <of> OE [of] > (1)ME [ov] > PdE [ɒv] strong form.G. 18th century: r-gliding. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 5. Succesful r: no G.V. .20th century: Loss of final r.Weakening and loss of endings. S. 3. -I: OE <iċ> > PdE <I> OE[itʃ]>(1)ME [i:]>(2)eModE [ai]>PdE[aɪ] 1. 4 . <of> 1. -MY: OE <mīne> > PdE <my> OE[mi:ne]>(1)ME>[mi:(nə)]>(2)eModE [mai]>PdE[maɪ] 1.Loss of the affricate [tʃ] because it is an unstressed word and compensatory lengthening. [əv] weak form.þEROF: OE < þæ̅rof> > PdE <thereof> OE< þæ̅r> > PdE <there> OE[Ɵæ:r]>(1)lOE [ðæ:r ] >(2)ME *ðƐ:r+>(3) eModE *ðer+>(4)18th[ðeər]>(5)20th[ðeə]>PdE [ðeə] 1. 2. OE <of> > PdE <off> OE [of] > (1)ME [of] > PdE [ɒf] 1. 4.St.

5. 3. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 2.S.Free change: Southern development.Monophthongization and free change.V. 17th century: Loss of final h.V. -GOD: OE <God> > PdE <God> OE[god]> PdE [gɒd] -ALSO: OE <ealswā> > PdE <also> OE<eall> >PdE <all> OE [æall]>(1)[all]>(2)lOE [al]>(3)ME [awl]>(4) [aul]>(5) 18th [o:l]>PdE [ɔ:l] 1. OE<swā> > PdE <so> OE [swa:] > OE swā *swɑ:] > (1) ME [swɔ:]> (2) [sɔ:]>(3)ModE [so:]>(4)18th[sou] >19th[səu]> PdE [səʊ] 1.Simplification of geminates. 18th century: Monophthongization. 2. 5 . Palatal umlaut.Loss of /w/ next to a back vowel in an unstressed word.G. Monophthongization (Assimilation). Vocalization. Vocalization. 6. 4. 5. 3. G. 4. 2.S. l-gliding. -HEGH: OE <hēh> (Dialectal form) > PdE <high> OE[he:ç]>(1)ME [hi:ç]>(2)[hi:jç] >(3)[hi:iç]>(4)[hi:ç]>(5)eModE [haiç]>(6)ModE[hai]>PdE[haɪ] 1. 2.St. h-gliding.

G.18th century: Dipthonguization 5. 17thcentury: Monophthongization. Weakening because it is an unstressed word.St.Shortening of long vowels when followed by two consonants. 4. 2. 2. -BYSSHOP: OE <bisċop> PdE <bishop> OE[biʃop]>(1)ME[biʃəp]>ModE[biʃəp]>PdE[bɪʃəp] 1. 1653: Fronting. 3. 6 . -HAS: OE <hæfþ> > PdE <has> OE[hæfθ]>(1)lOE[hæs]>(2)(3)ME [haz]>(4)ModE [hæz]>PdE[hæz] 1. Voicing due to weakening. Weakening of the vowel of the unstressed syllable. h-gliding. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 3. V. 4. Vocalization. -BROƷ: OE <brōht> > PdE <brought> OE[bro: χt]>(1)ME [bro χt]> (2)ME [brow χt+>(3)brouχt+>(4)17th[brɔ:χt]>(5)[ brɔ:t]>PdE [brɔ:t] 1.19th century: Centralization of the 1st element of the dipthong.þE: OE <þe> > PdE <the> OE[θe]>(1)lOE [ðe]>(2)ME [ðə]>ModE[ðə]>PdE[ðə] 1. Change of [fθ+ into *s+ due to Old Norse influence. 3. .S. 2. Free change. 4. Voicing because it is an unstressed word.

