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Sara Lorenzo Fraile

Antonio Cortés Pérez

John Trevisa: Dialogue between a Lord and a Clerk
Translation of lines 1 to 10

Dominus
Lord,

Seþthe þet Babyl was ybuld men spekeþ dyvers tonges,
Since Babel was built people speak various languages,

so þat dyvers men buþ straunge to oþer and knoweþ noȢt of here
so that different men are

strange

to others and do not know their

speche. Speche ys noȢt yknowe bote Ȣif hyt be lurned. Commyn
speech. Speech is not

known

unless

it is

learnt.

Common

lurnyng of speche ys by huyryng; and so alwey deef ys alwey dombe,
learning of language is by hearing, so someone deaf from birth is always dumb,
vor he may noȢt hure speche vor to lurne. So men of ser contrayes
because he may not hear speech to learn it.

So people from various countries

and londes þat habbeþ dyvers speches, Ȣef noþer of ham haþ lurned
and

lands that have different languages, if none of them has learnt

oþeres speche, neyþer of ham wot what oþer meneþ, þey hy meete
the others' language, then none of them will know what the others mean,
when they meet
and have greet neode of informacion and of loore, of talkyng and of

Voicing because it is a grammatical word. the others' speech more than the cackling of geese. PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Þet OE Þæt > ME ðat> 1653 ðæt> PdE [ðæt] <that> [θæt] 1 2 1. none of them would understand oþeres speche no moore þan ganglyng of gees. Rounding influence of wau. of talking and of speche. Great Vowel Shift.> eModE spẹɸk > spi:k > PdE [sp@:k]<speak> [specan] 1 2 1. Fronting. 2. Simplification of geminates. spekeþ OE specan > ME spęɸk. Fronting was OE wæs > ME waz > eModE woz > PdE [w:z] <was> [wæs] 1 2 1. Open Syllable Lenghthening and loss of endings. 2.and have great need of information and of learning. neyþer of ham understondeþ speech. Be þeo neode never so gret. 2. men OE mann > lOE man > 1653 mæn > PdE [mæn] <man> [mann] 1 2 1. Voicing because it is a grammatical word 2. . Even if the need was ever so great.

straunge OF <estrange> ME strānge > eModE strǃnȴ > 17th stręɸnȴ > 18th strẹɸnȴ > 19th streinȴ > PdE [stra:nȴ] 1 2 [stre@nȴ] <strange> 1. ŋ becomes a phoneme and g is lost. Centralization and loss of lip rounding.dyvers th OF divers ME dīvers > di:vǩrz > eModE daivǩrz >20 daivǩz > PdE ['da@vǩz] <divers> [di:vǩrz] 1 2 3 1. GVS. Centralization and loss of lip rounding. Weakening of the unstressed vowel. 3. Early shortening. 2. GVS. to OE tō > ME tọɸ > eModE tū > after 1640 tu > PdE [tT] <to> [to:] 1 2 1. GVS. Late shortening. Weakening and loss of ending. 3. tonges OE tunge > ME tung(ǩ) > 17th tuŋ > 1640 tJŋ > PdE [tJŋ] <tongue> [tunge] 1 2 3 1. 2. Diphthonguization. 2. Loss of final -r. Weakening of the second vowel due to lack of stress. 4. 3. 2. GVS. . > eModE tū > PdE [tu:] <too> oþer OE ōþer > ME ọɸðǩr > eModE ūðǩr > before 1640 uðǩr > 1640 Jðǩr > 20th Jðǩ > PdE [Jðǩ] [o:ðer] 1 2 3 4 5 <other> 1. 2.

Southern developement of a:>Njɸ . No lenghthening of a + homorganic group and also because it is a grammatical word.> 17th nou> 19th nǩu > PdE [nǩT] <know> [kna:wan] 1 2 3 1. Fronting. 2. Centralization of the first element of the diphthong. ys OE is > ME iz > PdE [@z] <is> [is] 1 1. Voicing because it is a grammatical word. Vocalization of w. 3. 2. GVS. Loss of initial k. and OE and > ME and > 1653 ænd > PdE [ænd] <and> [and] 1 2 1. 3. 2. Loss of χ when followed by consonant. Weakening of ending. noȢt OE naht > ME nNjɸχt > nNjɸwχt > nNjɸuχt > 17th nōχt > nōt > PdE [nɔ:t] <nought> [na:χt] 1 2 3 4 5 1. 4. Southern development of a:>Njɸ . . speche OE spǃë > ME spęɸch > eModE spẹɸch > spi:ch > PdE [sp@:tȓ] <speech> [spæ:tȓ] 1 1. ou + χt > ɔ: 5. Vocalization.5. knoweþ OE cnawan >ME knNjɸu. Loss of final -r.followed by consonant. H-gliding.

