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From  late  ME  to  Modern  English  

Basic  processes.  
1.  ROUNDING  INFLUENCE  OF  W  (late  ME  &  Modern  English)  
w sometimes affected the vowel following it, either rounding or closing it.
ME w+ ɔ: = l.ME wo:
Cf. OE <twā>
ME w+a = e.Mod. E wo
OE [wæs] > ME [wa1z2] > 1640 [wo3z] > PdE [wɒz]
⒈Free change
⒉Weakening of final –s > -z
⒊Rounding influence of [w-] : a > o
 
 

ì  

⒊ Weakening and loss of ending.2. OE <mæġ> PdE <may> OE [mæj] > ME [mai1-2] > [ma:3] > ModE [mæ:4] > 17th [mɛ:4] > 18th [me:4] > 19th [mei5] > PdE [meɪ] ⒈  ⒉  Free change Vocalization. ⒌ G. ⒌Diphthongization   Cf. merged into /ai/ in Early Middle English) became /aː/ before the GREAT VOWEL SHIFT. ⒊ Merger of ME [ai].  ai  and  a:  (late  ME)     /ai/ (and former /ei/. past tense <said> [sed]   OE[sæjde]> ME [sai1-2d(ə)3]> [sa:d4]>⑸ eModE [sæ:d5]> 17th [sɛ:d5] > 18th [se:d5]>⑺[sed6]>PdE [sed]  ⒈ Free change.  MERGER  OF  ei.S. ⒋ Great Vowel Shi. [ei] and [a:]. ⒋ Merger: [ai]. ⒉ Vocalization. [ei]. ‼‼ ⒍ Shortening before diphthongization .[a:].V.

hood. blood.   <sunu> / PdE <son> OE [sunu] > ME [sunə1] > [sun] > ModE (1640) [sᴧ2n] > PdE [sᴧn] <son> ⒈ Weakening & loss of unstressed syllable 2.3. Centralization and loss of lip-rounding . glove) and aer (good. Centralization & loss of lip-rounding OE <būtan> / PdE <but> OE [bu:tan] > ME [bu:t(ən)1] > ModE before 1640 [bu2t] > 1640 [bʌ3t] = <but> ⒈ Weakening of unstressed syllable (and loss) ⒉ Shortening due to weakening (grammatical word) 3. becomes unrounded and eventually lowered unless preceded by a labial and followed by a non-velar. took) this split. soot.  CENTRALIZATION  AND  LOSS  OF  LIP-­‐ROUNDING  (1640)   ME  [u] > 1640 [ʌ]   In southern England. book. This gives put [pʊt] but cut [kʌt] and buck [bʌk]. This distinction later become phonemicized by an influx of words shortened om /uː/ to /ʊ/ both before (flood.

f. v. [ɪ] and [ʌ] (also [w+or] merge before [r] > [ə]. OE [ɑnd] > ME [ɑ1nd] > 1653 [æ2nd] > PdE [ænd / ənd] strong / weak form ⒈ No lengthening (grammatical word) 2.  MERGER  of  er. th.  ur  and  wor  (18th)   Changes affect short vowels in many varieties before an /r/ at the end of a word or before a consonant [a] as in start and [ɔ] as in north are lengthened. 18th century: Merger of ir. fir and fur. OE [word] > ME [word] > ModE 18th[wər1d]>⑸18th[wə:2rd]>⑹19th[wə:3d]>PdE [wɜ:d] 1. ⒉ 18th century: Tendency of short vowels to be lengthened when followed by s. hence most varieties of Modern English have the same vowel in each of fern. ur and wor into ər. r. ⒊ 19th century: Loss of r when followed by another consonant .4. Fronting 5.  FRONTING  (1653)   [a]. as in cat and trap. r+consonant.  ir. [ɛ]. onted to [æ] in many areas. er. ss.

r.   . f. th. f.6. ss. ss. 18th century: Tendency of short vowels to be lengthened when followed by s. r+cons. OE <cræe> > PdE <craft> OE[kræe] > ME [kra1ə2] > ModE [kræ3] > 18th [kræ:4] > 19th [krɑ:5]> PdE [krɑ:] ⒈ Free change ⒉ Weakening and loss of ending ⒊ 1653: Fronting. v. th. r+consonant. ⒌19th century: Velarization.  LENGTHENING  (18th)   Tendency of short vowels to be lengthened when followed by s. r. 4. v.

7.edu/~mmenzer/gvs/   .furman.  THE  GREAT  VOWEL  SHIFT   h-p://eweb.

