You are on page 1of 10

Create account Log in

Article Talk


Read View source More

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Main page
Featured content

This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. For the physics of atomic hydrogen, see Hydrogen atom. For other meanings, see Hydrogen

Current events

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic

Random article

weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is

Donate to Wikipedia

the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic

Wikimedia Shop

mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. The most

About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
What links here

common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has a single proton
The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At
nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily
forms covalent compounds with most non-metallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in
molecular forms such as in the form of water or organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a particularly
important role in acid–base reactions as many acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons
between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge

Special pages

(i.e., anion) known as a hydride, or as a positively charged (i.e., cation) species denoted by the

Permanent link

symbol H+. The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality,

Cite this page
Create a book

energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum

‫ا ﻟﻌ ﺮﺑ ﻴﺔ‬


colorless gas

Hydrogen in the periodic table



– ← Hydrogen → helium


Standard atomic


Element category

diatomic nonmetal, could
be considered metalloid

substance,[8] and that it produces water when burned, a property which later gave it its name: in

Group, block

group 1, s-block

Greek, hydrogen means "water-former".


period 1

Industrial production is mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas, and less often from more



per shell


acids. In 1766–81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize that hydrogen gas was a discrete



Atomic number

Printable version


Hydrogen, H


the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the

Download as PDF


General properties
Name, symbol

hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex species than that would suggest. As

Hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century, via the mixing of metals with


Spectral lines of hydrogen

standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic,

Upload file

Wikidata item

Purple glow in its plasma state

and zero neutrons.

Related changes

Page information

Hydrogen, 1 H

energy-intensive hydrogen production methods like the electrolysis of water.[9] Most hydrogen is
employed near its production site, with the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g.,

Physical properties

hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market.




Hydrogen is a concern in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals,[10] complicating the design of




pipelines and storage tanks.[11]

Melting point

13.99 K ​(−259.16 °C, ​
−434.49 °F)


Boiling point

20.271 K ​(−252.879 °C, ​
−423.182 °F)


Density at stp
(0 °C and
101.325 kPa)

0.08988 g·L −1

liquid, at m.p.

0.07 g·cm−3




(solid: 0.0763 g·cm−3 )[2]


liquid, at b.p.

0.07099 g·cm−3


Triple point

13.8033 K, ​7 .041 kPa


Critical point

32.938 K, 1.2858 MPa


Heat of fusion

(H 2 ) 0.117 kJ·mol−1

Heat of

(H 2 ) 0.904 kJ·mol−1

Molar heat

(H 2 ) 28.836 J·mol−1·K−1




P (Pa)


at T (K)

1 10




10 k

100 k



Atomic properties
Oxidation states

1, −1 ​(an amphoteric


Pauling scale: 2.20



1st: 1312.0 kJ·mol −1


Covalent radius

31±5 pm

Van der Waals

120 pm

Diné bizaad

Emiliàn e rumagnòl

Crystal structure

​h exagonal

Speed of sound

1310 m·s−1 (gas, 27 °C)


0.1805 W·m−1·K−1

Magnetic ordering


‫ﻓ ﺎ رﺳ ﯽ‬
Fiji Hindi

CAS number


6 eV. and therefore only certain allowed energies. is 500 °C (932 °F).1 Discovery and use 3 Natural occurrence Қазақша iso 2 History Ирон ქართული Main article: Isotopes of Hydrogen 5. but the visible orange flames were the result of a rich mixture of hydrogen to oxygen combined with carbon compounds from the airship skin. Русиньскый Русский that uses the Schrödinger equation.2 Steam reforming Basa Jawa 4.6 Formation in transformers Кырык мары Lëtzebuergesch trace DP is stable with 0 neutrons 4.9885% 2.4 Anaerobic corrosion Кыргызча Latina 2H half-life DM DE (MeV) view · talk · edit · references Kurdî Лезги 99.Gàidhlig Galego Gĩkũyũ /Hak-kâ-ngî Хальмг Contents [hide] 1 Properties 1.32 y β − 4.5 Geological occurrence: the serpentinization reaction 5.7 Xylose 5.3 Elemental molecular forms Most stable isotopes 1. while planets and celestial objects are Перем Коми attracted to each other by gravity.0115% 3H 1H 4.3 Energy carrier Ligure is stable with 1 neutron 5 Applications 5.5. such leaks can be very dangerous.4 Phases Hawai`i 1. producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.2 Role in quantum theory Íslenska Kiswahili NA 1H 2.1 Metal-acid ‫עברית‬ 4.2 Electron energy levels Discovery Henry Cavendish [4][5] (1766) Named by Antoine Lavoisier[6] (1783) 1. as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Nedersaksies Nordfriisk Shuttle Main Engine compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. heat or sunlight. The mixtures may be ignited by spark.3 Protons and acids 1.[17] Electron energy levels Main article: Hydrogen atom Oʻzbekcha The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.[20] The most complicated treatments allow for the small effects of special relativity and vacuum polarization.2 Hydrides Hornjoserbsce Hrvatski Ido Ilokano Bahasa Indonesia Interlingua 1.2 Coolant Lietuvių 2H 12.1 Covalent and organic compounds 1.[16] The destruction of the Hindenburg airship was an infamous example of hydrogen combustion. Hydrogen flames in H2 reacts with every oxidizing element. the cause is debated. In the quantum mechanical treatment.6 Isotopes 4 Production Italiano 4. Norfuk / Pitkern Norsk bokmål of a burning hydrogen leak may require a flame detector. Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to Elemental molecular forms See also: Spin isomers of hydrogen .1 Combustion 1. However. the Nāhuatl temperature of spontaneous ignition in air. Hydrogen can react spontaneously and violently at room temperature with chlorine and fluorine to form the corresponding hydrogen halides.5. which Papiamentu conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. the ‫ﭘ ﺘﻮ‬ electromagnetic force attracts electrons and protons to one another. and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale) Саха тыла calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. the electron in the Bohr model can only occupy certain allowed distances Piemontèis from the proton. which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 92 nm wavelength. which are also potentially dangerous acids.01861 3 He 4.3 Thermochemical Коми Kreyòl ayisyen Limburgs 0. The hydrogen autoignition temperature. hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. Because of the discretization of angular momentum postulated in early quantum mechanics by Bohr. the electron in a ground state hydrogen atom has no angular momentum at all—an illustration of how the "planetary orbit" conception of electron motion differs from reality. The detection The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen.[19] Plattdüütsch Polski Πο ντιακά Português Ripoarisch Română Runa Simi A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown. resembling blue natural gas flames.4 Semiconductor industry 6 Biological reactions 7 Safety and precautions 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References Lingála 11 Further reading Lojban 12 External links Lumbaart Magyar Македонски Properties Malti Combustion Māori Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen)[12] is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume.[15] Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet Nederlands light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye.1 Consumption in processes Latviešu 0.5.[13] The enthalpy of combustion for hydrogen is −286 kJ/mol:[14] ‫ﻣﺼ ﺮى‬ 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol)[note 2] Bahasa Melayu Мокшень Hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air if it is 4–74% concentrated and with chlorine if it is 5–95% Монгол concentrated.[18] Pälzisch ‫ﭘ ﻨﺠ ﺎﺑﯽ‬ The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom. Norsk nynorsk Novial Occitan Олык марий other conditions are blue.5 Compounds Հայերեն 1.