G. -TO (doublet) OE <tō> > PdE <to> OE[to:]>ME[to:]>(1)eModE[tu:]>(2)ModE [tʊ]>PdE [tʊ] 1. 2. Post 1640: Late shortening.G. -BLIS/BLISSE: OE <bliss> > PdE <bliss> OE[bliss]>(1) ME [blis]>ModE[blis]>PdE[blɪs] 1. -US: OE <ūs> > PdE <us> OE[u:s]>(1)ME [us]>(2)ModE [ʌs]>PdE [ʌs] 1. Simplification of geminates. Loss of h.Weakening and loss of endings. -ÞOU: OE <Þū> > PdE <thou> 7 .V. -BLESSID: OE <blētsian>(verb) > PdE <bless> OE[ble:tsian]>MeE(1)[bletsian]>(2)ME [blets(iən)]>(3)[bles]>ModE [bles]>PdE [bles] 1. Assimilation due to the law of the least effort. Shortening because it is an unstressed word. 2. S. 3. OE <tō> > PdE <too> OE [to:]>ME[to:]>(1)eModE [tu:]>PdE [tu:] 1. 1640: Centralization and loss of lip rounding. Shortening before two consonants. 2.S. V. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 5.St.

v. 18th century: Tendency of the short vowels to be lengthened when followed by s. 3. -SAYD: OE <sæġde> > PdE <said> 8 . V. Weakening and loss of endings. 2. -WORTH: OE <weorþɑn> >PdE <worth> OE [weorðɑn]>(1)(2)ME [worð(ən)]>(3)ModE [wərð]>(4) [wɜ:rð]>(5) [wɜ:ð]>PdE [wɜ:ð] 1.S. r. -CESSYD/SESYD: OF <cesser> > PdE <cease> (1)ME [sɛ:s(ə)]>(2)eModE [se:s]>[si:s]>PdE [si:s] 1. 2. r. 5. -HIS: OE <his> > PdE <his> OE[his]>(1)ME [hiz]>ModE [hiz]>PdE [hɪz] 1. r+consonant. ur and wor in ər. 19th century: Loss of r when followed by other consonant. 4. S. f. ss. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán OE [θu:]>(1)ME [ðu:]>(2)eModE [ðau]>PdE [ðaʊ] 1. Voicing because it is an unstressed word. th. Weakening and loss of endings. 2.St. G. 18th century: Merger of ir. Reduction of diphthongs: South Western development.V. -THIS: OE <þis > > PdE <this> OE[θis]>(1)ME [ðis]>ModE [ðis]> PdE [ðɪs] 1. er. G. Voicing because it is an unstressed word. Voicing of initial /θ/ because it is an unstressed word.

-BOT: OE <būtan> > PdE <but> OE[bu:tan]>(1)ME [bu:t(ən)]>(2)eModE [but]>(3)[bʌt]>PdE [bʌt] 1. Monophthongization. Weakening and loss of endings. G. 4.V. Free change: Southern variety. Weakening and loss of endings. Free change. 4. Shortening because it is in unstressed position. 2. Vocalization. 3. 3.S. 5.17th Loss of h. h-gliding. Free change: Southern development.St. 9 . 2. Successful r. -NO: OE <nāht> > PdE <not> OE[na:χt]>(1)ME [nɔ: χt]>(2)[nɔ: wχt]>(3)[nɔ:uχt]> ModE(4)[ no:χt+>(5)17th[no:t]>PdE [nɔ:t] 1. 6. 20th century: loss of r in final position. 4. 2. [ei]. Weakening and loss of endings. Merger: [ai].[a:]. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán OE[sæjde]>(1)(2)(3)ME [said(ə)]>(4)[sa:d]>(5)ModE [sæ̅d+>*sƐ:d+>*se:d+>(6)*sed+>PdE *sed+ 1. Before 1640: early shortening. Vocalization. -MORE: OE <māra> > PdE <more> OE[ma:ra]>(1)(2)ME [mɔ:r]>(3)eModE [mɔ:r] >(4)ModE[mɔ:]>PdE[mɔ:] 1. 3. 2. 5.

