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1.Vowels  

ì  

DEPENDENT  CHANGES    
IN  LATE  OLD  ENGLISH  AND  MIDDLE  ENGLISH  
 

1.1.  LENGTHENING  OF  SHORT  VOWELS  FOLLOWED  BY  LIQUID  OR  NASAL  PLUS  A  HOMORGANIC  CONSONANT  
             (FIRST  PHASE  OF  LENGTHENING)  

Some short vowels were lengthened in late Old English when they were followed by a liquid
or a nasal plus a homorganic consonant (Two consonants are homorganic when they share
the same point of articulation).
The lengthening did NOT take place - if there was a third consonant (child/children).
- in words that do not bear sentence stress (and, under)
Lengthening groups: [ld, mb, nd, rd, r, ng].
OE [ɑ + l + d] > l.OE [ɑ:]
OE [e + l + d] > l.OE [e:]
OE [i + l + d] > l.OE [i:] etc.
 

Towards the close of the 14th century LENGTHENING was maintained only before [mb] (for [i:] and [o:]). [nd] (for [i:] and [u:]) [ld] (for all vowels) OE <ċild> [t∫ild] > lOE ⑴ [t∫i:ld] > ME [t∫i:ld] > ModE ⑵ [t∫aild] > PdE [t∫aɪld] <child> ⒈ Lengthening because there is a homorganic group (l + d) (Lengthening remains in ME) ⒉ GVS OE <wolde> [wolde] > lOE ⑴ [wo:lde] > ME ⑵ [wo:ld(ə)] > eModE ⑶[wu:ld] >17th ⑷⑸ [wud] > PdE [wʊd] <would> ⒈ Lengthening of short vowel due to the homorganic group (Lengthening remains in ME) ⒉ Weakening and loss of ending ⒊ Great Vowel Shi ⒋ Shortening due to grammatical word ⒌ Loss of [-l-] (grammatical word) .

 DiphthongizaNon   OE [o] > ME ǫ̅ / [ɔ:] <hol> OE [holum] > (Oblique case) ME [hɔ:l(ən)]1.2.  Weakening  and    Loss  of  Ending.      2.  Weakening  and    Loss  of  Ending.                3.  Great  Vowel  ShiI                  4.  Weakening  and    Loss  of  Ending.  Open  Syllable  Lengthening.  Great  Vowel  ShiI   OE [ɑ] > ME ā / [a:]     <makian> OE [mɑkian] > ME [ma:k(ən)]1.                3. For the vowels [i] and [u].  Weakening  and    Loss  of  Ending.  Open  Syllable  Lengthening. the first syllable is terminated by a vowel).                                              3. 2 > eModE [wi:k] 3 > PdE [wi:k] <week> 1.      2.1. These vowels were lengthened and opened or lowered.  CentralizaNon  of  the  1st  element  of  the                                  diphthong   .   OE [i] > ME ẹ̅ / [e:] <wicu> OE [wiku] > ME [we:kə]1.  OPEN  SYLLABLE  LENGTHENING  (13th  century)  (SECOND  PHASE  OF  LENGTHENING)   This dependent change affected short vowels in disyllables when the first syllable is open (that is.      2.  Open  Syllable  Lengthening. 2 > eModE [mæ:k]3 > 17th [mɛ:k]3 > 18th [me:k]3 > 19th [meik]4 > PdE [meɪk] <make>  1.  Open  Syllable  Lengthening.  Great  Vowel  ShiI    4. 2 > eModE [me:t] 3 > [mi:t] 3 > PdE [mi:t] <meat> 1.                        2.  Great  Vowel  ShiI   OE [e] > ME ę̅ / [ɛ:] <mete> OE [mete] > ME [mɛ:tə]1. lengthening took place later and was less general.        3. 2 > ModE [ho:l] 3 > 18th [houl] 4 > 19th [həʊl]5 > PdE [həʊl] <hole> 1.  DiphthongizaNon      5.

       2.3.  Great  Vowel  ShiI    4.4.  L-­‐GLIDING   When [ɑ] + [l]+ consonant in late OE [ɑ] +[w] + [l]   OE <eall> [æɑll]> late OE [ɑll]1 > [ɑwll]2 > ME [ɑwl]3 > ME [ɑul]4 > ModE.        3.  L-­‐gliding            3.  Open  Syllable  Lengthening. 2 > ModE [wu:d] 3 > Aer 1640 [wʊd]4 > PdE [wʊd] <wood>    1.  Late  shortening 1.  SHORTENING   Long accented vowels are shortened in closed syllables before consonant groups (except for the groups which caused lengthening.  SimplificaNon      of  geminates  4.MonophthongizaNon   .  Weakening  and    Loss  of  Ending.  VocalizaNon            5.OE [u] > ME ọ̅ / [o:] <wudu> OE [wudu] > ME [wo:d(ə)]1.18th [ɔ:l]5 > PdE [ɔ:l] <all>            1.  MonophthongizaNon      2. see ⒈⒈) OE <sōe> [so:e] > ME [soə] (the consonant group was part of the root) OE <cēpte> [ke:pte] > ME [keptə] (the consonant group was the result of inflexion) 1.