the term 'proton' is sometimes used loosely and metaphorically to refer to positively charged or cationic + hydrogen attached to other species in this fashion. denoted H−. which is critical to the stability of many biological molecules. The existence of the hydride anion.[32] Millions of hydrocarbons are known.[38] Protons and acids Further information: Acid–base reaction Oxidation of hydrogen removes its electron and gives H+. "organic" compounds are only required to contain carbon. Hydrides Compounds of hydrogen are often called hydrides. However. because of its unstoppable attraction to other atoms or molecules with electrons. Under the Bronsted-Lowry theory. To avoid the implication of the naked "solvated proton" in solution. because of their general association with living things.[40] .[29][30] Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative Žemaitėška elements. and will remain attached to them. in these compounds hydrogen takes on a partial positive charge. and is used when hydrogen forms a compound with a more electropositive element. Catalysts for the ortho-para interconversion. such as halogens (e. hydrogen can participate in a form of medium-strength noncovalent bonding called Zazaki hydrogen bonding. and an even vaster array with heteroatoms that. leading to loss of Татарча/tatarça liquefied material. or some nickel[26] compounds. chromic oxide. considering the low electronegativity of hydrogen. although larger complexes exist. there are over 100 binary borane hydrides known.Sardu There exist two different spin isomers of hydrogen diatomic molecules that differ by the relative spin of their Scots nuclei. it is unstable and cannot be purified. hydrides can also serve as bridging ligands that link two metal centers in a coordination complex. This species is central to discussion of acids. At very low Slovenščina temperatures. which contains no electrons and a nucleus which is usually composed of one proton. or nitrogen. the equilibrium state is composed almost exclusively of the para form. but only one binary aluminium hydride.[39] Other oxonium ions are found when water is in acidic solution with other solvents. the spins of the two protons are parallel and form a triplet state with a Seeltersk molecular spin quantum number of 1 (1⁄2+1⁄2). but is of little significance for their thermal properties. or oxygen. most of them also contain hydrogen. producing a stoichiometry quantity of hydrogen at the anode.[28] When bonded to fluorine.[25] Svenska The ortho/para ratio in condensed H2 is an important consideration in the preparation and storage of liquid Tagalog hydrogen: the conversion from ortho to para is exothermic and produces enough heat to evaporate some of the hydrogen liquid. The liquid and gas phase Soomaaliga thermal properties of pure parahydrogen differ significantly from those of the normal form because of differences in ‫ﮐﻮردی‬ Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Basa Sunda Suomi rotational heat capacities. An exception in group II hydrides is BeH2. thus rapidly First tracks observed in liquid hydrogen bubble chamber at the Bevatron condensed H2 contains large quantities of the high-energy ortho form that converts to the para form very slowly. I). Although hydrides can be formed with almost all main-group elements. H . the term is quite misleading. a term that is used fairly loosely. Br. Cl. such as the metals and metalloids.[23] The ortho/para distinction also occurs in other hydrogen-containing molecules or functional groups. it does form compounds with most elements. rare earth metals. such protons cannot be removed from the electron clouds of atoms and molecules. the AlH4 anion carries hydridic centers firmly attached to the Al(III). suggested by Gilbert N. such as ferric oxide. + That is why H is often called a proton. carbon-hydrogen bonds are required in some definitions of the word "organic" in chemistry.[36] Binary indium hydride has not yet been identified. termed the "hydronium ion" (H3O ).[22] The Simple English equilibrium ratio of orthohydrogen to parahydrogen depends on temperature. F. such solvated hydrogen cations are more realistically conceived + as being organized into clusters that form species closer to H9O4. At standard temperature and pressure. The term "hydride" suggests that the H atom has acquired a negative or anionic character. in the parahydrogen form the spins are antiparallel and form a Shqip singlet with a molecular spin quantum number of 0 (1⁄2–1⁄2). activated carbon.[32] The study of their properties is known as organic chemistry[33] and their study in the context of living organisms is known as biochemistry. also known as the "normal form". acidic aqueous solutions are sometimes considered to contain a less unlikely + fictitious species.g. while bases are proton acceptors. uranium compounds. in which it takes on a partial negative charge. In lithium aluminium hydride. This function is particularly common in group 13 elements. However. and they are usually formed by complicated synthetic pathways. Lewis in 1916 for group I and II salt-like hydrides.[34] By some definitions. but because the ortho form is an Slovenčina excited state and has a higher energy than the para form. which seldom involve elementary hydrogen. acids are proton donors. are called organic compounds. as well as in clustered carboranes. as discussed more fully in spin isomers of hydrogen. such as water and methylene. oxygen. Except at the high temperatures associated with plasmas.[37] In inorganic chemistry. cannot exist in solution or in ionic crystals. are used during hydrogen cooling. the number and combination of possible compounds varies widely.. even in this case. for example. + A bare proton.[24] The uncatalyzed interconversion between para and ortho H2 increases with increasing temperature.[31] Edit links Hydrogen forms a vast array of compounds with carbon called the hydrocarbons. which is − polymeric. However. was demonstrated by Moers in 1920 by the electrolysis of molten lithium hydride (LiH).[27] Тоҷикӣ Phases Türkçe Українська Compressed hydrogen ‫اردو‬ Liquid hydrogen ‫ ﺋ ﻳﻐ رﭼ‬/ Uyghurche Vèneto Slush hydrogen Solid hydrogen Vepsän kel’ Metallic hydrogen Tiếng Việt Walon Compounds Further information: Hydrogen compounds West-Vlams Winaray Covalent and organic compounds ‫ייִדי ש‬ While H2 is not very reactive under standard conditions. platinized asbestos. hydrogen gas Sicilianu contains about 25% of the para form and 75% of the ortho form. and because it is the carbon-hydrogen bond which gives this class of compounds most of its particular chemical characteristics.[35] For hydrides other than group I and II metals. These compounds are often known as hydrides. and as such is denoted "H " without any implication that any single protons exist freely as a species. especially in boranes (boron hydrides) and aluminium complexes.[21] In the orthohydrogen form. Hydrogen can form compounds with Yorùbá elements that are more electronegative.

