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Done by: Cleon Smith

Teacher: Ms. Calame

What is health?
Health is defined as the state of being free from illness or injury.
An abnormal condition in a body that interferes with its vital physiological processes, caused by
pathogenic microorganisms, parasites, unfavorable environmental, genetic, or nutritional factors,
A sign is an indication of the existence of something; any objective evidence of a disease.
While an symptom is any subjective evidence of disease or of a patient's condition, i.e., such
evidence as perceived by the patient; a change in a patient's condition indicative of some bodily
or mental state.
Ways to Maintain Good Health
A healthy breakfast is one of the most important parts to make a good health. An adult human
should be drink more than one liter water per day. Water keeps bodies at the current temperature
and also gives freshness to the skin. Time of the eating is another part to make good health.
Exercise should be done regularly. Maintaining a healthy weight. Weight is the most important
of the health. If your weight is standard on your body size so that you are fit. For control the
weight you change your food habit, do the exercise, and avoid every type of fast food etc.
increase the walking and running. Walking is one of the best exercises. Always take care your
mental health. Generally mental health is not thought of but it is an important issue of good
health. Positive thinking is one of the most important parts of mental health.
Types of Diseases

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites
or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.
Deficiency diseases are caused by a lack of essential dietary elements and especially a vitamin or
mineral. It is not contagious.

Degenerative disease is a disease in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or
organs will increasingly deteriorate over time
Inherited disease is a disease or condition caused by an absent or defective gene.

Difference between Signs and Symptoms
Signs are the physical manifestation of the illness, injury or disease. It is objective, which means
that it can be seen and measured, usually by a doctor or a nurse. Symptoms, on the other hand,
are things that can only be felt by the patient. These are the things that a patient experiences
about the illness, injury or disease. These must be described to the doctor, in order for him or her
to diagnose the patient.

Pathogen and vectors
A pathogen is an organism which causes disease while an vector is organism which carries the
pathogen from one human to another.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to bacteria. They are active
only inside the host. Outside the body they are simple crystals (like salt crystals).
They are non-cellular. i.e. they don't possess cellular structure, they lack cell wall, cell
membrane, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and other cellular components.

x, Ebola

Disease caused by viruses: HIV,

Protozoa are one-celled animals and the smallest of all animals. Most of them can only be seen
under a microscope. They do breathe, move, and reproduce (sexually or asexually). They live in
water or at least where it is damp.
Disease caused by Protozoa: Malaria,
A bacterium is a living cell consisting of a fluid called cytoplasm enclosed by a cell membrane
and cell wall. A bacterium contains DNA in the cytoplasm in the form of a chromosome.
Although a bacterium only has one chromosome it can have other, smaller DNA elements called
plasmids. The chromosome of a bacterium is never surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Bacteria
reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium, which is a single cell, divides into two
identical daughter cells. Binary fission begins when the DNA of the bacterium divides into two

biting flies. lice. They can sometimes infest other body sites. Vectors typically become infected by a disease agent while feeding on infected vertebrates (like birds. Disease caused by Bacteria: Meningitis. . hatch. Parasitic eggs contaminate food. parasitic worms (also called helminthes) live in humans. Disease Caused by Parasitic worms: Hookworm Disease. and objects such as toilet seats and door handles. The eggs enter the body of a human through the mouth.) Lice are examples of parasites that live on humans. parasitic eggs usually lodge in the intestine. water. Each daughter cell is a clone of the parent cell. bacteria and viruses are examples of parasites that live either on humans or in humans. the nose and the anus. There are a large number of viral. feces. rodents." The disease agent usually completes a part of their lifecycle (and multiply) inside the host. The bacterial cell then elongates and splits into two daughter cells each with identical DNA to the parent cell. usually an arthropod. other larger animals. This second animal is called a vector for the disease. fleas.(replicates). helminthes(parasitic worms) and ticks. or humans). The most common vectors are blood sucking insects such as mosquitoes. Once inside the body. Parasitic Worms A worm classified as a parasite. pets and wild animals. grow and multiply. bugs. Guinea worm disease. and then get transmitted to a susceptible person or other animal through the salivary glands of the vector when it bites another vertebrate. lice. (A parasite is a disease-causing organism that lives on or in a human or another animal and derives its nourishment from its host. air. bacterial and parasitic diseases that can be transmitted by insect vectors. Sleeping Sickness How vectors carry pathogens and how they enter the body Pathogens are illnesses caused by an infectious microbe that is transmitted to vertebrates by another animal. Gonorrhea.

