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Design and analy sis of a straig ht bla ded vert ical axis wind turbine bla de
using analyti cal and num erical techniques
M. Saqib Hameed a, n, S. Kamran Afaq b

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Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Ocean Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

**Design and analysis of a straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine blade
**

using analytical and numerical techniques

M. Saqib Hameed a,n, S. Kamran Afaq b

a

b

**Department of Mechanical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan
**

Department of Mechanical Engineering, HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 19 November 2011

Accepted 13 September 2012

Available online 6 November 2012

Wind as a source of energy is being used from very long time. It has gained more signiﬁcance in the

current age of energy crisis. Lots of efforts have been made to develop the horizontal axis wind turbines

but vertical axis wind turbines did not get much attention over the past couple of decades. Blade is the

most important component of a wind turbine which controls the performance of a wind turbine and

design of other components attached to it. A concept for the design of a straight symmetrical blade for a

small scale vertical axis wind turbine using beam theories for analytical modeling and a commercial

software ANSYS 11.0 for numerical modeling is presented in current research. Design parameters of the

blade like solidity, aspect ratio, pressure coefﬁcient etc are determined aiming the 1 kW power output

and the blade design was analyzed at extreme wind conditions where maximum values of deﬂection

and bending stresses were determined at peak values of aerodynamic and centrifugal forces. The design

was optimized to attain the structural strength i.e. reduction in deﬂections and bending stresses. This

blade design has high strength and lower material consumption to achieve the low cost of complete

rotor assembly of the wind turbine which actually covers more than 50% of the overall wind

turbine cost.

& 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

VAWT

Centrifugal forces

Wall thickness

Darrieus

H-rotor

Blade design

1. Introduction

The attempts have been made to explore and analyze the

aerodynamic models utilized for the high performance and strong

design of straight bladed darrieus VAWTs. The major advantage of

VAWTs is that it can be used at any location and it is a standalone

system where you can place the generator at the ground level

(Islam et al., 2008b) The principle advantages of VAWTs are that

they accept the wind from any direction without yawing. Straight,

untwisted and uniform section blades of VAWTs are easy to

fabricate and give the performance which is comparable with

HAWT, with almost 40% extraction of wind energy (Habtamu and

Yingxue, 2011). The long blades of darrieus vertical axis wind

turbine with high aspect ratios subjected to a large value of

bending moments due to centrifugal forces which may result into

the failure of the blades (Kragten, 2004). Even the small scale

vertical axis wind turbine is potentially dangerous because when

it is allowed to spin freely it accelerates rapidly due to the

absence of stall; it creates explosive centrifugal forces within

few moments, so as the aerodynamics forces over the blade

n

**Corresponding author. Tel.: þ92 3349607734.
**

E-mail addresses: saqibhameed@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk,

saqib.hameed@hotmail.com (M.S. Hameed),

kamran.afaq@hitecuni.edu.pk (S.K. Afaq).

0029-8018/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.09.007

**increase the effect of centrifugal forces increases too (Sharp).
**

Therefore, high rotational speeds leads to high centrifugal forces

and pulsating torque which actually supports the blades but

probability of structural failures increases at the same time

(Jain, 2011). The blade centrifugal stresses are maximum at the

location where the connection with the tower is made which is

actually the location of strut attachments in case of darrieus

vertical axis wind turbines (Blackwell, et al. 1977). So without

compromising on the performance of darrieus rotor, three blades

model is recommended to use in order to reduce the structural

loads on the blades. Struts were made with NACA 0025 to

withstand the extreme values of centrifugal and aerodynamics

loads (Wahl, 2007). The design mechanism, selections of design

variables with theoretical modeling and aerodynamics modeling

is discussed and compared brieﬂy for different wind turbine

blades (Eriksson et al., 2008).