hydro meaning "water" and -γενής genes meaning "creator")[6] when he and Laplace reproduced Cavendish's finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned. Ignition of leaking hydrogen is widely assumed to be the cause. is known as deuterium and contains one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. but later investigations pointed to the ignition of the aluminized fabric coating by static electricity. Other. H and H. and Paul Harteck.[44] 2 Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube H. Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe in 1819.[5] German count Ferdinand von Zeppelin promoted the idea of rigid airships lifted by hydrogen that later were called Zeppelins. The symbols D and T (instead of H and H) are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium. but such names are no longer 2 3 used. known as protonated molecular hydrogen or the trihydrogen cation.[45] Heavy water is used as a neutron Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube moderator and coolant for nuclear reactors.[42][43] 1 H is the most common hydrogen isotope with an abundance of more than 99.[38] It is so radioactive that it can be used in luminous paint. P. by naming the gas from a metal-acid reaction "flammable air".[5] Lavoisier produced hydrogen for his experiments on mass conservation by reacting a flux of steam with metallic iron through an incandescent iron tube heated in a fire.[51] Tritium has also been used in chemical and biological labeling experiments as a radiolabel.[41] Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of hydrogen 1 2 3 4 Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes.[5] He produced solid hydrogen the next year. and does not represent a significant toxicity hazard. In the same year the first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator went into service with gaseous hydrogen as a coolant in the rotor and the stator in 1937 at Dayton. The Döbereiner's lamp and limelight were invented in 1823.[5] François Isaac de Rivaz built the first de Rivaz engine. But the damage to hydrogen's reputation as a lifting gas was already done. and tritium was prepared in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford.[46] 3 H is known as tritium and contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus. The glass prevents the small amount of radiation from getting out. but the corresponding symbol for protium. but the U. Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen (from the Greek ὑδρο. T. the vacuum flask. Therefore. Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a discrete substance.[4] Heavy water. Ohio. tritium has also been released during nuclear weapons tests.[5] The incident was broadcast live on radio and filmed. Robert Boyle discovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids. the first of which had its maiden flight in 1900. The first non-stop transatlantic crossing was made by the British airship R34 in 1919. except for deuterium and tritium. making it useful in such things as watches. H2 was used in the Hindenburg airship. they had carried 35.[49] as a tracer in isotope geochemistry. and H to be used.98%. was discovered by Urey's group in Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier 1932. the other stable hydrogen isotope.[50] and specialized in self-powered lighting devices. various heavy radioactive isotopes were given their own names. decaying into helium-3 through beta decay with a half-life of 12. the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2 3 2 3 Protium.[48] It is used in nuclear fusion reactions. Deuterium is not radioactive.S. Anaerobic oxidation of iron by the protons of water at high temperature can be schematically represented by the set of following reactions: Fe + H2O → FeO + H2 2 Fe + 3 H2O → Fe2O3 + 3 H2 3 Fe + 4 H2O → Fe3O4 + 4 H2 Many metals such as zirconium undergo a similar reaction with water leading to the production of hydrogen. Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called heavy water.[5] Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey.32 years.[54] History Discovery and use Main article: Timeline of hydrogen technologies In 1671. Deuterium and its compounds are used as a non-radioactive label in 1 chemical experiments and in solvents for H-NMR spectroscopy. He speculated that "flammable air" was in fact identical to the hypothetical substance called "phlogiston"[57][58] and further finding in 1781 that the gas produces water when burned. He is usually given credit for its discovery as an element.[5] Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable form of air-travel following the 1852 invention of the first hydrogen-lifted airship by Henri Giffard. Because the nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single proton. Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial nuclear fusion. which results in the production of hydrogen gas. the most common isotope of hydrogen. has one proton and one electron. Regular passenger service resumed in the 1920s and the discovery of helium reserves in the United States promised increased safety. Hydrogen-lifted airships were used as observation platforms and bombers during the war. which was destroyed in a midair fire over New Jersey on 6 May 1937.[5] Regularly scheduled flights started in 1910 and by the outbreak of World War I in August 1914. Essentially all deuterium in the universe is thought to have been produced at the time of the Big Bang.[55][56] In 1766.[5] The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783.[52] Hydrogen is the only element that has different names for its isotopes in common use today. denoted H.[59] because of the thermal conductivity of hydrogen gas this is the most common type in its field . one of the most common ions in the universe is the H3 ion. it has no neutrons (see diproton for a discussion of why others do not exist).000 passengers without a serious incident. Unique among all stable isotopes. which consists of deuterium in the place of regular hydrogen.[53] In its nomenclatural guidelines. it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name protium. Mark Oliphant. During the early study of radioactivity. government refused to sell the gas for this purpose. is already in use for phosphorus and thus is not available for protium. It is radioactive. and has endured since that time.[4][5] In 1783. H. Hydrogen was liquefied for the first time by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention. an internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in 1806.[47] Small amounts of tritium occur naturally because of the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases. allows any of D. although H and H are preferred.+ Although exotic on Earth. by the Dayton Power & Light Co. highly unstable nuclei ( H 7 to H) have been synthesized in the laboratory but not observed in nature.

can be re-used. which were finally replaced in May 2009.[64] more than 19 years after launch. consisting only of a proton and an electron. The nickel hydrogen battery was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U. One of the first quantum effects to be explicitly noticed (but not understood at the time) was a Maxwell observation involving hydrogen. making up 75% of normal matter by mass and over 90% by number of atoms (most of the mass of the universe. and so both electrodes would be made from inert metals.[68] This element is found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets. as hydrogen can be produced on-site and does not need to be transported. the ISS. The process also creates alumina.[66] Furthermore. but the expensive gallium.[73] Neutral triatomic hydrogen H3 can only exist in an excited form and is unstable. often as a by-product of other reactions. as is methane. H2 is usually prepared by the reaction of dilute non-oxidizing acids on some reactive metals such as zinc with Kipp's apparatus. and thus decrease the amount of oxygen given off. H2. For example. which followed shortly after the quantum mechanical treatment of the hydrogen atom had been developed in the mid-1920s. resulting in very high electrical conductivity and high emissivity (producing the light from the Sun and other stars). a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy aurora. + Zn + 2 H → Zn 2+ + H2 Aluminium can also produce H2 upon treatment with bases: − − 2 Al + 6 H2O + 2 OH → 2 Al(OH)4 + 3 H2 The electrolysis of water is a simple method of producing hydrogen. the Hubble Space Telescope is also powered by nickel-hydrogen batteries. The ion is relatively stable in + the environment of outer space due to the low temperature and density. hydrogen gas is very rare in the Earth's atmosphere (1 ppm by volume) because of its light weight. Hydrogen plays a vital role in powering stars through the proton-proton reaction and the CNO cycle nuclear fusion. in industry for the hydrogenation of unsaturated substrates. In the dark part of its orbit. this behavior arises from the spacing of the (quantized) rotational energy levels.[38] Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae and is a natural component of flatus.) The theoretical maximum efficiency (electricity used vs. Metal-acid In the laboratory. Typically the cathode is made from platinum or another inert metal when producing hydrogen for storage. Hydrogen is found in the neutral atomic state in the interstellar medium. but rather is postulated to occur as yet-undetected forms of mass such as dark matter and dark energy). as atomic H. hydrogen is mostly found in the atomic and plasma states whose properties are quite different from molecular hydrogen. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series + hydrogen molecule and the corresponding cation H2 allowed fuller understanding of the nature of the chemical bond. together with the spectrum of light produced from it or absorbed by it.[61] Mars Odyssey[62] and the Mars Global Surveyor[63] are equipped with nickel-hydrogen batteries. hydrogen's electron and proton are not bound together.[71] mostly in the form of chemical compounds such as hydrocarbons and water. H3 is one of the most abundant ions in the Universe.[76] . and gaseous oxygen forms at the anode while gaseous hydrogen forms at the cathode. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2).[75] 2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g) In 2007. however. however.S.[60] For example. it was discovered that an alloy of aluminium and gallium in pellet form added to water could be used to generate hydrogen. elemental hydrogen exists as the diatomic gas. This charged ion has also been observed in the upper atmosphere of the planet Jupiter. has been central to the development of the theory of atomic structure. the corresponding simplicity of the Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. half a century before full quantum mechanical theory arrived. is the most abundant chemical element in the universe. and 13 years over their design life. (Iron. oxygen is desirable to assist the combustion.[69] Throughout the universe.[74] By + the positive hydrogen molecular ion (H2) is a rare molecule in the universe.[67] Natural occurrence Hydrogen. and it plays a notable role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium. hydrogen is the third most abundant element on the Earth's surface. Diatomic gases composed of heavier atoms do not have such widely spaced levels and do not exhibit the same effect. Production Main article: Hydrogen production H2 is produced in chemistry and biology laboratories. These widely spaced levels inhibit equal partition of heat energy into rotational motion in hydrogen at low temperatures. which enables it to escape from Earth's gravity more easily than heavier gases. in the solar wind they interact with the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the NGC 604. the gas is to be burnt on site.[65] Role in quantum theory Because of its relatively simple atomic structure. where it is generated by ionization of molecular hydrogen from cosmic rays. Maxwell observed that the specific heat capacity of H2 unaccountably departs from that of a diatomic gas below room temperature and begins to increasingly resemble that of a monatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. the hydrogen atom. According to quantum theory. Molecular clouds of H2 are associated with star formation. However. which are particularly wide-spaced in H2 because of its low mass. The large amount of neutral hydrogen found in the damped Lyman-alpha systems is thought to dominate the cosmological baryonic density of the Universe up to redshift z=4. which prevents the formation of an oxide skin on the pellets.[70] Under ordinary conditions on Earth. itself a hydrogen source of increasing importance. energetic value of hydrogen produced) is in the range 80–94%. If. However. would oxidize. This has important potential implications for a hydrogen economy. A low voltage current is run through the water. and in nature as a means of expelling reducing equivalents in biochemical reactions. for instance. As a plasma. is not in the form of chemical-element type matter. The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields.[72] + A molecular form called protonated molecular hydrogen (H3) is found in the interstellar medium.

