You are on page 1of 36

Create account Log in

Article Talk

Read View source More

Search

Water
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from H2O)
Main page
Contents

"H2O" and "HOH" redirect here. For other uses, see H2O (disambiguation)

Featured content

and HOH (disambiguation).

Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikimedia Shop

This article is about general aspects of water. For a detailed discussion of its
physical and chemical properties, see Properties of water. For other uses,
see Water (disambiguation).

Interaction

Water is a transparent fluid which forms

Help

the world's streams, lakes, oceans and

About Wikipedia

rain, and is the major constituent of the

Community portal

fluids of living things. As a chemical

Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages

compound, a water molecule contains
one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms
that are connected by covalent bonds.
Water is a liquid at standard ambient
temperature and pressure, but it often
co-exists on Earth with its solid state,

Permanent link

ice; and gaseous state, steam (water

Page information

vapor).

Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version
Languages
Afrikaans
Alemannisch

Water in three states: liquid, solid
(ice), and gas (invisible water vapor in
the air). Clouds are accumulations of
water droplets, condensed from vaporsaturated air.

Water covers 71% of the Earth's
surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of
life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's
water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7%
in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the
ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a
small fraction in other large water

Video demonstrating states of water
present in domestic life.

bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor,
clouds (formed of solid and liquid water

Ænglisc

particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[2][3] Only 2.5% of the Earth's water

‫ا ﻟﻌ ﺮﺑ ﻴﺔ‬

is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than

Aragonés

0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even

Armãneashti
Asturianu

smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological
bodies and manufactured products.[2]

Avañe'ẽ

Water on Earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and

Aymar aru

transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff,

Azərbaycanca

usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the

Bamanankan

precipitation over land. Water used in the production of a good or service is
known as virtual water.

Bahasa Banjar

Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it

Bân-lâm-gú

provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has

Башҡортса

improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but

Беларуская

approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5

Беларуская
(тарашкевіца)​

billion lack access to adequate sanitation.[4] There is a clear correlation between
access to safe water and gross domestic product per capita.[5] However, some

Bislama

observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population

Български

will be facing water-based vulnerability.[6] A report, issued in November 2009,

Boarisch
Bosanski

suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand
will exceed supply by 50%.[7] Water plays an important role in the world

Brezhoneg

economy, as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances

Буряад

and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Approximately 70% of the

Català

fresh water used by humans goes to agriculture.[8]

Чӑвашла
Cebuano
Čeština
Chamoru
ChiShona
Corsu
Cymraeg
Dansk
Deitsch
Deutsch
Diné bizaad
Dolnoserbski
Eesti
Ελληνικά
Emiliàn e rumagnòl
Español
Esperanto
Estremeñu
Euskara
‫ﻓ ﺎ رﺳ ﯽ‬
Fiji Hindi
Føroyskt
Français
Frysk
Fulfulde
Furlan
Gaeilge
Gaelg
Gàidhlig
Galego
Gĩkũyũ
/Hak-kâ-ngî
Hausa
Հայերեն

Hornjoserbsce
Hrvatski

Contents [hide]
1 Chemical and physical properties

Ido

2 Taste and odor

Ilokano

3 Distribution in nature

Bahasa Indonesia

3.1 In the universe

Interlingua

3.1.1 Water vapor

Interlingue

3.1.2 Liquid water

Ирон

3.1.3 Water ice

IsiXhosa
IsiZulu
Íslenska
Italiano
‫עברית‬
Basa Jawa
ქართული
Қазақша
Kiswahili
Kongo

3.1.4 Exotic forms
3.2 Water and habitable zone
4 On Earth
4.1 Water cycle
4.2 Fresh water storage
4.3 Sea water
4.4 Tides
5 Effects on life
5.1 Aquatic life forms
6 Effects on human civilization

Kreyòl ayisyen

6.1 Health and pollution

Kurdî

6.2 Human uses

Ladino
Лезги
Latgaļu
Latina
Latviešu
Lëtzebuergesch

6.2.1 Agriculture
6.2.2 As a scientific standard
6.2.3 For drinking
6.2.4 Washing
6.2.5 Transportation

Lietuvių

6.2.6 Chemical uses

Limburgs

6.2.7 Heat exchange

Lingála

6.2.8 Fire extinction

Lojban

6.2.9 Recreation

Lumbaart

6.2.10 Water industry

Magyar
Македонски
Malagasy
Māori
მარგალური
‫ﻣﺼ ﺮى‬
‫ﻣ ﺎزِروﻧﯽ‬

6.2.11 Industrial applications
6.2.12 Food processing
7 Law, politics, and crisis
8 In culture
8.1 Religion
8.2 Philosophy
9 See also
9.1 Other topics

Bahasa Melayu

10 References

Baso Minangkabau

11 Further reading

Mìng-dĕ̤n g-ngṳ̄

12 External links

Mirandés
Мокшень
Монгол
Nāhuatl
Dorerin Naoero
Nederlands
Nedersaksies

Chemical and physical properties
Main articles: Properties of water, Water (data page) and Water model
Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of
water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.