3. V. 2.Monophthongization. 1640: Centralization and loss of lip rounding. 5. G. 1640: Centralization and loss of lip rounding.Early shortening due to lack of stress: no G.Vocalization. -SWETE: OE <swēte> > PdE <sweet> OE[swe:te]]>(1)Me [swe:t(ə)]>(2)eModE[swi:t]>PdE[swi:t] 1. [ei]. V. 4. 3. Merger: [ai]. 1500: Fronting. -ALL: OE <eɑll> > PdE <all> OE [æall] > (1)lateOE [ɑll] > (2)[ɑwll] > (3) [ɑwl] > (3) ME [aul] > (4)18th[ɔ:l] > PdE [ɔ:l] 10 . V. G. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 3.Weakening and loss of endings. Weakening due to lack of stress. 2. S. 6. Vocalization. -FAYLID: OF <faillir> > PdE <disappear> ME [failir]>(1)[fail(ir)]>(2)[faijl]>(3)[fa:l]>(4)1500 [fæ:l]>(5)[fɛ:l]>[fe:l]>(6)19th[feil]> PdE[feɪl] 1. S. -SODENLY: OE <sudenliġ> > PdE <suddenly> OE[sudenlij]>(1) ME[sudenlii]>(2)[sudenli:]>(3)[sudənli:]>(4)eModE [sudənli]>(5)[sʌdənli]>PdE [sʌdənli] 1.St. Diphthongization. [a:]. Weakening and loss of endings.S. 2. 4. 5.

-BODY: OE < bodiġ> > PdE <body> OE [bodɪj]> (1) ME [bodii] > (2) [bodī ]> (3) [bodi] > PdE [bɒdɪ] 1.Monophthongization and free change 2. Free Change 2.Shortening due to lack of stress. -WAS: OE <wæs> > PdE <was> OE [wæs] > (1)ME waz > (2)eModE [wɒz] > PdE [wɒz] (strong form). [əv] 1. Voicing because it is an unstressed word. Rounding influence of w. l-gliding.Vocalization. Monophthongization. Simplification of geminates 3. 4. -BLAKKE: OE <blæc> > PdE <black> OE[blæk] > (1)ME[blak]>(2)1653[blæk]>PdE [blæk] 1. [wəz] (weak form) 1. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 1. 1. -OF: OE <of> > PdE <of> OE[of] > (1) ME[ov] > PdE [ɒv]. 2. 3. Fronting -AS: OE <as> > PdE <as> OE [ɑs] > (1) ME [az] > (2) 1653 [æz] > PdE [æz] 11 . Voicing because it is an unstressed word. 2.Assimilation.St. Vocalization.

S. Fronting. G. 12 . 2.V. Voicing because it is an unstressed word. -RISES: OE<rīzan>>PdE<rise> OE[ri:zan] > (1)ME[ri:z] >(2)eModE[raɪz]> PdE[raɪz] 1. Loss of r in final position.S. G. 2.V. [θæt] 1. Epenthetic schwa. Fronting. Voicing because it is an unstressed word. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 1.St. -ÞAT: OE <θæt> > PdE <that> OE [þæt] > (1) ME [ðat] > (2) 1653 [ðæt] > PdE [ðæt]. -ROTEN: OE <rotian> > PdE <rot> OE[rotian]>(1)ME[rot]>PdE[rot] 1. 3. Loss of final e. Loss of endings 2. 2. -PAWDERE: OF<pūdr(ə)>>PdE<powder> OF[pu:dr] > (1)ME[pu:dər] > (2)eModE [paʊdər] >(3)20th[paʊdə] >PdE[paʊdə] 1. Weakening and loss of endings. -SONE: OE <sōne> > PdE <soon> OE[so:ne]>(1)ME[su:n]>(2)eModE[su:n]>PdE[su:n] 1.