0 MPa. Greece. under anaerobic conditions. and the USA) are developing thermochemical methods to produce hydrogen from solar energy and water. In the Haber process for the production of ammonia. especially with an iron oxide catalyst. Additional hydrogen can be recovered from the steam by use of carbon monoxide through the water gas shift reaction. hydrogen (H2) is produced during the process of serpentinization by the anaerobic oxidation by the water protons (H+) of the ferrous (Fe2+) silicate present in the crystal lattice of the fayalite (Fe2SiO4.[77] At high temperatures (1000–1400 K. Japan. 700– 1100 °C or 1300–2000 °F). Formation in transformers From all the fault gases formed in power transformers.Steam reforming Hydrogen can be prepared in several different ways. This reaction is also a common industrial source of carbon dioxide:[77] CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Other important methods for H2 production include partial oxidation of hydrocarbons:[78] 2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2 and the coal reaction. in deep geological conditions prevailing far away from Earth atmosphere.[84][85] Applications Consumption in processes Large quantities of H2 are needed in the petroleum and chemical industries. hydrogen is the most common and is generated under most fault conditions. This process is described by the Schikorr reaction: 3 Fe(OH)2 → Fe3O4 + 2 H2O + H2 ferrous hydroxide → magnetite + water + hydrogen The well crystallized magnetite (Fe3O4) is thermodynamically more stable than the ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2 ).[80] Thermochemical There are more than 200 thermochemical cycles which can be used for water splitting. hydrogen is generated from natural gas. formation of hydrogen is an early indication of serious problems in the transformer's life cycle. CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 This reaction is favored at low pressures but is nonetheless conducted at high pressures (2. The anaerobic corrosion of iron leads first to the formation of ferrous hydroxide (green rust) and can be described by the following reaction: Fe + 2 H2O → Fe(OH)2 + H2 In its turn. Hydrocarbons other than methane can be used to produce synthesis gas with varying product ratios. cerium(IV) oxide–cerium(III) oxide cycle. Germany. the ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2 ) can be oxidized by the protons of water to form magnetite and molecular hydrogen. the olivine iron-endmember). This process occurs during the anaerobic corrosion of iron and steel in oxygen-free groundwater and in reducing soils below the water table. . sulfur-iodine cycle. Commercial bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of natural gas. steam reforming typically employs an excess of H2O. which can serve as a prelude to the shift reaction above:[77] C + H2O → CO + H2 Hydrogen is sometimes produced and consumed in the same industrial process. but economically the most important processes involve removal of hydrogen from hydrocarbons. The corresponding reaction leading to the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4). quartz (SiO2) and hydrogen (H2) is the following: 3Fe2SiO4 + 2 H2O → 2 Fe3O4 + 3 SiO2 + 3 H2 fayalite + water → magnetite + quartz + hydrogen This reaction closely resembles the Schikorr reaction observed in the anaerobic oxidation of the ferrous hydroxide in contact with water. The key consumers of H2 in the petrochemical plant include hydrodealkylation. copper-chlorine cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle are under research and in testing phase to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water and heat without using electricity. and in the production of ammonia. zinc zinc-oxide cycle. One of the many complications to this highly optimized technology is the formation of coke or carbon: CH4 → C + 2 H2 Consequently. iron and steel alloys are slowly oxidized by the protons of water concomitantly reduced in molecular hydrogen (H2). thus. steam (water vapor) reacts with methane to yield carbon monoxide and H2.[82] Anaerobic corrosion Under anaerobic conditions. This is because highpressure H2 is the most marketable product and Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) purification systems work better at higher pressures.[83] Xylose In 2014 a low-temperature 50 °C (122 °F). atmospheric-pressure enzyme-driven process to convert xylose into hydrogen with nearly 100% of the theoretical yield was announced. The largest application of H2 is for the processing ("upgrading") of fossil fuels. 20 atm or 600 inHg). Geological occurrence: the serpentinization reaction In the absence of atmospheric oxygen (O2). without being separated. The process employs 13 enzymes. including a novel polyphosphate xylulokinase (XK). around a dozen of these cycles such as the iron oxide cycle.[79] Electrolysis of brine to yield chlorine also produces hydrogen as a co-product.[81] A number of laboratories (including in France. The product mixture is known as "synthesis gas" because it is often used directly for the production of methanol and related compounds.