How is personal hygiene maintained? Good personal hygiene habits include:     Washing the body often. However. when people are out camping or there is a shortage of water If this happens. everybody should have a shower or a bath every day. Sterilization to clean (something) by destroying germs or bacteria. a swim or a wash all over the body with a wet sponge or cloth will do Cleaning the teeth at least once a day. It is very important to clean teeth after breakfast and immediately before going to bed washing the hair with soap or shampoo at least once a week . disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe Immunization (Vaccination) Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease. Immunity Immunity is the state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection. Vaccine A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. or other unwanted biological invasion. there may be times when this is not possible.(Hygiene) What is personal hygiene? Personal hygiene may be described as the principle of maintaining cleanliness and grooming of the external body. Brushing the teeth after each meal is the best way of making sure that gum disease and tooth decay are avoided. If possible. Antibiotics An antibiotic is an agent that either kills or inhibits the growth of a microorganism. for example. typically by the administration of a vaccine.

Disinfectants are used on non-living things such as floors. Boiling Boiling removes harmful microorganisms by subjecting them to high temperatures.. droplets of liquid containing germs from the nose and mouth will be spread in the air and other people can breathe them in. This also allows the products to be stored for much longer periods of time. and is well-known for its role in making milk and juices safe for consumption.g. such as working and playing. they may get onto the food Changing into clean clothes. Pasteurization Pasteurization destroys harmful microorganisms (e.    washing hands with soap after going to the toilet Washing hands with soap before preparing and/or eating food. etc. disease causing germs may get onto the hands and under the nails. microbes. counter tops. dishes. Effects of: UHT Food is heated temperatures greater than 135 C before to remove spores. Antiseptics are agents that are used on living tissue such as alcohol or iodine. A common disinfectant is bleach. During normal daily activities. or at least control the growth of. Auto Claving Autoclaving is using the power of steam to kill off germs that would survive a simple washing with boiling water and detergents. Dirty clothes should be washed with laundry soap before wearing them again Turning away from other people and covering the nose and mouth with a tissue or the hand when coughing or sneezing. They have various . They are usually stronger and are too toxic to be used on living tissue. If the germs are not washed off before preparing food or eating. Even healthy people can spread bacteria onto food by touching it with their hands. or the droplets can get onto food Importance of hygiene in handling and preparing food Everyone has bacteria on their bodies. Thoroughly washing and drying hands before handling food and between handling raw food and cooked or ready-to-eat food prevents the transfer of bacteria. How disinfectants and antiseptic control microorganism Both of these substances are agents that kill. bacteria and viruses) by applying a precise amount of heat for a specified period of time. If this is not done.

.they kill bacteria (a different type of germ). Antibiotics do not kill fungi . or prevent them from reproducing somehow. How antibiotics and antifungal agents work Antifungal medicines are used to treat fungal infections.ways of killing organisms such as interfering with the way they make their cell walls so they blow up.

f the vir infecti n resu ts in ―sec nd ry infecti n ‖ c used by bacteria. Always sneeze into the arm of your shirt or in a tissue. It usually begins as a viral infection in the nose. Avoid touching your face. Although this may not ease the own symptoms. If the infection is not treated. either in the nasal sinuses or lungs  runny nose  cough  sore throat  body aches  fatigue . A doctor may prescribe medications to manage the symptoms while nit ring the c nditi n. Method of transmission The virus is usually spread via direct or indirect contact with large respiratory droplets (Either aerosolized or on contaminated surfaces) containing viable virus particles. especially your eyes and mouth. it can spread to the entire respiratory system. tests will help the doctor determine what type of antibiotic should be used. Signs and Symptoms  congestion. Possible Treatment of: There are no known cures. Method of limiting spread    W sh h nds frequent y es eci y fter y u‘ve been in ub ic ce. it will prevent you from spreading infectious diseases. RSV (and Other respiratory viruses) may survive on environmental surfaces for several hours. or lungs. to prevent introducing germs into your system.(Disease Transmission and Control) Acute Respiratory Infections Acute respiratory infection is a serious infection that prevents normal breathing function. trachea (windpipe).