> before e. but > 1640 bJt > PdE [bJt] <but> [bu:tan] 1 2 3 1. E. GVS. th. Early shortening. s. ur (and sometimes or). 2. 2. 2. Loss of ending. r+consonant. . 2. 3. Tendency of short vowels to be lenghthend when followed by f.> eModE bi: > PdE [b@:] <be> [be:on] 1 2 1. hyt OE hit > ME it > PdE [@t] <it> [hit] 1 1. Centralization and loss of lip rounding Ȣif OE āif > ME iif > i:f > if > PdE [@f ] <if> [jif ] 1 2 3 1.bote OE būtan > ME būt. Merger er.> eModE lẹɸrn > 18th lǩrn > la:rn > 19th la:n > PdE [la:n] <learn> [leornian] 1 2 3 4 5 1. 3. Loss of ending. lurned OE leornian > ME lẹɸrn. Shortening because it is a grammatical word. Loss of -r followed by consonant. Assimilation. be OE bēon > ME bẹɸ. Successful -r prevents GVS. ir. Vocalization.Mod. Loss of the initial aspirate because it is a grammatical word. v. 5. r. ss. 4. Loss of ending. 3.

2. Vocalization of j. dombe OE dumb > 16th dum > 1640 dJm > PdE [dJm] <dumb> [dumb] 1 2 1. so OE swā > ME swNjɸ > sNjɸ > eModE sọɸ > 18th sou > 19th sǩu > PdE [sǩT] <so> [swa:] 1 2 3 4 5 1. Centralization of the first element of the diphthong. 4. GVS. 3. 3. ai. OE weā > ME wei > 17th węɸ > 18th wẹɸ > 19th wei > PdE [we@] <way> [ wej] 1 2 1.commyn OF comun ME comun > komǩn > PdE ['k:mǩn] <common> [komun] 1 1. Loss of w next to back vowels in unstressed syllable. Alweys OE eall > lOE awll > awl >ME aul > 18th ōl > PdE [ɔ:l] <all> [æall] 1 2 3 4 1. Monophthonguization. 2. b is lost in the cluster mb. Southern development of a:>Njɸ .. Merger of ei. 4.gliding. a: . Weakening of the vowel of the second syllable due to lack of stress. 2. . 5.Vocalization. 2. L. Diphthonguization. Simplification of geminates. Centralization and loss of lip rounding.

londes OE land > ME land > 1653 lænd > PdE [lænd] <land> [land] 1 1. GVS. GVS. Fronting. 2.r. 3. Loss of initial h.v.vor OE for > 18th fōr > 20th fō > PdE [fɔ:] [for] 1 2 1. Simplification of geminates 2. he OE hē > ME hẹɸ > eModE hi: > PdE [h@:] <he> [he:] 1 1. Loss of final -r. what OE hwæt > ME hwat > eModE hwot > 17th wot > PdE [w:t] <what> [hwæt] 1 2 1.ss. Rouding influence of w. GVS. habbeþ OE habban > lOE haban.r. th. .r+consonant.> ME hav > 1653 hæv > PdE [hæv] <have> [haccan] 1 2 3 1. Loss of ending. 2.s. meneþ OE mǃnan > ME męɸn > eModE mẹɸn > mi:n > PdE [m@:n] <mean> [mæ:n] 1 1. c > v and loss of ending. Tendency of short vowel to be lengthened when followed by f. meete OE mētan > ME mẹɸt. 2.> eModE mi:t > PdE [m@:t] <meet> [me:tan] 1 2 1.followed by w. Fronting.