[105] but without carbon emissions.[118] leading to cracks and explosions. Creation of hydrogen gas occurs in the transfer of reducing equivalents produced during pyruvate fermentation to water. including superconductivity studies.[94] Hydrogen is an authorized food additive (E 949) that allows food package leak testing among other anti-oxidizing properties. and in nuclear fusion reactions. SrTiO3.[10] complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks. Hydrogen detonation parameters. Deuterium (hydrogen-2) is used in nuclear fission applications as a moderator to slow neutrons. although the energy density per unit fuel mass is higher.[113] Efforts have been undertaken to genetically modify cyanobacterial hydrogenases to efficiently synthesize H2 gas even in the presence of oxygen.[102] Elemental hydrogen from solar.[97] as an isotopic label in the biosciences. hydrogen fire. and thus can lead to accidental burns.[96] Tritium (hydrogen-3). power generation. Liquid H2 is used in cryogenic research.[104] Hydrogen used in transportation would burn relatively cleanly. Many physical and chemical properties of hydrogen depend on the parahydrogen/orthohydrogen ratio (it often takes days or weeks at a given temperature to reach the equilibrium ratio.[111] Biological reactions Further information: Biohydrogen and Biological hydrogen production (Algae) H2 is a product of some types of anaerobic metabolism and is produced by several microorganisms.[116] .[101] The Sun's energy comes from nuclear fusion of hydrogen.[108][109] SnO2. because it has the highest thermal conductivity of any gas. oxygen-free form.8033 kelvins. is used in the production of hydrogen bombs. so in these cases hydrogen functions as an energy carrier. is almost invisible.[120] Even interpreting the hydrogen data (including safety data) is confounded by a number of phenomena. strongly depend on the container geometry. have evolved a second step in the dark reactions in which protons and electrons are reduced to form H2 gas by specialized hydrogenases in the chloroplast. such as hydrogen embrittlement. for which the data is usually given).[106] Semiconductor industry Hydrogen is employed to saturate broken ("dangling") bonds of amorphous silicon and amorphous carbon that helps stabilizing material properties.[103] For example. Some such organisms. like a battery. while being extremely hot. but the gas's high solubility is a metallurgical problem. from potential detonations and fires when mixed with air to being an asphyxiant in its pure. having a little more than 1⁄14 of the density of air. in which water is decomposed into its component protons. These include low density. H2 has several other important uses.[52] and as a radiation source in luminous paints. H2 is also used as a reducing agent of metallic ores. and in the production of methanol. Energy carrier See also: Hydrogen economy and Hydrogen infrastructure Hydrogen is not an energy resource. including ZnO.[93] In more recent applications. and SrZrO3. Al2O3. and oxygen. CO2 sequestration followed by carbon capture and storage could be conducted at the point of H2 production from fossil fuels. and telecommunications industries. chemical.[86] Hydrogen is highly soluble in many rare earth and transition metals[87] and is soluble in both nanocrystalline and amorphous metals. including the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacteria. but these sources are unsustainable.[95] Hydrogen's rarer isotopes also each have specific applications. elemental hydrogen has been widely discussed in the context of energy.[89] These properties may be useful when hydrogen is purified by passage through hot palladium disks. CdO. H2 is used as a hydrogenating agent.[100] except in the hypothetical context of commercial nuclear fusion power plants using deuterium or tritium.[92] Because H2 is lighter than air.hydrodesulfurization. the infrastructure costs associated with full conversion to a hydrogen economy would be substantial.[114] Efforts have also been undertaken with genetically modified alga in a bioreactor. Applications can be found in the automotive. such as critical detonation pressure and temperature. It is used as a shielding gas in welding methods such as atomic hydrogen welding. or electrical sources require more energy to make it than is obtained by burning it. particularly in increasing the level of saturation of unsaturated fats and oils (found in items such as margarine). as a possible future carrier of energy on an economy-wide scale.[100] Nevertheless. low viscosity. aerospace. and. and the highest specific heat and thermal conductivity of all gases. may have adverse effects on them. ZrSiO4.[98] The triple point temperature of equilibrium hydrogen is a defining fixed point on the ITS-90 temperature scale at 13. HfO2.[115] Safety and precautions Main article: Hydrogen safety Hydrogen poses a number of hazards to human safety.or nickel-containing enzymes called hydrogenases. Moreover.[88] Hydrogen solubility in metals is influenced by local distortions or impurities in the crystal lattice.[90][91] H2 is used as the rotor coolant in electrical generators at power stations.[107] It is also a potential electron donor in various oxide materials. but this process is difficult to achieve controllably on Earth. liquid hydrogen is a cryogen and presents dangers (such as frostbite) associated with very cold liquids.[104] However. SiO2. it was once widely used as a lifting gas in balloons and airships. LaAlO3. MgO.[5] Deuterium compounds have applications in chemistry and biology in studies of reaction isotope effects. hydrogen is used pure or mixed with nitrogen (sometimes called forming gas) as a tracer gas for minute leak detection. usually via reactions catalyzed by iron. and hydrocracking. produced in nuclear reactors. occurs in the light reactions in all photosynthetic organisms. electrons.[116] In addition.[11] Apart from its use as a reactant. contributing to the embrittlement of many metals. It is similarly the source of hydrogen in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid. H2 has wide applications in physics and engineering. biological. with some NOx emissions. Hydrogen may be obtained from fossil sources (such as methane). in addition to leaking out. HfSiO4.[110] ZrO2.[99] Coolant Main article: Hydrogen-cooled turbo generator Hydrogen is commonly used in power stations as a coolant in generators due to a number of favorable properties that are a direct result of its light diatomic molecules. TiO2. La2O3. a technology presently far from development.[112] Water splitting.[100] The energy density per unit volume of both liquid hydrogen and compressed hydrogen gas at any practicable pressure is significantly less than that of traditional fuel sources. Y2O3. These enzymes catalyze the reversible redox reaction between H2 and its component two protons and two electrons.[119] Hydrogen gas leaking into external air may spontaneously ignite.[117] Hydrogen dissolves in many metals.