Method of Transmission Unclean water is a source of transmission of gastroenteritis-causing organisms. the person may be admitted to hospital and given fluids and salts intravenously. and often by uncooked meat (for example. Possible Treatment The main aim of treatment is to keep the person fully hydrated in order to avoid complications. Treatment with antibiotics is usually reserved for the most severe cases of gastroenteritis. It is important that the person not lose too much salt (such as sodium and potassium).Gastro Intestinal Infections Cause Bacterial gastroenteritis is commonly caused by eating food that has spoiled or been contaminated. steak tartar. which is a raw meat dish) or by eating meat that is cooked rare. as these must remain within certain ranges for the body to function properly. eating uncooked meat. Method of Limiting Spread   Make sure hands are washed well with soap and water after every trip to the bathroom Ensure that the meat you are eating is properly cooked. . Signs and Symptoms       loss of appetite nausea and vomiting diarrhea abdominal pains and cramps blood in your stools fever . For more serious cases of bacterial gastroenteritis.

Possible Treatment of Cholera can be treated by administering a vaccine. Cook food well. Method of limiting spread Drink and use safe water. and eyelids Low blood pressure Thirst Muscle cramps . Clean up the kitchen and places where the family bathes and washes clothes.Cholera Cause A bacterium called Vibrio cholerae causes cholera infection. including the inside of the mouth. nose. Signs and Symptoms       Rapid heart rate Loss of skin elasticity (the ability to return to original position quickly if pinched) Dry mucous membranes. Wash your hands often with soap and safe water. throat. Method of transmission Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces (waste product) of an infected person.

fever (over 100. nose and mouth. Undercooked poultry meat or eggs from infected birds can transmit bird flu. (The fever should be gone without the use of a fever-reducing medicine. Method of limiting spread  Try to avoid close contact with sick people. Signs and Symptoms        Cough.Bird Flu Cause Bird flu occurs naturally in wild waterfowl and can spread into domestic poultry.  Avoid touching your eyes. . mouth or eyes. Respiratory difficulties.4°F) Headache. Muscle aches. Possible Treatment of Antiviral drugs can be administered. Eggs should be cooked until the yolks and whites are firm.  Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs like the flu. Runny nose.  Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Method of transmission The disease is transmitted via contact with an infected bird's feces. If soap and water are not available.  If a person is sick with flu-like illness they should stay home for at least 24 hours after the fever is gone except to get medical care or for other necessities. where eggs and birds are sold in crowded and unsanitary conditions. are hotbeds of infection and can spread the disease into the wider community. use an alcohol-based hand rub. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. turkeys.  Wash your hands often with soap and water. such as chickens. Poultry meat is safe to eat if it's been cooked to an internal temperature of 165 F (74 C). limit contact with others as much as possible to keep from infecting them. or secretions from its nose. ducks and geese. Open-air markets.)  While sick. Diarrhea. Germs spread this way.

They may settle and feed on decaying organic matter which contains many bacteria. pupae. but malaria parasite occurs only in Anopheles while Dengue and Yellow fever parasites occur in Aedes. They may adhere to the hairs on the fly's legs or body. larvae. Aedes Aegypti Aedes Aegypti goes through a complete metamorphosis with an egg. sewage. Method of Control Food for human consumption must not be stored or displayed in such a way as to allow flies to settle on it. lawn clippings. • edes h s b ck nd white stri es ver the b dy exce t wings but the n blocks of black and white scales mainly on the wings. garbage. • edes is sh rter in ength th n n • n he es is • edes usu he es. They may be deposited in vomit spots of semi-digested food which has come from a source of infection. or the bacteria may enter the digestive system and pass through it. The life cycle of Aedes Aegypti can be completed within one-and-a-half to three weeks They spread different types of diseases. and fall on food with the faeces of the fly. unharmed. If later the flies alight on food for human consumption.. they may remain in the pseudo tracheae or esophagus. The numbers of houseflies should be kept as low as possible by removing decaying organic matter in which they breed.Housefly Life Cycle (how it spreads diseases and method of control) The house fly has complete metamorphosis: egg. Where this cannot be avoided the material should be stored in fly-proof containers. The house fly breeds in a variety of organic materials such as manure. food wastes. septic tanks and silage. he es n y h s . and adult stage. The adult life span can range from two weeks to a month depending on environmental conditions. but anopheles prefers dawn and dusk. re s ender th n edes. pupae and adult. There are many ways in which the bacteria may be carried. How it spreads diseases It is largely as a result of their indiscriminate feeding habits that houseflies spread disease. harmful bacteria are deposited on it. y bites during daytime. The life cycle from egg to adult can be completed in about two weeks during warm weather. larvae. Other sources of infection such as manure heaps must not be allowed to accumulate for long periods near houses. to be flushed out on to food with the next salivary flow.