3. -SOULE: OE <sāwol> > PdE <soul> OE[sa:wol]> (1) (2)ME [sɔ:ol] > (3)[sɔ:l] > (4) eModE [so:l] > (5)18th[soul] > (6)19th[səʊ l]> PdE[səʊl] 1.St. 6. 3. 4. Fronting. Centralization and loss of lip rounding.V.V. Early shortening.S.Weakening and loss of endings 2.S. Assimilation. -IN: OE <in> > PdE <in> OE [in] > ME [in] > PdE [ɪn] -OÞIR: OE <ōÞer> > PdE <other> OE[o: ðer] > (1)ME[o: ðər] > (2)eModE[u: ðər] > (3)Pre1640[uðər] > (4)1640[ʌðər]> (5) 20th[ʌðə]>PdE[ʌðə] 1. 2. Diphthongization. 13 . 5. G.S. 4.Weakening of the vowel of the 2nd syllable. Free change: Southern variety. Centralization of the first element of the diphthong. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 2. -CRAFTE: OE <cræfte> > PdE <craft> OE[cræfte]>(1)ME[kraftə]>(2)1653[kræft]>(3)18th [kræ:ft]>(4)19th [krɑ:ft]>PdE[krɑ:ft] 1. G. Loss of w next to a back vowel in unstressed syllable. G. 5. Loss of r in final position. 2.V.

Free change:South variety. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 3.u.u. -LASTANDE: OE<læst> >PdE <last> OE[læst]>(1)ME [last]>(2)1653[læst]>(3)18th[læ:st]>(4)19th[lɑ:st]>PdE[lɑ:st] 1.Velarization. r+cons.r.r+cons. -LIFE: ME <lif> > PdE <life> ME *līf+ > (1) eModE *laif+ > PdE *laɪf] 1. 2.S.ss. -FOR: OE <for> > PdE <for> OE [for]> ME [for]> (1)18th[fɔ:r]>(2)20th [f ɔ:] > PE [fɔ:] 1.r+cons.r. 3. Velarization. v. 2. 3. Tendency of short vowels to be length when followed by s. Centralization of the first element of the diphthong. Free change.f. Loss of final r.V. th.r. G. 4.ss. Diphthongization 4. 2. -BONES: OE <bān> > PdE <bone> OE[bɑ:n] > (1)ME[b ɔ:] >(2)eModE [bo:n]>(3)18th [boʊn] >(4)19th [bəʊn] > PdE[bəʊn] 1. GVS -SHALL: OE <sceal> > PdE <shall> OE[ʃæal] > (1)ME[ʃal] > (2)1653[ʃæl] > PdE[ʃæl] 14 .St. Tendency of short vowels to be length when followed by s. ss. 4. f.f. Tendency of short vowels to be lenghtened when followed by s. Fronting.

Merger of /ai/. -LITELLE: OE<lytel>/ <lyt(e)l–an> / <lytlan> Oblique case > PdE<little> OE [lü:tlan] > (1)&(2)ME [li:tl(ən)] > (3) [litl]> (4) [litəl] = PdE [lɪtəl] 1. Diphthongization. 2. North Eastern development of y. Weakening and loss of endings. Epenthetic schwa. 6. Weakening and loss of endings. Great vowel shift. OF <glorie>> PdE[glorɪ] ME [glɔ:ri] > (1) ModE [glɔ:ri] = PdE 1. -VAINEGLORIE: OF <vaine> > PdE <vain> ME [vainə] > (1) & (2) [va:n(ə)+ > (3) ModE *væ:n+ > *v Ɛ:n]> [ve:n] > (6) 19th [vein] > PdE [veɪn] 1. 15 . Loss of final r. 3. /ei/ >/a:/ 2.St. Loss of the vowel of the second syllable due to lack of stress. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 1. Early shortening pre-GVS because it is a grammatical word. Reduction of diphthongs. No Great Vowel Shift because successful –r. 2. 2. 5. Fronting -NEVER: OE <næ̅fre > > PdE <never> OE [næ:vre] > (1)ME[nƐ:vr] > (2)[nevər] > (3)20th [nevə] > PdE[nevə] 1.