(PDF). Egon. Uses. and R&D Needs . ^ Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use. Electronic version. ^ Patnaik. doi:10. "Deflagrations of H2 –air and CH4 –air lean mixtures in a vented multi-compartment environment". 2008. M. pp.1021/j100372a014 .1016/j. 22. ^ Wiberg. Jones. ISBN 0-19-508083-1. ISBN 0-13-035471-6.).1057R . Eldo. . 11. 15. "Hydrogen". 2. Kimball's Biology Pages. . US National Academy of Engineering (2004). ^ Millar. Gary (2 May 2002). Retrieved 23 March 2008. Oxford: Oxford University Press.K. NASA. Emsley. Avshalom C. (1989). ^ Hibbs. Sibileva. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 40. ^ "Organic Chemistry" 34. Inc. Purdue University. Wylie-Interscience. O=CHem Directory. Ethers. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed. 402. ^ Presenter: Professor Jim Al-Khalili (21 January 2010). R.. P (2007).A. (1994).. 2007. Hydrogen Bond 31. 21. M. pp. 36. Wiley-Interscience. Neil A. Rogers. 25:40 minutes in. A (1997).. "Hydrogen" . 37. Technical University of Denmark.N. 18. 2. (1999). Handbook of Isotopes in the Cosmos: Hydrogen to ^ Palmer. ^ a b .. "The Atomic Nucleus and Bohr's Early Model of the Atom" . Retrieved 23 March 2008. ISBN 0-309-09163-2. . ISBN 0-471-71458-5. J. Science 296 (5577): 2363. indium. NASA Glenn Research Center Glenn Safety Manual. CRC Press. Pag. Arnold Frederick (2001).to Parahydrogen on Iron Oxide-Zinc Oxide Catalysts". Retrieved 6 April 2009. (9 July 2005). ^ a b "Hydrogen". ^ Staff (2003). 23.1002/zaac. ^ Sandrock. Retrieved 5 February John W. (2003).107. "The Conversion of Ortho. Academic Press. Document GRC-MQSA. James (March 2006). ^ a bc de fghi j k l 6. ^ Downs. Holleman. (13 February 2005). Dimethyl . "Infrared spectra of the solvated hydronium ion: vibrational predissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected H3 O+•(H2 O)n •(H2 )m". [dead link] 27. "Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metals".. PMID 12089435 . Nature's Building Blocks. US National Research Council. Science 159 (3819): 1057–1064. Retrieved 4 March 2008.1126/science.1057 . David P. Giulio. "Separation of Water into Its Ortho and Para Isomers". Oxford University Press.C.See also Antihydrogen Fuel cell Hydrogen cycle Hydrogen economy Hydrogen ion Oxyhydrogen Books Hydrogen Period 1 elements Chemistry portal Energy portal View or order collections of articles Portals Access related topics Find out more on Wikipedia's Sister projects Chemical elements Chemical elements (sorted alphabetically) (sorted by number) Media Definitions Textbooks Learning resources from Commons from Wiktionary from Wikibooks from Wikiversity Notes 1. Emission Lines — Examples" .02. "The Acidity of the Hydrogen Halides" 29.. Lexico Publishing Group. E.159. Jim (2002). (16 May 2005). Bibcode:1968Sci. Smithies. Universal Industrial Gases. 20. "Hydrogen (H2 ) Properties. ^ "Dihydrogen" . Johannessen. Dictionary. T. Journal of Physical Chemistry 94 (9): 3416–3427. University of Southern Maine. Dictionary. Weiner. Nørskov. ^ Stern. Sandia National Laboratories. ^ a bc . ^ Kimball. Y. Miessler.. doi:10. Journal of Low Temperature Physics 107 (1–2): 77–92.S. ^ "Ortho-Para conversion. doi:10.1039/a809279f 38. Bibcode:1997JLTP. "Lecture 7.012 . 13" . Gary L. Ya. Chemical Communications (2): 185–186. Alexander A.. 35. most of the universe's mass is not in the form of baryons or chemical elements. 39. Prentice Hall. A Guide to the Elements. 797–799. (13 September 1997). doi:10. Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie 113 (191): 179–228. ^ hydrogen flame visibility 17. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (mirror).. 8. PH-3009 (P507/P706/M324) Interstellar Physics. D. [dead link] 12. ^ Clayton.). ^ Moers. 2008. "Discovering the Elements" 9. (2003). Scott.1021/ja01577a013 . ISBN 0-19-850341-5.. J. (1999). Yu.. . Inorganic chemistry 3. Chemical Society Reviews 23 (3): 175–184. ISBN 0-19-861219-2. Wiberg. . [dead link] 19. 240. D. BBC. David E.C. Volkov. "CH. A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of chemical substances .1002/chir. ^ 286 kJ/mol: energy per mole of the combustible material (molecular hydrogen) References 1. ^ "Hydrogen Basics — Production" 10. ^ Simpson. National Academies Press. Chemguide. ^ a bc 5. Lexico Publishing Group. I. Scorrano. ^ Tikhonov.D. "Wave Mechanics" . "Protonation Equilibria in Water at Several Temperatures of Alcohols. Retrieved 5 February 2008. ^ Shinitzky. Pulham.. doi:10. doi:10. ^ Stern. Retrieved 5 February 2008. Chemistry: A Volatile History. Anthony M.1039/CS9942300175 . Barriers. (7 August 2003). Oxford English Dictionary 7 (2nd ed. ISBN 0-521-82381-1.. (2006). doi:10.. ISBN 0123526515. Colin R. Kurt (1920). T (1990). Donald A. 30. Albert (1996). Retrieved 23 March 2008. Clarendon Press. Elitzur. (2005). Applications: Hydrogen Gas and Liquid Hydrogen" . ^ "Biochemistry" . ISBN 0-471-61525-0. Vladimir I.. PMID 16856167 .77M 26. . 183–191. "Making society independent of fossil fuels — Danish researchers reveal new technology" . 13. Tarr. Meir. "Hydrogen in the Universe" . 16–21. Acetone.H. Tom (10 December 2003).2004. Retrieved 9 March 2008. doi:10. ^ Hritz. ^ a b Christensen. p. pp. Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. 16. . 14. Energy 30 (8): 1439–1451..1069513 . NASA. Retrieved 5 February 2008. 24. L. Cambridge University Press.20319 . doi:10. PMID 17775040 . 2005. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities. p. Stwertka.001.19201130116 .3819. ^ "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds" 4. Gianfranco (1977). "The hydrides of aluminium. "Metal-Hydrogen Systems" 32. gallium.). Retrieved 16 April 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2008. David John (2001). C. Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed. Chirality 18 (9): 754–756. Fineschi.159. ^ However.. H. 6 – Hydrogen" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2008. J. Florida Solar Energy Center. 25. ^ IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. Strzhemechny. "A remarkably stable indium trihydride complex: synthesis and characterisation of [InH3 P(C6 H11 )3 ]". doi:10. D. BBC Four. "Investigations on the Salt Character of Lithium Hydride". "Natural ortho-para conversion rate in liquid and gaseous hydrogen". ^ Okumura. "Ortho-para spin isomers of the protons in the methylene group". ^ Clark. ^ a b "Structure and Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons" 33. F. Journal of the American Chemical Society 79 (20): 5385–5388. Cameron.1126/science. See dark matter and dark energy. Nils. p. 240. Yeh. M. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.. Retrieved 5 February 2008. University of Manchester.1007/BF02396837 . ^ Carcassi. (2002). ^ Svadlenak. R. Costs. ^ Milenko. 7. and thallium: a re-evaluation". 28. Myers. Anthony J. Allen B (1957). ^ Perdoncin.