. It affected the long vowels of ME leading to raising and/or diphthongization. The upward shi of the vowels and the diphthongization of the highest of them as a central off-glide can be illustrated with the previous figure.   Great  Vowel  ShiT  (GVS)  is a chain shift which began in the late ME period and came to a kind of conclusion in the ModE period. The ME back vowel [u:]remained unshied in the North and in Scotland. The GVS was not the same everywhere. Example: ME hus [hu:s] became ModE house [haʊs]. perhaps because there was no pressure on it to diphthongize as in the South in order to maintain its distinctiveness. This shi is one of the most significant changes which English has undergone.

but evidence against a “pure” pull chain initiated by the diphthongization of [i:] to [aɪ] is less likely in view of the absence of the parallel diphthongization of [u:] to [aʊ] in the North and to the apparent piecemeal and uneven nature of the shi among the ont vowels.The question of pull/drag chain vs. OE [gatu] > ME [ga:tə] > ModE [gæ:t] > [gɛ:t] > [ge:t] > 19th [geit] = PdE [ɡeɪt] <gate> OE [sæ:] > ME [sɛ:] > ModE [se:] > [si:] > PdE [si:] <sea> OE [he:] > ME [he:] > eModE [hi:] > PdE [hi:] <he> OE[mi:n] > ME [mi:⒩] > eModE [mai] > PdE[maɪ] <my> OE [stɑ:n] > ME [stɔ:n] > eModE [sto:n] > 18th[stoun] > 19th[stəun] > PdE [stəʊn]<stone> OE[so:ne] > ME[so:n(ə)] > eModE [su:n] > PdE [su:n] <soon> OE [u:re ] > ME [u:r(ə)] > eModE [aur] > 18th [auər] > 20th [auə] > PdE [aʊə] <our> . push chain remains open. too. there may have been regional differences. Here.

OE   ME   [gatu]>   [ga:tə]>   [gæ:t]>[gɛ:t]>   18th   [ge:t]>   19th   PdE   [geit]>   [ɡeɪt] [se:] > [si:] >   [si:]   [he:] >   [he:] >   [hi:] >   [hi:] [mi:n]>   [mi:⒩]>   [mai] >   [maɪ] [stɑ:n]>   [stɔ:n] >   [sto:n] >   [so:ne]>   [so:n(ə)]>   [su:n] >   [u:re ] >   [u:r(ə)] >   [aur] >   [sæ:] >   [sɛ:] >   ModE   (Great  Vowel  ShiT)   [stoun]>   [stəun]>   [stəʊn]   [su:n] [auər] >   [aʊə] .

 DiphthongizaXon     Long close o [o:] and long close e [e:] were diphthongized: (18th  DiphthongizaXon  +  CentralizaXon  of  the  1st  element  of  the  diphthong)   OE [stɑ:n] > ME [stɔ:n] > eModE [sto:n] > 18th[stoun] > 19th[stəun] > PdE [stəʊn] (19th  DiphthongizaXon)   OE [gatu] > ME [ga:tə] > ModE [gæ:t] > [gɛ:t] > [ge:t] > 19th [geit] = PdE [ɡeɪt] 9.8.  R-­‐Gliding       OE[wæ:ron] > ME [w1ɛ:r2(ən)] > [wɛ:r2] > ModE [w3ɛ:r] > 18th [w3ɛ:4ər] > 19th [w5ɛər] > 20th [wɛə6]= PdE ⒈ Free change ⒉ Weakening of unstressed syllable (and loss) ⒊ Successful –r (no Great Vowel Shi) ⒋ 18th R-gliding ⒌ 19th Shortening of /ɛ:/ ⒍ 20th Loss of –r   .

⒌ Successul r: no G. Century: When –r+consonant OE [hlɑ:vord] > ME [⒣1lɔ:2v(ə)3rd] > [lɔ:vrd] > [lɔ:r4d] > ⑸ eModE [lɔ:5rd] > ⑹ 19th[lɔ:6d]>PdE [lɔ:d] ⒈ Loss of h in initial position when h+consonant.V.10. 6. ⒊ Before 1640: Early shortening. ⒋ 1640: Centralization and loss of lip rounding.  20th.  Dropping  of  R      19th. Southern development. Century: -r (in final position)   OE[o:ðer]>ME[o:ðə1r]>ModE[u:2ðər]> before 1640 [u3ðər] > 1640[ʌ4ðər]>20th[ʌðə5]> PdE[ʌðə]  ⒈Weakening of unstressed vowel ⒉ G.V.S. ⒋ Loss of v close to a consonant group. ⒊ Weakening and loss of endings.S. 5. ì   . 19th century: Loss of r when followed by a consonant. ⒉ Free change. 20th :Loss of r in final position.