Free change. -LOVES: OE<love> > PdE <love> OE [luvian] > ME (1) [luv] > 1640 (2) [lʌv] > PdE [lʌv] 16 . Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 3. -OURE (from < ūre >): OE <oure> > PdE <our> OE [u:re ] > (1) ME [u:r(ə)] > (2) ModE [aur] > (3) 18th [auər] > (4) 20th [auə] > PdE [aʊə] 1. Weakening and loss of ending. 5. [lɔ:d] > PdE [lɔ:d] 1. 6. Voicing of [θ] because it is an unstressed word. 4. 3. G. Loss of r when followed by a consonant. -LORDE: OE<lorde> > PdE <lord> OE [hlɑ:vord] > (1) (2) (3) ME [(h)lɔ:v(ə)rd] > [lɔ:vrd] > (4) [lɔ:rvd] > (5) ModE [lɔ:rd] > (6) 19th c. 14th Shortening because long vowel + 2 consonants (no lengthening group).V. Successul r. Epenthetic ə. 20th Loss of final r. Loss of h in initial position. Weakening and loss. R-gliding. 2. 3.S. 4. -þEN: OE <þen> > PdE <then> OE [θen] > (1) ME [ðen] > ModE [ðen]> PdE [ðen] 1.St. 4. 2. Loss of v close to a consonant group.

3. Lengthening due to homorganic consonant group. /a/ +/ ld/. Anglian dialect: OE [hɑldɑn] > (1) lOE [hɑ:ldan]> (2) & (3)ME [hɔ:ldən] > >(4) 15th [hɔ:ld] > (5) ModE [hɔ:ld] > (6) 18th [hould] > (7) 19th [həʊld] = PdE [həʊld] <hold> 1. 7. Free change: southern development. 6. 3. 2. 5. 18th Diphtongization.St. Western development of y. -MECHE (from <myċel>): OE<myċel > > PdE <much> OE [mütʃel] > (1) ME [mutʃəl] > (2) [mutʃ (ə)l] > (3) lME [mutʃ] > (4) 1640 [mʌtʃ] >PdE [mʌtʃ] <much> 1. Centralization and loss of lip rounding. G. Weakening 4. 4. 2. -HOLDE: OE <holde> > PdE <hold> OE <healdan> West Saxon. Loss of ending. S. V. Weakening and loss of the vowel of the second syllable. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 1. 19th Centralization of the first element of the diphthong. 2. -MYRTHE: OE<myrijþ> > PdE <mirth> OE[mürijθ]>(1)ME [miriiθ]>(2)[mur(i)θ]> (3) 18th [mərð] > (4)*mƐ:rð+>(5) 19th * mƐ:ð]=PdE [mƐ:ð] 17 . Loss of[l] closed to [tʃ]. Centralization and loss of lip rounding. Loss of endings.

1653 Fronting. 19th century: Loss of r when followed by consonant. 4. Northern/Eastern development of y . ss. 18 . ss.Epenthetic ə. Simplification of the geminate. -PASSYD ME <pass> > PdE <pass> From OF <passer> ME [pass-] > (1) & (2) ME [pas(s)(-)]> (3) ModE 1653[pæs] >(4) 18th [pæ:s] >(5) 19th [pɑːs] = PdE [pɑːs] 1. r. f. 3. 18th century: Tendency of short vowels to be lenghthened when followed by . f. 2. 3. s. 4. Loss of the vowel of the last syllable due to lack of stress. 5. 2.Weakening of the vowel of the first syllable due to lack of stress. ur and wor into ər. 19th Velarization. ME [togedere] > (1) ME [təgedr] > (2) [təgedər] > (3) 17th [təgeðər] > PdE [təgeðər] <together> 1. r+consonant. th. 5. er. gaderian. r+consonant.St. Weakening and loss of endings. s. 3. 18th century: Tendency of short vowels to be lenghthened when followed by . th. Assimilation and least effort law. 18th century: Merger of ir. -TOGEDER: OE<togeder> > PdE <together> OE tō gædere.Fricatization due to proximity to r. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán 1. r. 2.