Wolfe. Nikolskii. 2008. PMID 1330130 . Harold C. Archive. . Retrieved 5 February 2008. Department of Molecular and Optical Physics. Kuzmin.1002/anie. and Dimethyl Sulfoxide". ^ Helm..543. ^ Martín Del Campo. T. 55. doi:10. ^ Carrington. (2002). B. ^ Staff (15 November 2007).G. I. Nakamura. O..1023/A:1010655610575 . ^ Perdoncin.. M.. "Hydrogen" . 2002: 45–50.. A. doi:10. Chandrayan. Experimental and Applied Acarology (Lubbock: Texas Tech University) 25 (2): 97–107. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry 7: 1–20. "Solar Thermonuclear Energy Generation" .com. U. ^ McCall Group. Hans. Eddie (2008). G. doi:10. Retrieved 25 November 2009. ^ Venere. ^ The Elements. Holte. Brickwedde... W. Patiño.. Peter (5 May 2005).100156. "Chemicals from salt" . (11 November 1991).. ^ Urey.. Progress in Materials Science 32 (4): 262–325. D (2004). Hojnicki. 77. Gleiter. William J. (2000). Environmental Protection Agency.S. Retrieved 11 March 2008.. Caldwell. Zhang. Inc. P. "The infrared predissociation spectrum of triatomic hydrogen cation (H3 +)".602U .1086/317138 . "1H NMR studies of deuterated ribonuclease HI selectively labeled with protonated amino acids". 83. ^ Korsheninnikov.40. D. N. "Names for the Hydrogen Isotopes". Morimoto. (1956).07. "H3+ Resource Center" . US Geological Survey. Journal of Biomolecular NMR 2 (2): 137–47. 47. Mark (2007). . "Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy" . Retrieved 11 November 2011. (2002). edit 86. W.. Lapushkin. Carol. Columbia University.1016/0025-5416(88)90377-1 . 3 April 2013. Accounts of Chemical Research 22 (6): 218–222. J. Retrieved 6 April 2009. Nathan L.2002. "Experimental Evidence for the Existence of 7 H and for a Specific Structure of 8 He". Thomson Brooks/Cole. ^ Jannette.pc. Yamazaki. A. Scorrano.. V. England: 1672). "Fundamentals of Isotope Geochemistry" 51.1134/1. 81. Collie. "Potential Role of Parasitism in the Evolution of Mutualism in Astigmatid Mites". BBC. (2004). (1992). ^ Nave.. Kerslake. K. "The Future of Methane" 73. Inorganic Chemistry 13 (9): 2282–2283. ^ Kendall. 58.78. D.). Bob (1 January 2006). 64. M.S.. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 67. "A lightweight high reliability single battery power system for interplanetary spacecraft". M. "Hydrogen in amorphous and nanocrystalline metals". 70. Bellona. N. Behr. pp.S. P. McNab. J. R.. ^ Gagnon. H. ^ "Hydrogen Properties. Andrew (2007). ^ Takeshita. E. "Cryogenics". fuel cells" . Office of Science Laboratory. 68. Retrieved 5 February 2008. Green Car Congress. Y. Journal of the American Chemical Society 99 (21): 6983–6986. ^ Hubble servicing mission 4 essentials 65. R. 53.. Koble. G. et al. (1974). doi:10. Y. 79. "New process generates hydrogen from aluminum alloy to run engines. 89.. Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division. ^ Kirchheim. T.. F.. ^ Funderburg. DOE Hydrogen Program. (15 November 2007). Fincannon.1016/0079-6425(88)90010-2 . Rollin. doi:10. "Deuterium-Tritium Fusion" . Hill. ISBN 0-7803-7231-X. ISBN 1-4298-0723-7. "Why Are Nitrogen Prices So High?" 80. Principles of Modern Chemistry (5th ed. (2002). "Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen in argon as a shielding gas on TIG welding of austenitic stainless steel". 50.. Retrieved 13 July 2012. Bibcode:1956ARPC. Retrieved 6 April 2009. ^ Winter. 89–. ^ "The Tritium Laboratory" 52. C. Pechkurov. Argonne National Laboratory. Ahmet (2003). Yoshida. "Surveys for z > 3 Damped Lyman-alpha Absorption Systems: the Evolution of Neutral Gas". Electrical Insulating Materials: International Issues .. V. doi:10. Alan. ISBN 978-0-8031-2613-8.2035. V. doi:10. Universal Industrial Gases.1891200 .1126/science. 87... 88. ^ Chemistry Operations (15 December 2003). S. Elementymology & Elements Multidict. Retrieved 17 May 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2010.. ^ van der Krogt. "Tritium" .W. arXiv:astro-ph/0006044 . S.M. "Hydrogen solubility in 1:5 compounds between yttrium or thorium and nickel or cobalt". 72.2002. Mildred et al.3. Retrieved 5 February 2008. 69. doi:10. San Diego. Provisional Recommendations .90.. R. A. D. E.. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 52 (17): 4587. Craig. Retrieved 12 February 2008.1109/AERO. Adams. Uses. Retrieved 12 February 2008. 2002 37th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. doi:10. Yu.1391972 . ^ "Mars Global Surveyor" .082501 . 43. 75.. Aiaa. Chun. Steve. Astrophysical Journal 543 (2): 552–576. Rodriguez. 2009 48. 76. Applications" .2. "Hydrogen" 54. ISBN 0-7803-7296-4. "Hydrogen Status og Muligheter" (PDF). IECEC '02. Retrieved 12 February 2008. doi:10. ^ Extending Hubble's mission life with new batteries 66.. J. S....1035418 .201300766 . W. Ethers. ISBN 0-03-035373-4.. B. Y. H. Kanungo. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry. Iain (1989). S. 2005 59. A. Retrieved 8 March 2008. G. R. V. PMID 17797765 . 2007" (PDF). Wolfgang H. ^ a bc Oxtoby.D. C. Giulio. (1988).. R. Retrieved 8 March 2008. Ozawa. Lisa J. University of Freiburg. Retrieved 11 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008. Acetone. Wallace.201300766 .1B .000245 .. 45. "Breakthrough in Nuclear Fusion Offers Hope for Power of Future" . ^ Anderson. The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation.. 62.. "Protonation Equilibria in Water at Several Temperatures of Alcohols. M. Marilyn A. doi:10..B. V. Bibcode:2000ApJ. (2000).. ^ Kruse. T. Physics of Atomic Nuclei 68 (3): 491–97. "Coupling of Bound States to Continuum States in Neutral Triatomic Hydrogen" . Theodore Gray. ^ Haubold. -H.. WebElements Ltd. ^ Crepeau. Buch. Retrieved 22 January 2014. Gianfranco (1977). ^ "NTS-2 Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Performance 31" . Retrieved 22 October 2011. A. 2007. Emil (15 May 2007). Science 78 (2035): 602–603. Georgia State University. Poroshin.. Physical Review Letters 90 (8): 082501. ^ § IR-3. ^ "A chronological history of electrical development from 600 B.90h2501K .W. T. ^ Storrie-Lombardi. Retrieved 6 April 2009.. J. McKissock. Arthur M. Materials Science and Engineering 99: 457–462. doi:10. ^ "Why did oxygen supplant phlogiston? Research programmes in the Chemical Revolution – Cambridge Books Online – Cambridge University Press" .. (PDF). ^ Gurov. 90. (15 November 2007). Nagayama. 82. Bibcode:2003PhRvL. ASTM International. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Robert. ^ Just the Facts—Inventions & Discoveries. Murphy.. Astronautix. Grinna. ^ a b .552S 71. P.. Retrieved 11 March 2008. .1021/ja00463a035 . Aerospace Conference Proceedings 5: 5–2433. Sandukovsky. ^ Broad. Ikehara. F. M. (15 May 2003). T (1988). 84.. (2013). R. ^ Oda. Tanihata. W. 42. Robert "Tracts written by the Honourable Robert Boyle containing new experiments.. 74. Great Scientific Minds (Great Neck Publishing). 56. (2006). Universities of Illinois and Chicago. "Hydrogen" . Tel'kushev. Oka Group (22 April 2005).. Tschurenkova.491G . .78. Birringer. R.7.1103/PhysRevLett. Bibcode:2005PAN. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers Inc. doi:10... V.1021/ar00162a004 . 85.C" 60. Retrieved 5 February 2008. H. ^ Lees. ^ Berman. Purdue University.. 78. Bibcode:1933Sci. 44. Kanaya. "High-Yield Production of Dihydrogen from Xylose by Using a Synthetic Enzyme Cascade in a Cell-Free System". doi:10. . U. Department of Energy. "Development of Solar-Powered Thermochemical Production of Hydrogen from Water. 63. Eric (1998). ^ Dresselhaus.... et al. ^ Berger. M. doi:10. 61. C. ^ Boyle. (2003). Retrieved 12 February 2008. . "Hydrogen: historical information" . Jefferson Lab. R. ^ Hirschler..68. R.1007/BF01875525 . S.. "Spectroscopy of superheavy hydrogen isotopes in stopped-pion absorption by nuclei"..S.1002/anie.602 . K. H.. ^ Perret. 57. ^ Kirchheim.. Aurali E. "Validation of international space station electrical performance model via on-orbit telemetry" ... Tokanai. Kieninger.. M. "Hydrogen solubility and diffusivity in defective and amorphous metals". R.1146/annurev. Niels Bohr: The Atomic Model. A. B. University of Miami. ^ "Virginia Tech team develops process for high-yield production of hydrogen from xylose under mild conditions" . M. Myung.E. Dimethyl Sulfide. The New York Times. Accessed on line 3 October 2007. (July 2002). IUPAC... doi:10. J. touching the relation betwixt flame and air. 49. School Specialty Publishing.. Retrieved 5 February 2008. Mutschele.1021/ic50139a050 . A. 41.. HyperPhysics.. Coyne.. ^ "Development of solar-powered thermochemical production of hydrogen from water" (PDF).. (1933). W. 46. Chernyshev. Cooke. T. University of California. M. S.. Aleshkin. Retrieved 5 February 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2008. Mathai. Morokhov. ^ Durgutlu.1109/IECEC.." (London.