This research aims to design and optimize the blade of

darrieus VAWT using analytical and numerical techniques. The

blade design parameters and its dimensions are calculated analytically. The aerodynamics forces acting on a blade are determined

during its complete 3601 rotation. The blade is designed on the

basis of maximum values of deﬂection and bending stresses at

extreme loading condition i.e. maximum sum of aerodynamic and

centrifugal forces during one complete rotation of blade. These

values are determined analytically and validated numerically and

For small scale domestic use vertical axis wind turbines normally contain three blades which is an optimum number of blades. of blades. Design velocity. AR Aspect ratio is the ratio of span length..6. the value of Cp is approximately 0. the blade will provide lift when wind comes from any direction. For three or more number of blades with small size of wind turbines and lower value of TSR.10. Chord length of the blade. the solidity values for darrieus VAWTs should be chosen in the range of 0. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248–255 an optimized value of wall thickness is chosen keeping in view the maximum deﬂections and bending stresses. TSR This is actually the ratio between rotational speed of the tip of a blade and the actual velocity of the wind. Design parameters In this section a complete methodology for the selection of blade geometry. 2. Power production can be increased by increasing the value of solidity but at the same time production of torque on the blade increases too.7. For design velocity range of 7–11 m/s. a high value of aspect ratio as 12.58 m whereas. 2. more speciﬁcally.2–0. Reducing the aspect ratio deteriorates the blade performance. b For the calculations of the blade span length. 2.24. 2005). the complete rotor assembly was considered as a 3D cube for capture of same and maximum possible value of wind energy from any direction. 2008a) within its given range in order to maximize the power production.2 for straight bladed darrieus VAWT (Koksal et al.5 is chosen for this design of straight bladed VAWT. The major advantage is that symmetric airfoils provide lift from both side of the airfoil therefore. 2004).40 (Koksal et al. 1. Solidity The solidity is deﬁned as the ratio of blade area with rotor area and represented as Solidity ¼ Blade area ncD nc ¼ 2 ¼ Rotor area D D where. S S p a Assumed Square Box p a n n Diameter 2. Aspect ratioðARÞ ¼ Span length b ¼ Chord length c 2.43 at TSR 4.9. Front view of darrieus VAWT design (left) with the front view of the assumed 3D cube for design calculations to extract energy from any wind direction.2062 m.8. b.578 m.24. For solidity 0..1.M. c Using the above described relation of AR. Fig. we will not need to readjust the blades in the direction of wind. as shown in the front view of designed turbine. Aspect ratio.S. 2. 2011). 249 2. the value of solidity is within the range of 0. Plus.. On the right of the ﬁgure the front view of the designed wind turbine is shown diameter is already calculated as 2. of blades ¼3 Value of TSR is observed to be a low in this case because the operating TSR range for darrieus rotor is 4–6 (Koksal and Hughes.578 m. 2008a). No. Therefore. it will provide lift during complete 3601 rotation or the turbine. c. 2004).23 Kg=m3 the diameter D of the turbine was calculated as 2. Diameter of the turbine. the values of Cp are plotted against TSR for a range of solidity 0. as (Blackwell et al..2. Span length of the blade. n ¼no. n The torque ripple can be reduced for the case of darrieus rotor by taking three or more number of blades.4.578m Diameter Fig.1. . a high value of solidity was chosen as 0. 2. Long slender blades with high value of aspect ratio are recommended for straight bladed VAWTs (Islam et al. symmetric airfoils are utilized to have the same characteristics of lift and drag on upper and lower surfaces. 1. proﬁles and dimensions are described when designing it for required power output.5. S. unknown at this time. Therefore.05–0.25 (Jain. 2.3. 2. Selection of airfoil For small scale vertical axis wind turbines. considering it a square from front span length is also taken as 2. Relationship for calculating the TSR is given as lmax ¼ 4p ¼ 4:1 ¼ TSR ¼ Rw=V n where. V The designed wind velocity is chosen as 8 m/s which is an average wind speed in areas where this wind turbine will be operational. 1977) P ¼ 0:5C p rV 3 D2 For 900 W output and density of air as 1. 2.K. of the blade. Cp For darrieus rotors and other rotary devices. D is the diameter of the turbine and c is the chord length viz. D The relationship between required power output and the design velocity was utilized to evaluate the diameter of the turbine. with chord length. 2. the chord length of the wind turbine blade was calculated as 0. Hameed. Tip speed ratio.1–0. the value of solidity is preferred to be a high value (Islam et al. Power coefﬁcient..