The pathogens may also be deposited via saliva and blood spewed during rodent fights. How rats act as vector of disease Bats transmit disease by accidental biting or by passing pathogens in the air. Finally. snuggling up as they roost. giving plenty of opportunity for pathogens to spread between the bats. Bats carry more human pathogens than other animals.• n he es rests with their bd resting surface. possibly containing pathogens. millions of rodent hairs and hair fragments. . rodents shed their hair daily and lose an entire coat twice a year. whereas Aedes lies parallel to their Methods of Controlling Vectors Vector control is any method to limit or eradicate the mammals. are also deposited into our environment. birds. ens sticking u w rds. In this way. Bats like to live close to one another. How rats act as vectors of disease Rats become infected with pathogens by biting an animal with a pathogen. In ne week‘s ti e rats produce hundreds of fecal pellets and deposit urine in thousands of areas. insects or other arthropods which transmit disease pathogens.

Drug abuse Drug abuse. Cocaine Cocaine causes a short-lived. Prescription Drug A prescription drug is a substance intended for use in the diagnosis. mitigation. to a specific substance. sometimes enough to be life-threatening. cure. Adverse action and effect of: Heroine Once heroin enters the brain. which may be accompanied by nausea. vomiting. and severe itching. mental function is clouded. users usually will be drowsy for several hours. heart function slows. Drug Dependence Drug dependence is the body's physical need. . and a heavy feeling in the extremities. also called substance abuse or chemical abuse. or prevention of disease. They can experience greatly increased heart rate. With heroin. or addiction. treatment. dry mouth. After the initial effects. muscle spasms and convulsions.‖ The intensity f the rush is a depends on how much drug is taken and how rapidly the drug enters the brain and binds to the receptors. is a disorder that is characterized by a destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems or distress. and breathing is also severely slowed. the rush is usually accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin. intense high that is immediately followed by the opposite—intense de ressi n edginess nd cr ving f r re f the drug.(Disease induced by human behavior) Drug A medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body. Pe e wh use it ften d n‘t e t r sleep properly. it is converted to morphine and binds rapidly to receptors in the Abusers typically report feeling a surge of pleasurable sensation— ―rush.

These short-term effects usually wear off in two to three hours. a joint cre tes severe i ct n ne‘s ungs. hostile and anxious—even when they ren‘t high. anywhere from a spaced. but they also feel the urge to keep taking more of the drug in order to re-experience the same sensation. depending on how much the user takes. fear of losing control.The drug can make people feel paranoid. The immediate sensations—incre sed he rt r te essened c rdin ti n nd b nce nd ―dre y ‖ unre st te of mind—peak within the first 30 minutes. it has been found that consuming one joint gives as much exposure to cancerproducing chemicals as smoking five cigarettes. fear of insanity and death. Marijuana When a person takes marijuana. angry. LSD LSD users often experience loss of appetite. Visual changes are among the more common effects—the user can become fixated on the intensity of certain colors. but they could last longer. stroke. cocaine increases the risk that the user will experience a heart attack. As the typical user inhales more smoke and holds it longer than he would with a cigarette.ut ―b iss‖ t intense terr r re s experienced. The worst part is that the LSD user is unable to tell which sensations are created by the drug and which are part of reality. terrifying thoughts and feelings. Regardless of how much of the drug is used or how frequently. Marijuana smokers have poorer memories and mental aptitude than do non-users.‖ Not only do they disassociate from their usual activities in life. sleeplessness. The mental consequences of marijuana use are equally severe. seizure or respiratory (breathing) failure. Extreme changes in mood. Others experience severe. dry mouth and tremors. any of which can result in sudden death. side fr the disc f rt th t g es with s re thr ts nd chest colds. he usually feels its effect within minutes. and despair while using LSD . eL users ex erience n intense b iss they ist ke f r ―en ighten ent. the potency of THC and the presence of other drugs added into the mix.