PdE <that> . Dialectal development of [w]. GVS Graphic Analysis: -OE <æ>was substituted in ME by <a> by the Anglo-Norman Convention (ANC). peple ME [pe:plə] > (1) [pe:pl] > (2) [pe:pəl] > (3) e. -BELLES: OE <bell> > PdE <bell> OE [bell] > (1) ME[bel (l)] > PdE [bel] <bel> 1. South 2. 3. Rounding influence of [w] 4. G. e.ModE [pi:pəl] > PdE [pi: pəl] <people> 1. <æ> appeared for the last time in 1258 in the Oxford Provisions. W develops before back vowels in word initial position. 3. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán -PEPULL: OE<pepull> > PdE <people> Fr. i. Weakening and loss of endings. OE <þᴂt> . diacritic <e> was used to indicate that the vowel of the previous syllable was long. W-formation.St.Simplification of geminates. -ONE: OE <a:n> > PdE <one> OE [ɑ:n] > (1)ME [ɔ:n] > (2) [wɔ:n] > (3)[wo:n] > (4) [wūn] >Before 1640 (early shortening) [wun] >1640 [wʌn] > PdE [wʌn] <one> 1. S.e. <belles>-<pawdere> 19 . V. Epenthetic ə. 2. i.In PdE.

i. [. diacritic <e> was used to indicate that the vowel of the previous syllable was long. etc. for "for. OE <mid> is lost and its meaning (with) is acquired by <wiþ> which now loses its original meaning. <ght> is used to represent ME [χ] and was introduced by by Anglo-Norman Convention. Until the 18th Century. “mid” is introduced from French with the meaning of “middle” so.E. In PdE. buton "unless.E. Traces of the original meaning can be found in withdraw. We find OE ‘mid’ in the PdE word midwife that is whoever is with a woman at the time of birth. In PdE we need an odd number of negative particles. [j[. ME <f> came to be represented as <v>. In polysyllabic words in word-final position it was represented by means of <l>. <þ> (thorn) and <ð> (eth). that come from another word <ne-a-with>. to avoid confusion.<brought> Semantic Analysis: Ne Nowadays means “not”. butan. were replaced by <th> according to ANC. by ANC. without. between vowels. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán . two negations imply an affirmation. In ME. 20 .In ME. For O.e.St.<broʤt >.E. the grapheme <ȝ> (yogh) could represent the phonemes [χ[. e. i. <māra>-<more> . notwithstanding." With In OE <wiþ> had the meaning of “against”. [θ] and [ð[. i.e.e. In PdE. <th> represents both [θ] and [ð]. E." Not used as a conjunction in O. <lufian> . But O. We find in OE the word <mid> with the meaning of the PE preposition “with”. which represented [θ] and [ð] indistinctively.<love> -In ME by ANC <l> in final position was represented by <ll> in monosyllabic words. [g[. except.After 1400. the more negative particles they used the stronger the negation „was‟.g: <þerof> <worth> -By ANC. i. before. outside. on account of. <aul>-<all> -In ME.

<naught> is listed as an archaic form of <nothing> in the dictionary. naht>. Due to the fact that the structure of towns has changed over the last centuries.e. being especially used in poetic language. <town> derives from OE <tūn>. Interestingly.” Whereas <city> has its roots in O. PdE <borough>. which obviously derives from OE <burg> as well. we can detect Anglo-Germanic roots in many current city names (i. <cité>. Edinburgh. Erkenwald (338-352) Celia Pérez Gracia Rosa Piñuel Vega Héctor Portela Albarrán Burgh Originally. Pittsburgh. Hamburg. However. usually applies to an administrative district of a town or city.St. which back then carried the meaning of “enclosed land with buildings”. etc.). Not In PdE.FR. both words derive from different OE words. OE <burg> referred to what we nowadays consider a medieval Fortress or walled town. Furthermore. which obviously derived from Latin <civitas>. Whereas PdE <naught> derives from OE <nawiht. PdE makes use of the words “city” and “town. 21 . PdE <nothing> derives from OE <naþing>.