71 1.15 0. it was observed that a low value of lift coefﬁcient and high value of drag coefﬁcient is obtained for NACA 0018 whereas.09 2. Relation between angle of attack (a) and pitching angle (y) The following equation was used to determine the values of angle of attack with the variation in pitching angle (Anderson).9 NA NA NA 0.9 0.K. The variation in angle of attack with pitch angle is plotted in Fig.03 NA NA NA 0. NACA 0015 is chosen for this design considering its thickness and aerodynamics performance.19 0.53 13.0 0.5 0.03 0.00 3.00 0.015 0.) 3.3. NACA 0015 and NACA 0018 at low angle of attacks (Proﬁli.67 4.08 1.02 0.79 13.0 0.71 13.1. Determination of lift and drag coefﬁcients A small commercial software DESFOIL was utilized to determine the value of lift and drag coefﬁcients for NACA 0015 at above calculated angles of attack and these values were compared with the available values in the graphs given by Proﬁli (1995– 2009) and good agreement between values was found.80 0.06 0. Comparison of lift and drag coefﬁcients of NACA 0012.2. maximum deﬂections and maximum bending stresses are calculated using basic beam theories (American wood council).03 0.0 -10 -5 0 5 10 Angle of Attack (α) 15 -10 -5 0 –5 10 Angle of Attack (α) 15 Fig. 3.02 0.62 3.10 1.) y (Radians) a (Radians) a (Deg.52 1.23 1.71 10. Hameed.02 0.71 5.00 0.19 0.72 1.75 10. 1995–2009).67 13.02 0.24 0. Therefore.00 DESFOIL Proﬁli (1995–2009) CL CD CL CD 0 0.30 0.5 0. a high value of lift coefﬁcient and lower value of drag coefﬁcient for NACA 0012.03 0.00 8. 8 m/s 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 0 5. For darrieus type vertical axis wind turbines.) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 0 0. Analytical modeling Numerical values of forces acting on the blade at extreme wind conditions are determined and applied to the blade. This make NACA 0012 most suitable from aerodynamic characteristics but at the same time NACA 0012 is considered as too thin (12% of chord length) for this design of high aspect ratio blades.54 13.S. Alpha vs Theta 20 15 10 5 0 -5 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 -10 -15 -20 3.54 8. Maximum velocity of the blade in tangential direction.76 6.04 -0. p ¼ tan1 siny TSR þ cosy The variation in angle of attack during 3601 rotation of blade is determined and some of the values are shown in Table 1.75 0. S.250 M.03 0.02 .66 5.07 0.00 -1. Fig.34 1.75 0 0. When the lift and drag coefﬁcients of these airfoils were compared at low angle of attacks. Fig. Rw Relation of tip speed ratio is used here to determine the maximum velocity of blade tip at maximum wind speed viz.24 0. 3. Table 1 Variation in angle of attack with pitch angle.67 5.66 1. 2.9 0 0.02 0.07 0.57 2.24 0.04 0.34 1. Table 2. 3. Pitch angle y (Deg.5 0.10 0.02 0 0.036 0.03 0.66 13.05 1.64 1.04 0.04 0.08 0.079 0.15 0.02 CL CD 0. Pitch angle y (Deg.24 0.53 8.10 0. 2.72 10.9 0.14 3.76 0.24 5.80 13.04 0.72 13.76 10.79 0.28 0 0.) a (Deg. Table 2 Variation in coefﬁcient of lift and coefﬁcient of drag with pitch angle and angle of attack.04 0. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248–255 1.00 1.19 4. NACA 00xx series of symmetric airfoils are used and more speciﬁcally NACA 0012 NACA 0015 and NACA 0018 are more frequently used. Plot of the variation in angle of attack (y-axis) with pitch angle (x-axis).00 8.04 0.71 0.02 0.00 0 5.