it is currently pronounced [gre@t]. Early shortening. 3. information OF informacion ME informa:tion > 1 infǩrma:tion > 2 eModE infǩrmǃtion > 17th infǩrmęɸtion > 18th infǩrmẹɸtion > 19th infǩrmeiȓǩn > PdE [@nfǩr'me@ȓn] <information> 1. Merger of ei. understondet OE under > ME undǩr > 1640 Jndǩr >20th Jndǩ > PdE ['Jndǩ] [under] 1 2 3 <under> 1. Successful -r prevents from GVS. The same happens with <break> and <steak>.gret/greet OE <grætɸ> should be pronounced [gri:t] nowadays. South development of a:>Njɸ . However.Mod. . neode OE nēod > ME nẹɸd > eModE ni:d > PdE [n@:d] <need> [ne:od] 1 1. ai. loore OE lar > ME lNjɸr > eModE lNjɸr > 20th lNjɸ > PdE [lɔ:] <lore> [la:r] 1 2 3 1. Weakening of the vowel od the second syllable due to the lack of stress. Loss of the vowel in the second syllable due to the lack of stress. never OE næfre > ME nęɸvr > nęɸvǩr > nevǩr > 20th nevǩ > PdE ['nevǩ] <never> [næ:vre] 1 2 3 4 1. GVS. a:. GVS. Weakening of the unstressed vowel. E. 3. Loss of final -r. 4. 2. Epenthetic ǩ. 2. No lenghthening of u + homorganic group because it is a grammatical word. Loss of final -r. pre-e. we do not know why. Shortening because it is a grammatical word. 2.

more OE māra > ME mNjɸr > eModE mNjɸr > 20th mō > PdE [mɔ:] [ma:ra] 1 2 3 1. i. : was. meneþ. By ANC. : Old English PdE <specan> <speak> <leornian> <learn> 4.2. ME long open [ɔ:] came to be represented by means of the digraph <oa> or by means of <o+consonant+e>. i. Fronting. Old English <māra > PdE <more> . haþ. Centralization and loss of lip rounding. OE standan > ME stand > 1653 stænd > PdE [stænd]<stand> [standan] 1 2 1. i. 3. 3. knoweþ. voiced and voiceless. oþer. and. South development of a:>Njɸ . : þet. <æ> appeared for the last time in 1258 in the Oxford Provisions. Loss of final -r. In OE we had the letters < ð> and <þ> to represent the interdental fricatives. OE <æ> was substituted in ME by <a> by Anglo-Norman convention (ANC). ME long close eʖɸ [e:] is represented by means of the digraph <ee>. 3. By ANC these fricatives came to be represented by means of the letters <th> in ME. 2. habbeþ. Loss of ending. ME long open ęɸ [ε:] is represented by means of the digraph <ea> or by means of <e+ consonant+e>. 2. neodeþ. By ANC. Loss of ending. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 1. Old English PdE <mētan> <meet> 5.e. 2.e. Loss of final -r. By ANC. spekeþ. Successful -r prevents from GVS. neyþer.e.

also by ANC i. 12. or preceded by <w>. In ME. Old English <tunge> PdE <tongue> 9. <v>. In ME by ANC. Words that in OE where written with <hw> in word initial position are written in PdE with <wh-> by ANC: <what>. Only if the word is of classical origin could ME [i] be represented by means of <i> in word final position. 13. i. THIS IS NOT A GOOD EXAMPLE!!! Old English <butan> PdE <but> 10. and by means of <k> in word final position preceded by a consonant. <n>. i. <u>. By ANC. [i] began to be represented by means of the letter <i> when it was in mid-word position and by <y> in word final position. 8. by ANC. e. which is PE <speech>. Law of Minims: In ME. There was no change in pronunciation. e: <know> And by means of the letters <ck> in final position or in mid-word position (as part of the word root). <speche>. by ANC. OE [k] was represented by means of the letter <c> in word initial position when followed by a back vowel. <more>. because of the Law of Minims. the voiced labiodental fricative [v] came to be represented by means of the letter <v> (in OE it was represented by <f>): <never> (OE <nǃfre>). the voiceless palatal affricate /tȓ/ was represented by means of the letters <ch>: <speech> (OE <spēc>). diacritic <-e> was used to indicate that the vowel of the previous syllable was long: <lore>. .e: <cnāwan> In PdE it is represented by means of the letter <k> in word initial position when followed by a front vowel by ANC. In ME. By ANC OE long ū [u:] came to be represented by means of <ou> in mid -word position and by means of <ow> in word final position. Old English PdE < āif> <if> <hit> <it> 7. when [u] was followed by the downstroke letters <m>. Old English PdE <hwæt> <what> 11. it came to be represented by means of the letter <o>.6.

but then it took the meaning “stupid”. WITH. where it meant both “speechless” and “foolish. ignorant”. FOLKLORE th .DUMB. ALSO HAS THIS MEANING. which was ocasional in ME.LEARN. This is due to the influence of German. . In OE it meant “unable to speak”. E. P. TO.SEMANTIC ANALYSIS . The transitive sense of learn (= teach) is considered vulgar and archaic since the 19 century.