. kidney. including cancers of the lung. alive. and developing confused episodes. Short-term risks of ecstasy can include feeling anxious or getting panic attacks.Ecstasy Users feel an energy buzz that makes them feel alert. stomach. Alcohol Depending on how much is taken and the physical condition of the individual. paranoia or even psychosis. as well as acute myeloid leukemia. alcohol can cause:             Slurred speech Drowsiness Vomiting Diarrhea Upset stomach Headaches Breathing difficulties Distorted vision and hearing Impaired judgment Decreased perception and coordination Unconsciousness Blackouts (memory lapses. esophagus. pancreas. throat. Tobacco smoke is harmful to smokers and nonsmokers. larynx (voice box). bladder. and cervix. in tune with their surroundings. where the drinker cannot remember events that occurred while under the influence) Cigarette Smoke  Cigarette smoking causes many types of cancer. Users often develop temporary feelings of love and affection for the people there with and for the strangers around them. mouth. and with sounds and c r‘s often experienced as more intense.

The other family members. The bacteria can also grow in the mouth. Signs and Symptoms Gonorrhea symptoms in women          Greenish yellow or whitish discharge from the vagina Lower abdominal or pelvic pain Burning when urinating Conjunctivitis (red. often get pulled down into the bog too. a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in mucus membranes of the body. in their efforts to help. Children living in the home with an alcoholic have lower grades. uterus (womb). itchy eyes) Bleeding between periods Spotting after intercourse Swelling of the vulva Burning in the throat (due to oral sex) Swollen glands in the throat (due to oral sex) Gonorrhea symptoms in men . Gonorrhea bacteria can grow in the warm. Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. higher rates of depression and frequently feel socially isolated. and in the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body) in women and men. You could say that the person with the problem is like someone stuck in a bog. The first step in putting things right is when the others start to get their own feet on solid ground. Alcoholism is attributable to verbal and physical abuse of the spouse and the children and carries a great responsibility for the breakup of marriages. and anus. moist areas of the reproductive tract. throat. and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women. Only after they have done this will they be able to help tackle the addiction problem.Social effects on the individual Family and community Of Drug Abuse (Alcoholism Cigarette smoke) Over-use f c h tends t neg tive y i ct the buser‘s ers n ity. ncre sed irrit bi ity poor judgment and reasoning are just a couple of ways that alcohol damages the human personality and relationships by extension. It is well known that a parent with a drug or alcohol problem can have a negative effect on their family members. including the cervix (opening to the womb).

and it may be hidden within the vagina or rectum. Primary syphilis The first sign of syphilis is a small sore. Anyone who has had sexual contact in the past 60 days with a person diagnosed with gonorrhea. . and symptoms don't always occur in the same order. they may be retested with a gonorrhea culture to see if there is bacterial resistance to the antibiotic they were taking. Many people who have syphilis don't notice the chancre because it's usually painless. But the stages may overlap. called a chancre The sore appears at the spot where the bacteria entered the body. The chancre will heal on its own within six weeks. whether or not they have symptoms or used condoms. the person will need another antibiotic to cure the infection. Treatment is recommended for:    A person who has a positive gonorrhea test. Syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by a type of bacteria known as Treponema pallidum.     Greenish yellow or whitish discharge from the penis Burning when urinating Burning in the throat (due to oral sex) Painful or swollen testicles Swollen glands in the throat (due to oral sex) Method of limiting spread   Minimizing sexual partners Using Condoms Treatment of Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics. some people develop several of them. If there is bacterial resistance. Signs and Symptoms Syphilis develops in stages. If the person has been treated for gonorrhea and doesn‘t get better. The chancre usually develops about three weeks after exposure. While most people infected with syphilis develop only one chancre. and symptoms vary with each stage. The person may be infected with syphilis and not notice any symptoms for years. A newborn whose mother has gonorrhea at the time of delivery.