18 180. 4.49 178.79 13.66 7. S.00 180.51 39.55 34.e. This value is used as a component of total forces to obtain the deﬂections and bending stresses in the blade.14 26. cantilever region each of 0.34 0. (1) Thickness to chord ratio for NACA 0015 airfoil (Emami.56 m N ¼ Lcos a þDsin a.96 6.66 0 371 651 681 664 670 572 0.16 0. V β γ W -Rw The maximum value of normal force during the complete 3601 rotation of the blade is 681 N.06 11. 251 Table 4 Variation in values of Lift and Drag with pitch angle and resolving each value along and perpendicular to chord. α Fig.06 180. 3.00 180 179.20 0.49 364 393 389 395 276 0. Location of strut attachments and cross sectional properties of the optimized blade model For blades with high aspect ratios (low value of c) and higher value of solidity which increases the torque and bending stresses on the blade.67 38. a two point support is recommended (Islam et al. 0.88 6.00 0 372 660 695 681 687 579 0.20 0. 2008a). L ¼ q1 C L S.28 40. the maximum velocity of blade tip in forward direction is calculated as.7 1.43 0.29 0.14 32.8 m/s.87 1.71 10.15 17. where q1 ¼ 1 rW 2 2 1.K.. it is not just the simple wind velocity that basically produces the lift on the blade but relative velocity viz. V Rw Rw sina ¼ ¼ 4 b ¼ sin1 sina Sinb V g ¼ 180ða þ bÞ y a (Deg. The location of supporting struts attachment with the blade was chosen in such a manner to achieve minimum deﬂection and bending stresses at both the regions i.56 m and ﬁxed region of 1.71 40.49 179. these results are also shown in Table 4. 5.) a (Radians) b (Radians) g (Radians) Relative velocity W (m/s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 0 0.M.S.46 m These values of lift and drag were then resolved perpendicular (normal force N) and parallel (axial force A) to the chord of the blade.25 0. The blade model was optimized from solid to a hollow cross section with different values of wall thickness to reduce the weight and centrifugal forces on the blade. Calculations for normal and axial forces Rotational Axis The values of lift (perpendicular to wind velocity V) and Drag (parallel to V) are calculated in complete 3601 rotation of the blade using the following relations (Anderson).53 13. Relative velocity.49 361 384 380 388 276 0. 5.66 12.0 for all the design cases at different values of wall thickness and shown in Table 5.46 m.00 8.96 6. W In the case of vertical axis wind turbine.) (Deg.11 0.16 0.11 0.68 47 83 84 64 21 6. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248–255 in current design.84 181. a vector solution of maximum blade tip velocity Rw and wind velocity V. The variation in b and g with a was determined and therefore the value of W at different angles of attack was evaluated using sine and cosine laws and shown in the Table 3.96 178.66 9.53 181. D ¼ q1 C D S.25 0.29 1.44 178.87 0.79 0.) Lift force (N) Drag force (N) Normal force (N) Axial force (N) 0 30 60 75 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 0 5.14 3.14 40.64 16. shown in Fig.75 0.46 8. using the following relationships (Anderson).71 13.85 6.69 1.83 30.00 0 0. 4. Rw ¼ 4:1 TSR ¼ V Therefore.13 17.66 27 109 134. Pitch angle y (Deg. shown in Table 4.29 m W 2 ¼ V 2 þRw2 2VRw cosg Blade 3.69 0.25 0.58 181.25 0.00 0.49 13.66 5. A ¼ Lsin a2Dcos a Fig. 32.5.45 145 144 77 6. Hameed.77 39.07 8.81 6. Location of Strut attachment with the designed blade—front view of designed VAWT.28 27.4. Table 3 Variation in internal angles of the velocity triangle with variation in the value of relative velocity with pitch angle.43 0.78 38. The cross sectional properties using the following relations were calculated and cross checked with the beam section properties facility of ANSYS 11.75 10. 2007) 7 rﬃﬃﬃ x x2 x3 x4 z t x ¼ 0:2969 0:126 0:3516 0:2834 0:2834 c 0:2 c c c c c .00 7.00 0. Velocity triangle for darrieus VAWT with internal angles.53 180 38.53 8.29 13. shown in Fig.6.34 1.