In mid-word or word final position. ME [i + ç + t] > [i + j + ç + t] > [i + i + ç + t] > [i: + ç + t] ME [e + ç + t] > [i + ç + t] > [i + j + ç + t] > [i + i + ç + t] > [i: + ç + t] Palatal Umlaut H-GLIDING vocalization OE <miht> [miçt]> ⑴ ME [mijçt] > ⑵ [miiçt] > ⑶ [mi:çt]> ⑷ eModE [maiçt] > ⑸ 17th [mait] > PdE [maɪt] <might> ⒈ H-gliding ⒉ Vocalization ⒊ Assimilation ⒋ Great Vowel Shi ⒌ -ç + t > Ø . If <h> [ç] followed a ont vowel. respectively and joined the previous vowel to form a long vowel or a diphthong. If <h> [χ] followeda back vowel.5. the gliding was [w]. the gliding was [j].  H-­‐GLIDING   This dependent change took place in ME.1. when followed by a consonant. the [j] and the [w] were vocalized to [i] and [u]. [ç] /[χ] <h> provoked a gliding. Later.

ME [u+ χ + t] > [u + w + χ + t]> [u + u + χ+ t] > [u:+ χ+ t] ME [o + χ+ t] > [o + w + χ+ t] > [o + u + χ+ t] > [ou + χ+ t] > 17th [ɔ:+ χ+ t]             MonophthongizaNon    bc  it  is  followed  by  [χt]   <brōht> OE [bro:χt] > ME ⑴[browχt] > ⑵ [brouχt] > 17th ⑶ [brɔ:χt] > ⑷ /brɔ:t/ = PdE [brↄ:t] <brought> ⒈Shortening and h-gliding ⒉Vocalization ⒊Monophthongization ⒋Loss of /χ/ .

given that [a] in ME had a ont place of articulation). as would have otherwise been the case. When long diphthongs resulted.6. 17th [θiŋk] > PdE [θɪŋk] <think> Cf. equently. 1. PdE <English> [‘ɪŋglɪ∫] . g] g] OE [e + n + > ME [i+n+ k] k] OE <þencan> OE [θenkan] > ME [θink(ən)] > ModE.  CLOSING  OF  [e]   When followed by a nasal + velar consonant OE [e] became ME [i]. they were shortened because they were in close syllables. h-gliding took place at the end of the period. OE [ɑ] > lOE [ɑ + χ + t] > [ɑ + w + χ + t] > [ɑ + w + χ + t] > [ɑw+ χ + t]> ME [au + χ + t] Long vowels in OE experienced the same process. so that <h> [χ] developed a [w] (and not a yod.  In the case of OE a.

2 > [sɔ:]3 > ModE [so:]4 > 18th [sou]5 > 19th [səu]6 > PdE [səʊ] <so> ⒈Free Change ⒉Vocalization ⒊ Loss of [u] because it is close to a back vowel ⒋ G.1. in mid-word position. ME cons + w + back vowel = ME cons + back vowel OE <swā> [swɑ:] > ME suǫ̅ [suɔ:]1.2.V. ⒌ Diphthongization ⒍ Centralization of the first element of the diphthong .  Dropping  of  –w-­‐   w [u] was lost in ME. when next to a back vowel in an unstressed syllable or in weakly stressed monosyllables.S.  Consonants   ì   2.

 Dropping  of  h-­‐   [h-] was lost when in word initial position followed by a consonant.V.Compare OE <swā> & OE <twā> OE <twā> [twɑ:] > ME [tuɔ:]1. OE [h-] + consonant = ME ø + consonant OE <hlāf> [hlɑ:f ] > ME [lɔ:f ]> ModE [lo:f ] > 18th [louf ] > 19th [ləuf ] > PdE [ləʊf ] [h-] also becomes silent before a vowel in the personal pronoun [it]< OE [hit]   .2. S.2 > [tuo:]3 > ME [to:]4 > ModE [tu:]5 > PdE [tu:] <two> ⒈Free Change: South ⒉Vocalization ⒊ Closing of the ⒋ Loss of [u] because ⒌ G. vowel due to w it is close to a back vowel     2.

4. before or aer [t∫]. quilk.2.  Dropping  of  inflecUonal  [-­‐n]     . OE [l] + [t∫] > ME ø + [t∫] OE [t∫] + [l] > ME [t∫] + ø OE <æ̅lċ  > PdE <each> [æ:lt∫] > ME [ɛ:lt∫] > [ɛ:t∫] > ModE [e:t∫] > [i:t∫] > PdE [i:t∫] ((The Northern dialect retains such forms as ilk. swilk.  Dropping  of  [-­‐l-­‐]     [l] drops in ME. mikel)) 2.3.