and take 2 to 4 weeks to heal. The latent stage can last for years. the disease moves from the secondary to the latent (hidden) stage. Treatment failures can occur at any stage of the infection so follow-up for one to two years is important. sore throat and swollen lymph nodes. These problems may occur many years after the original. liver. a person may also experience flu-like symptoms . nerves. Herpes Genital herpes is an STD caused by two types of viruses. heart. In the late stages. bones and joints. such as your eyes. blood vessels. or the disease may progress to the tertiary (third) stage. Limiting of spread   Limiting the number of sex partners Use condoms Treatment Penicillin by injection is still the main treatment for all stages of syphilis. the disease may damage the brain. Signs and symptoms may never return. they may experience a rash that begins on the trunk but eventually covers the entire body — even the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. If you touch your sores or the fluids from the sores. Asymptomatic (latent) syphilis should be treated to prevent occurrence of late complications (tertiary syphilis). This rash is usually not itchy and may be accompanied by wart-like sores in the mouth or genital area. The blisters break open. When symptoms are present.Secondary syphilis Within a few weeks of the original chancre healing. These signs and symptoms may disappear within a few weeks or repeatedly come and go for as long as a year. you may transfer herpes to another part of your body. fever. Signs and symptoms It is also possible to be infected and have no symptoms. Some people also experience muscle aches. untreated infection. Genital herpes can cause painful genital sores and can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. With the first outbreak of genital herpes. they consist of typically painful blisters around the genital or rectal area. Tertiary (late) syphilis About 15 to 30 percent of people infected with syphilis who don't get treatment will develop complications known as tertiary (late) syphilis. eyes. form ulcers. when you have no symptoms. The viruses are called herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2. so not everyone who is infected may be aware of the infection. Latent syphilis If the person is treated for syphilis.

After the initial infection. and some other body fluids. there are medicines that can prevent or shorten outbreaks. as might be the case when getting a tattoo. There are five main types of hepatitis that are caused by a virus. A. leading to pain on urination. . and swollen lymph nodes. a person typically has outbreaks later in life. The infection spreads to involve the cervix in most cases.including fever. You get hepatitis B by:     Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person (unprotected sex means without using a condom) Using a syringe that was previously used by an infected person (most commonly happens with drug addicts and people who inject steroids). with an infected person. Immediately prior to an outbreak. Hepatitis B This is an STD (sexually transmitted disease). such as a toothbrush or razor. Being bitten by someone who is infected. People who work in health care risk becoming infected by accident in this way. Hepatitis Hepatitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the liver. D. or being accidentally pricked. there may be an itching. and E . genital herpes usually causes blistering lesions on the vulva and around the vaginal opening that progress to ulcer formation. C. semen. It is caused by the virus HBV (hepatitis B virus) and is spread by contact with infected blood. B. A baby can become infected through his mother's milk if she is infected. Sharing personal items. body aches. In women. One of these herpes medicines can be taken daily. leading to cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix). or tingling sensation of the types X and G. Limiting of spread   Limiting the number of sex partners Use condoms Treatment of Herpes There is no cure for herpes. Having your skin perforated with unsterilized needles. Infection and inflammation of the urethra accompanies the infection in some women. and makes it less likely that you will pass the infection on to your sex partner(s). However. burning.

yellow skin and eyes (may be signs of jaundice) Limiting spread   Limiting sexual partners Using a condom during intercourse with a infected person. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection If the person has been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B infection. HIV/AIDS AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). loss of appetite.Signs and Symptoms         fatigue. they may have treatment to reduce the risk of liver disease and prevent you from passing the infection to others. the doctor might recommend rest and adequate nutrition and fluids while the body fights the infection. The illness alters the immune system. dark urine. Instead. unexplained weight loss. flu-like symptoms. making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. Treatment of Hepatitis Treatment for acute hepatitis B infection If a doctor determines that the hepatitis B infection is acute — meaning it is short-lived and will go away on its own — the person may not need treatment. Signs and symptoms Symptoms of early HIV infection may include:   fever chills . Several antiviral medications can help fight the virus and slow its ability to damage the liver. abdominal pain. This susceptibility worsens as the disease progresses. Treatments include:  Antiviral medications. pale-colored stool.

This stage of infection is known as AIDS. which is usually persistent or chronic dry cough permanent tiredness shortness of breath swollen glands lasting for weeks weight loss white spots on the tongue or mouth Method of limiting spread    Limiting sexual partners Use of condoms Prevention of blood transfer from someone who is infected(needles. Signs and symptoms of AIDS may include:         blurred vision diarrhea. but a variety of drugs can be used in combination to control the virus.         joint pain muscle ache sore throat sweats (particularly at night) enlarged glands a red rash tiredness weakness weight loss If left untreated. Each class of anti-HIV drugs blocks the virus in different ways. The person becomes vulnerable to serious illnesses. blood transfusion) Treatment There's no cure for HIV/AIDS. It's best to combine at least three drugs from two classes to avoid creating strains of HIV that are immune to single drugs. . HIV weakens the ability to fight infection.