82 0.8 m/s.01 . The cross sections of all the meshed models considered here for analysis are shown in Fig. 3.94 2. the center of pressure and aerodynamics center lie at quarter chord (c/4) distance from leading edge (Anderson.46 m) Wall thickness (mm) Force (kN) UDL (kN/m) Mmax (kN m) Max.72 6. deﬂection (at free end)¼ wl4/8EIxx 2mRw2 D The total force evaluated here is the sum of centrifugal force determined at maximum tip speed velocity and extreme aerodynamics force perpendicular to chord viz.12 4.1.34 4. 681 N.807 0.04 1. 4.89 8. Table 5 Value of total force (aerodynamics þcentrifugal) acting on the blade at different values of wall thickness of the blade.85 26. Z 0:206 h z z i dx þ A¼ c c 0 3.409 2.29 5.12 1.30 3. Mmax (at ﬁxed end) ¼wl2/2.58 0.S. Numerical modeling In this section of analysis.36 1.08 1.06 4. in ﬁxed region stress were high.59 3.67 0.02 11.38 13.59 5.65 2. deﬂections at beam with both ends ﬁxed and uniformly distributed loading w. deﬂection (at center)¼wl4/384EIxx (2) Max. cantilever and ﬁxed at both ends therefore.79 1. Table 6 Analytical calculations for the evaluation of maximum deﬂection and maximum stress on the blade using basic beam theories.37 0.51 4. def (mm) 10. using the following relationship: Fc ¼ (1) Max.37 3. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248–255 (2) Area of the airfoil.56 1.08 1.2 58.56 3. (3) Moment of inertia Z 0:206 1 z3 z3 þ dx I¼ 3 c c 0 3.593 0. stress (MPa) Max.78 2. Fc The high aspect ratio straight blades of H-darrieus rotor are subjected to high values of centrifugal forces.2.19 1. stress (MPa) Max. results are shown in Table 6. Evaluating the values of maximum deﬂections and stresses As the blade is divided into two beams.326 0.663 UDL (kN/m) Mmax (kN m) Max. The high values of deﬂection were observed in cantilever region whereas. 2007).65 1.8 57.07 3.1 65.79 0.K.56 m) Wall thickness (mm) Solid 5 4 3 2 1 Force (kN) 5.5 7.27 4.39 4. The mesh size control was done and convergence was achieved.2 7. 4.6 62.9. r ¼2700 Kg/m3 and n ¼0.70 5. max.461 0. Mmax (at ends)¼wl2/12 Max. Boundary conditions and application of forces For symmetric airfoils. Effect of centrifugal forces.17 Fixed region (1.08 4. Hameed.27 0. moments and max.11 3.19 0.57 2. Selection of element type All the design cases were evaluated ﬁrst using SOLID45 and then BEAM3 element type. deﬂection and max.83 4.718 0.37 10.56 1.83 9.33.2 54.73 10. moments (Mmax) and max. Wall thickness (mm) A (10 3) (m2) Ixx (10 7) (m4) Mass (kg) Total force (kN) Solid 5 4 3 2 1 4.0.499 30.9 56.53 4.94 2. deﬂections at Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed loading. 6.920 0.97 4. Further reﬁnement of mesh does not alter the ﬁnal results shown in numerical analysis. these values are determined for all designed values of wall thickness (with mass m) at the maximum tip speed velocity (Rw) of 32. S.92 1.78 2. all the results from solid to 1 mm wall thickness were computed by numerical analysis using ANSYS 11.17 0. def (mm) Solid 5 4 3 2 1 14.92 3.5 66.76 7.21 116 70.7. Komerath. Selection of material properties The blade is designed with aluminum with E ¼70 GPa. stress were evaluated using relations taken from beam theories for uniformly distributed loading (American wood council).40 1.8.62 2. under the same boundary conditions. both the regions were analyzed separately and max. Cantilever Region (0.52 0. The current reﬁned mesh shown in the research approximates the solution to its best possible value with minimum error with the analytical values.186 102 62. shown below.16 1.08 4.8 63.252 M.