1609245 .. ^ Kilic. 255 (19): 9093–97. Retrieved 14 March 2008. J. 2010. Physica C: Superconductivity. 202–203. Hydrogen Program (Press release). W. The Chemical Elements.. 99. J. Bibcode:2002ApPhL. 109. additional terms may apply. Hydrogen as a Fuel: Learning from Nature .Monatomic Hydrogen diagram This audio file was created from a revision of the "Hydrogen" article dated 2006-10-28. Retrieved 18 March 2008. Inc. ISBN 0-531-12501-7. Wean.85.81. Rigden.. David E. 110. (2003). a non-profit organization. Retrieved 14 March 2008. ^ a bc McCarthy. doi:10. PMID 7410413 . (2002). M. ^ a b "Carbon Capture Strategy Could Lead to Emission-Free Cars" . 388–389: 1–6.. doi:10. (2005). R. Alex (2002). Bibcode:1977PMag. "Hydrogen multicentre bonds". 97. A. "Improved photobiological H2 production in engineered green algal cells". ISBN 0-19-530573-6. "LZ-129. PMID 16100118 . Philosophical Magazine 35 (5): 1173–1187. Schenk. P. New York: Franklin Watts. Cetin. Hydrogen: The Essential Element. ISBN 978-0-9843653-0-2. 113. E. O.. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Benito. H. Catherine T. Thomas-Hall.. Retrieved 25 March 2008. 112..E.) 60 (1): 15. 103. 1989: T23–T42. I.. (2000). 95.1063/1. Island Press.2968/060001004 .1080/01614940500364958 . Kenneth D. P. Anderson. "Behavior of hydrogen in high dielectric constant oxide gate insulators". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 40 (3): 56–57. US on 19 July 2011. (2002). Applied Physics Letters 81 (1): 73–75. . PMID 17143265 . (1977). Matthias (3 September 2004). ^ "International Temperature Scale of 1990" (PDF). 106. ^ Heffel.83. 114.).73K .. doi:10. "The deuterium isotope effect upon the reaction of fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and butyryl-CoA"..1012V . 100. G. "New Trends in Reforming Technologies: from Hydrogen Industrial Plants to Multifuel Microreformers".1038/nmat1795 .matdes.1016/j..004 . The Journal of Biological Chemistry 280 (40): 34170–7. 22 March 2006. Retrieved 25 March 2008. Further reading Chart of the Nuclides (17th ed. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. W. ^ Cammack.. Applied Physics Letters 83 (10): 2025– 2027. (2003). ISBN 0-531-12501-7. "n-type doping of oxides by hydrogen".-P. "Hall effect and impurity conduction in substitutionally doped amorphous silicon".1080/14786437708232943 . doi:10. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science. United States Department of Energy. Finazzi. "NOx emission and performance data for a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 1500 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation". ^ "Chapter 13: Nuclear Energy — Fission and Fusion" ... J. Physical Review Letters 85 (5): 1012–1015. ^ Janotti. Robson. Newton. O. Hankamer.1103/PhysRevLett. Rupprecht. California Energy Commission. Stanford University.. "The Death of no-dual-use" .6 Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacteria System" (PDF). Walter N. Energy Story. (March 1984). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 28 (8): 901–908. 108. Retrieved 16 March 2008. 16th WCNDT 2004 (Montreal. Bader. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. J. (Press release). 93. J. Catalysis Reviews 47 (4): 491–588.388. Archived from the original 104. ^ Durgutlu.1016/S0921-4534(02)02591-1 . ^ Le Comber. European Union. ISBN 0-415-24242-8. G. JT (1980). FY2005 Progress Report. ISBN 1-55963-703-X.). Zunger. S. Robertson. ^ Block. Retrieved 5 February 2008. (2004). ^ "Atomic Hydrogen Welding" . J.1012 . Q (2005).. Cambridge. doi:10.85.. doi:10. Bibcode:2003ApPhL.2003. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view . CG (2007). John (31 December 1995).1173C .6. ^ "Report from the Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake" (PDF). Bibcode:2003PhyC. Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. 105. Inc.. Joseph. J. The Hype about Hydrogen. John S.1063/1. Materials & Design 25 (1): 19–23. K. Nature Materials 6 (1): 44–47. doi:10. B (2005). Library resources about Hydrogen External links Online books Basic Hydrogen Calculations of Quantum Mechanics Hydrogen Resources in your library at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham) Resources in other libraries High temperature hydrogen phase diagram Wavefunction of hydrogen Listen to this article (2 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 Low Energy Linear Accelerator . ^ Barnes. Aprahamian. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. 107. Hindenburg" . Chem. Scerri. (2001). 111. Ahmet (2003). Joseph J. doi:10.. (1994). ^ Kruse.1482783 . P. Canada: Sensistor Technologies). ^ Peacock. Taylor & Francis Ltd.. P. Van De Walle. J. Specialty Welds.1016/S0360-3199(02)00157-X . ^ "DOE Seeks Applicants for Solicitation on the Employment Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy" Department of Energy. M. ISBN 1-55963-703-X. Jones.44J . Xu.1H . 91. ^ Van de Walle. Island Press. Matthew (2004). MacFarland. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Eric (2007). The Great Zeppelins. Retrieved 5 February 2008.. G. 96. Its Story and Its Significance. ^ "Nuclear Fusion Power" . 94.1074/jbc. Bibcode:2007NatMa. The Hype About Hydrogen: Fact And Fiction In The Race To Save The Climate (1st ed. May 2007. The Periodic System. D. ^ Smith.... By using this site. L. pp. New York: Oxford University Press. ^ Bergeron. Spear. 2007. Bibcode:2000PhRvL. "From H2 to cryogenic H masers to HiTc superconductors: An unlikely but rewarding path". and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.2025P .90. (2004). James W. 98. Procès-Verbaux du Comité International des Poids et Mesures. "Hydrogen as Tracer Gas for Leak Detection" ..07. 2006. Katz. Romm. L. 102.. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.. Sanz. World Nuclear Association. Biol. (Audio help) More spoken articles V· T · E Categories: Hydrogen compounds Diatomic nonmetals Hydrogen Articles related to hydrogen [show] Molecules detected in outer space [show] Airship technology Nuclear fusion fuels Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements Reducing agents Chemical elements Refrigerants This page was last modified on 11 December 2014 at 20:41. ^ Quigg. (2004). ^ Romm. Ferreira-Aparicio. "Hydrogen" 101. Richard. "Tritium Warning". doi:10. Retrieved 16 March 2008. doi:10.35.M503840200 . ^ Reinsch. Chris G. PMID 10991462 . ^ Hardy. Retrieved 16 March 2008. "Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide". "IV.. 92. 11 February 2008. Georgia Tech. doi:10. "Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen in argon as a shielding gas on TIG welding of austenitic stainless steel".