meningitis. chronic iver dise se nd cirrh sis. It is crucial that women protect themselves and their children by learning how to avoid these infections and getting sufficient prenatal care.Effects of STI. Others can spread during the birthing process or postnatal period (through breastfeeding or direct contact). which may result in physical and mental abnormalities or even the loss of the baby. low birth weight. pneumonia. Some infections are transmitted from the mother to the child through the placenta during pregnancy. on the pregnant mother and fetus Contracting a sexually transmitted disease/infection during or prior to pregnancy may cause damage to the developing fetus.‖ The f wing ist r vides information on specific STDS and the potential threats they pose to pregnant mothers. affecting the fetus inside of the womb. neonatal se sis (infecti n in the b by‘s b d stre ) neur gic d ge b indness de fness cute hepatitis. conjunctivitis (eye infection). . According to Centers f r ise se C ntr ―The h r fu effects f T s in babies may include stillbirth (a baby that is born dead).

Reuse To reuse is to use an item again after it has been used. Pollutants A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects. rain).(Pollution. especially bacteria. . Sewage The ter ‗sew ge‘ describes r w sew ge sew ge s udge r se tic t nk w ste. There are mainly four types of pollution . and may therefore damage the environment Reduce To make something smaller or use less. Non-biodegradable A substance or chemical that is non-biodegradable cannot be changed to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria. Landfill A landfill is a carefully designed structure built into or on top of the ground in which trash is isolated from the surrounding environment (groundwater. R w sew ge is mainly water containing excrement. resulting in a smaller amount of waste. industrial release Biodegradable Any substance that is capable of being decomposed by biological agents. soil and land. Community Health and the Environment) Pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse changes. Pollution occurs when any form of impurity is introduced into a clean source. This isolation is accomplished with a bottom liner and daily covering of soil. air.air. water.

swamps. change the temperature of water and pose serious hazard to water organisms.Recycle Recycling is a process to change waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials Effects of air pollution Air pollution could be caused by any substance that holds the potential to hinder the atmosphere or the wellbeing of the living beings surviving in it. Oil leakage: Oil spill poses a huge concern as large amount of oil enters into the sea and does not dissolve with water. the runoff flows through pipes or directly into the creeks. Water that was absorbed into the ground is taken up by plants. In most cities. Many industries do not have proper waste management system and drain the waste in the fresh water which goes into rivers. can turn into water vapor. The sustainment of all things living is due to a combination of gases that collectively form the atmosphere. which is called precipitation. . The toxic chemicals have the capability to change the color of water. Water cycle and how water is treated for bacteria In the water cycle. increase the amount of minerals. and even you. Clouds lose their water as rain or snow. Rain and runoff from garden and lawn irrigation runs down the streets through gutters into the storm drains. The sewage water carries harmful bacteria and chemicals that can cause serious health problems. birds and sea otters. rivers. Pesticides reach creeks and rivers through storm drains and household drains When pesticide or fertilizer is applied outdoors. Storm drains are frequently located in streets. there by opens problem for local marine wildlife such as fish. Water vapor condenses into millions of tiny droplets that form clouds. Precipitation is either absorbed into the ground or runs off into rivers. detergents. plants. the imbalance caused by the increase or decrease of the percentage of these gases can be harmful for survival. rivers. some of the material may move to other locations. How sewage. groundwater and oceans. lakes. water from oceans. canals and later in to sea. Industrial waste-Industries produce huge amount of waste which contains toxic chemicals and pollutants which can cause damage to us and our environment. oil. also known as Eutrophication. industrial waste and pesticide pollute water including causes of eutrophication Sewage and waste water -The sewage and waste water that is produced by each household is may contain chemicals and detergents released in to sea with fresh water.