The uniformly distributed load along the blade span at c/4 from leading edge was applied for each designed cross section of the blade viz. as described earlier. . Hameed. Fig.K. 9. 7 and 8. respectively. Application of loads and resulting deformed model for a typical case is shown in Figs. 6. 8. Application of forces normal and along the chord of the blade. Veriﬁcation of results through BEAM3 element type. causing bending in the blade. 5.S. Results obtained for the same case using the BEAM3 element type are shown in Fig. respectively. Contour of stress distribution over the blade for a speciﬁc cross section of the blade. S. the location of struts attachment with the blade. 9. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248–255 253 Fig.56 m from both ends giving the cantilever regions of length 0. all degrees of freedom of the blade are constraints at the distance of 0. for maximum stresses and maximum deﬂections. Cross Sections of designed models of the blade with different values of wall thickness.M. 10 and 11. The comparison of results obtained from analytical analysis with numerical results is shown in Tables 7 and 8 and Figs.56 m and ﬁxed region of length 1.46 m viz. Comparison of analytical and numerical results Fig. 7. Therefore. the sum of all the forces (aerodynamic and centrifugal) acting on the blade perpendicular to the chord. Fig.

85 Solid45 Beam3 113 80.89 8. The suitable range of wall thickness can be taken from 1 mm to 5 mm. B.075 3.13 1. .55 18.91 15.703 4.85 9 Solid45 8 Beam3 7 Analytical 6 5 4 3 2 1 Solid45 140 0 Solid Beam3 120 Analytical 5mm 4mm 3mm 2mm 1mm Fig.05 0.603 7.978 4.35 1. Cross sectional views of analyzed blade models As all the blades with different cross sections (with varying values of wall thickness) were modeled and analyzed numerically.97 4.29 5. The cross sectional locations of these blades where the maximum deﬂections occurred (extreme ends of the blade) are shown in the Fig.82 47.20 0.6 62. deﬂections (mm) at different value of wall thickness (x-axis).39 4. A.11 34. the maximum deﬂection of 4. Graphical comparison of max.9 70. 100 6.36 116 70. For the optimal wall thickness of 4 mm. Wall thickness (mm) and mass of the blade (Kg)—Left to Right Max.6 65. stress (Mpa) (ﬁxed region) ANSYS Solid 5 4 3 2 1 30.51 4.264 4. S.04 12.10 1.59 13.2 % Error with analytical results Beam3 Solid45 1.28 1.4 114 69. 12. The values of maximum deﬂection and stresses are suddenly increased from 2 mm to 1 mm wall thickness. 11. def.07 2. The optimal thickness is found between 3 mm and 4 mm with no distortion in shape of the blade. E. 11. The values of maximum stress and maximum deﬂections start decreasing from solid cross section to hollow cross section till approximately 2 mm wall thickness but start increasing by reducing the value of wall thickness further.5 66.689 5.13 0. Hameed. When the cross sections of these blades were modeled and analyzed it was observed that the distortion in the blade shape occurs at the regions of maximum deﬂections as shown in Fig. (mm) (Cantilever region) ANSYS Analytical % Error with analytical results Solid45 Beam3 Solid 5 4 3 2 1 30.S. Wall thickness (mm) and mass of the blade (kg)—Left to Right Max.178 7.K.54 13.37 10. Discussion on results 80 60 40 20 0 Solid 5mm 4mm 3mm 2mm 1mm Fig.14 0.12 0.947 5.254 M.5 MPa is found.72 1. 5.864 4. But the exact value of the most appropriate wall thickness is not known yet for this design.504 4.4 64.123 4.22 9. D.27 4.9 61.62 2.37 10. The distortion in shape reduces with increase in wall thickness of the blade. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248–255 Table 7 Comparison of maximum stresses at different values of wall thickness and blade mass.4 74.13 10.17 Analytical Beam3 Solid45 0. This is due to the large distortion in the shape of the blade as the wall thickness is reduced from 2 mm to further 1 mm.29 5.38 13. The solid45 element type better approximates the large distortion in the shape of the blade.9 62.2 96. Graphical comparison of max. C.1 68.07 3.59 14. 10.58 mm and maximum stress of 70.62 2.8 63.1 65. F.386 4.38 13.19 7.85 7.1.5 Table 8 Comparison of maximum deﬂections different values of wall thickness and blade mass. stresses (MPa) at different value of wall thickness (x-axis).89 8.