These floc attract dirt particles. pathogenic organisms are killed and hard water becomes soft. or oceans where it evaporates back into the atmosphere. Use of Chemicals Bleaching powder and hypochlorite solutions may be used to purify domestic water supply. including unsafe levels of organic. Domestic ways of purifying water Water may be purified on a small scale by the following methods: Boiling By heating water to a temperature of 100°C or 212°F. Coagulation Treatment plant workers add alum and other chemicals to the water. When the water source is a lake or river. inorganic. making them eventually heavy enough to sink to the bottom of the water storage tank. Large scale water purification and identify the stages Water purification plays a key role in ensuring access to safe drinking water. the screen serves an important function. Charcoal. Screening Water from lakes. nor foul gases or fine solid particles.Plants lose water from their surfaces as vapor back into the atmosphere. porous iron may also be used as filtering materials. If ground water is used. Water analysis involves looking for several kinds of contaminants. to form. which cause tiny sticky particles. Filters Straining through muslin cloth is not a very hygienic method as bacteria are not removed. rivers or the ground passes through a screen as it enters the water treatment plant. screening may not be necessary since the water has passed through layers of the earth in what is essentially a natural screening function. Safe drinking water positively impacts the health of the entire community. or floc. or fish. microbial and/or radioactive contaminants. lakes. keeping out large natural contaminants such as plants and wood. sand. . Water that runs off into rivers flows into ponds.

As the water sits there. . It causes the wide spread of many diseases and poses as a health problem for human beings.Sedimentation The water and floc flow into a sedimentation basin. The gravel layer is often about 1 foot deep and the sand layer about 2½ feet deep. avoid the contamination of drinking water and reduce unpleasant odors and unsightly appearance. disinfection may be the only step required to sufficiently treat the water. the purified water sits in the closed tank or reservoir until it flows through pipes to homes and businesses. where they remain until removal. rodents and dogs. Proper sewage disposal methods are essential to control disease-causing bacteria. the heavy floc settle to the bottom. Disinfection Water goes into a closed tank or reservoir. to remove and stabilize organic material. After it is disinfected. which serve to filter out any remaining particles. If a water treatment facility uses ground water as its only water source. Disease-causing bacteria can contaminate drinking water supplies and be transported by flies. Chlorine or other disinfecting chemicals kill any remaining microorganisms or bacteria in the water and help keep the water clean until distribution. Filtration Water passes through layers of gravel. Proper and improper treatment of sewage Proper sewage disposal is getting rid sewage in the most environmentally and human friendly way as possible whilst improper sewage disposal is the opposite. sand and perhaps charcoal.

Pit Latrine .

Pit latrines should not be built uphill of a well.Parts of the pit latrine and their functions A pit latrine generally consists of three major parts: A hole in the ground –this is the hole through which the faeces enter the pit. aircraft. platforms or other human—made structures. The site should be well drained and above flood level. Recycling Recycling is a process to change waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials. The latrine should be a minimum distance of six meters from the house. Pit. Open Dumping Open dumps are illegally dumped. abandoned piles of garbage and debris in large quantities. Latrines should also be an established minimum safe distance from the nearest water source. Why the location of the pit latrine is important It is important to locate a latrine downhill from water sources wherever possible. Shelter this is t r vide riv cy t ers n‘s wh re using the trine.this is where the faeces is stored. Ocean Dumping Ocean dumping is the deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes at sea from vessels. Methods of disposing domestic refuse. since faecal pollution may be carried directly through cracks and joints in the rock to the well. so that it is easy to reach during bad weather but will not cause problems of odor in the house. Sending waste to Landfill Incineration Incineration is the use of fire to destroy waste. . particularly in areas of fissured rock such as limestone. The latrine pit should not penetrate groundwater and should be at least two meters above the water table.

A continuous row of cells is called a lift. may also be used. and other materials. Unauthorized salvaging. to measure in-place volumes and densities of the wastes. rubbish dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment Operations Spreading and Compacting Bulldozers quickly spread and compact the waste in layers of about 2 feet. dump. and green wastes. Daily Cover At the end of each day's operation. . Materials Recovery Many landfills salvage wood. An approved alternative cover. bulldozers spread and compact at least 6 inches of earth over all of the waste. Waste Cells and Lifts Each day's deposit of covered waste is called a cell. blowing Surveying This is done to ensure proper surface drainage and slope stability. broken paving. paper. and to control the height and extent of the fill area. is strictly prohibited. Some landfills are operated in conjunction with a materials recovery facility for recycling glass. plastics. The daily cover prevents the emergence of flies and other insects. metal objects. and controls odors. and conserves valuable landfill volume.Landfill and operations A landfill site (also known as a tip. such as shredded green waste. It is repeated until the compacted waste reaches a height of 8 to 10 feet. aluminum. This process eliminates voids where rodents might seek harborage. or scavenging. The landfill is made up of many lifts.