7. Engineering Ofﬁce Kragten Design. Yingxue. Sandia Laboratory Energy Report.S.htmlS.. 2005. 12. Emami. Murat. ISBN 9780-07–171478-5MHID: 0–07-171478-2. University of Toronto. 2007. Georgia Institute of Technology. Yao. Fartaj. Environ. Bending stresses and deﬂections are not only a function of aerodynamics forces but also very dominantly controlled by centrifugal forces. December.R. Design Project MECH 4010. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248–255 255 Fig. Feltz. 491–507. 2007. UPTEC ES07 030. 12. McGraw Hill Series in Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering. 2007. 2011. Peter Allen Sharp. February 12. Analysis of the design parameters related to a ﬁxed-pitch straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. Dalhousie University. Kragten. Conclusions It has been seen that in darrieus type vertical axis wind turbine the centrifugal forces play an important role.. 2004. McGraw Hill Companies.. 202-463-4713. HughesDr. Aerodynamic models for Darrieus-typestraight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines. /http://www. Islam. DC 20036. The Sharp VAWT Sharp Products. Bernhoff.. Thin Airfoil Theory. 2010. Proﬁli. Amir. Evaluation of their effect is not a simple task as reducing the wall thickness of the blade reduces the weight and subsequently the centrifugal forces but at the same time the cross sectional area reduces too which reduces the strength of the blade. Sandra. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. 2786 Bellaire Place. 1111 19th St.. April 8. 4 (3).. 2008a.24 on Data Processed by XFoil. References American Wood Council. August 3. Jain. Fundamental of Aerodynamics. Therefore. Suite 800. Pramod. Koksal Dr. December 5. Hameed. Taxila with the support of Department of Mechanical Engineering. Anderson. Leijon. 2005. Larry . /http://www. The Darrieus Rotor. 1419–1434. Wind Eng. Design Project. Report KD215.ca/pdf_ﬁles/open_subsonic. Wahl. Beri. . Washington... ISSN: 1650–8300. 32 (5). Atlanta. Alan. Populierenlaan 51.com/ html/9780071714778. Robert E..K. A. John. Wind Tunnel Performance Data for Darrieus Wind Turbine With NACA0012 Blades. . Komerath Dr. 2007. Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power. 1087–1109 (Elsevier). Aerodynamic Forces on an Airfoil. MECH 4020.aerospace. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Carriveau. AE2020 Low Speed Aerodynamics. Mazharul. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Habtamu. Oakland. Mats. 2008. Narayanan Menon. 2007. Rupp. Graphs drawn by Proﬁli 2. AER 303F. Bennie F. utoronto. Fung Dr. Koksal Dr. NW. Wall thickness of the blade can be optimized by reducing weight of the blade but maximum stresses and maximum deﬂection should be in acceptable range. Murat. Amir. Wind Energy Engineering.tatamcgrawhill.pdfS. Sheldahl. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 2010. David S. Fartaj. Designing an H-rotor Type Wind Turbine for Operation on Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Examensarbete. Dalhousie University. 12. Beam design formulas with shear and bending moment diagrams. M.. 1995–2009. . Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering. GA 30332-0150. 2011. Mazharul. 302–312.. Ting. 2008b. Islam. Blackwell. Mats. S. Louis V. 20p. Technol. American Forest and Paper Association. CA 94601. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. Acknowledgments The research was done in the labs of HITEC University. 2004. Hughes Dr. a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) With Only a Few Advantages and Many Disadvantages. Hans. Aerospace Undergraduate Laboratories. Eriksson. Larry. 1977.. Self-Starting Darrieus Wind Turbine. Sci. UPPSALA Universitet. the distortion in the shape of the blade must be considered while reducing the weight and centrifugal forces acting on the blade to achieve the best optimized cross section design. 2004. Cross sections of blades designed for different values of wall thickness after application of extreme loads.-K.M. J. 5492 SG Sint-Oedenrode. Effect of camber airfoil on self starting of vertical axis wind turbine.

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