As a Basa Sunda result.Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ Napulitano Нохчийн Nordfriisk Norfuk / Pitkern Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. rivers. electromagnetic spectrum. Português The major chemical and physical Ripoarisch properties of water are: Română Runa Simi Water is a liquid at standard Русиньскый temperature and pressure.[9] Sicilianu Water is transparent in the visible Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Ślůnski Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley. whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. fresh and salt water lakes. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to . Oromoo Oʻzbekcha Pälzisch Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter (solid. Water vapour is essentially invisible as a Shqip gas. Piemontèis Plattdüütsch Polski icebergs in the polar oceans. ‫ﭘ ﻨﺠ ﺎﺑﯽ‬ and gas) and may take many different Papiamentu forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds ‫ﭘ ﺘﻮ‬ in the sky. 1902. ‫ﮐﻮردی‬ Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски electronegativity than hydrogen atoms. It is Русский tasteless and odorless. the oxygen atom carries a slight negative charge. Norsk bokmål Norsk nynorsk Nouormand Occitan Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water. liquid. Infrared light is strongly absorbed by Dew drops adhering to a spider web. glaciers in the mountains. giving rise to water's high surface tension[10] and capillary forces. Water also Suomi can form an unusually large number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds (four) Svenska for a molecule of its size. Soomaaliga the hydrogen-oxygen or OH bonds. and aquifers in the ground. The intrinsic Саха тыла colour of water and ice is a very Sámegiella slight blue hue. water is a polar molecule with an electrical dipole moment. These factors lead to strong attractive forces Tagalog Taqbaylit between molecules of water. although both appear Sardu Scots colorless in small quantities. seawater in the oceans.

e.. water has a high specific heat capacity. while those that Vèneto are immiscible with water (e. and some gases – Українська especially oxygen and carbon dioxide ‫اردو‬ (carbonation) – are known as hydrophilic Vahcuengh (water-loving) substances. the random orientations of the water molecules in the liquid are maintained by the ADR label for transporting goods dangerously reactive with water .98 °C (39. however water has the anomalous property of becoming less dense when it is cooled to its solid form. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants. and polysaccharides) are dissolved in water. Võro All of the components in cells (proteins.000 kg/m 3 (62.43 lb/cu ft) at 4 °C. DNA Capillary action of water compared to mercury. Türkmençe sugars. as well as a high heat of vaporization (40. but this increases with the Wolof dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride. Türkçe Substances that dissolve in water.Татарча/tatarça move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. on the top of Mount Everest water boils at 68 °C (154 °F). Vepsän kel’ Tiếng Việt are known as hydrophobic (water-fearing) Volapük substances. such as trees. ice. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature.16 °F). The density of liquid water is 1. ‫ייִדי ש‬ The boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the Yorùbá barometric pressure.g.[12] Most known pure substances become more dense as they cool.25 lb/cu ft). salts. During cooling water becomes more dense until reaching 3.g. Edit links water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperatures of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid. compared to 100 °C (212 °F) at sea level at a similar Žemaitėška latitude (since latitude modifies atmospheric pressure slightly).3 J/(kg·K). The maximum density of water occurs at 3. alkalis. Conversely.65 kJ·mol−1). Ice has a density of 917 kg/m 3 (57. Winaray Pure water has a low electrical conductivity. For example. acids. the open structure of ice is gradually formed in the low temperature water. both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. Below this temperature. fats and oils). At 4181.98 °C. deriving their structure and West-Vlams activity from their interactions with the water.[11] Тоҷикӣ Water is a good polar solvent and is often Tsetsêhestâhese referred to as the universal solvent..

which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water. The energy required to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis or any other means is greater than the energy that can be collected when the hydrogen and oxygen recombine. ocean and atmosphere by and gas on Earth's surface phase change Dissolves more substances in Important in chemical. Water is not a fuel. as in icebergs. The temperature of circulation. On the other hand. and the most dense layer at the bottom. in that order of Controls oceanic vertical importance. Elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen such as lithium.[13] Water expands to occupy a 9% greater volume as ice. water and most oils are immiscible. and biological common liquid processes Density is determined by (1) temperature. Between 3.98 °C there is not enough thermal energy to maintain this randomness. and below 3. Property Remarks Importance to the environment Only substance occurring naturally Transfer of heat between Physical state Dissolving ability in all three phases as solid. For seawater. in all proportions. the hydrogen given off is dangerous and the reaction of water with the more electropositive of these elements may be violently explosive. such as ethanol. potassium and caesium displace hydrogen from water.[14] As an oxide of hydrogen. water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogencontaining compounds burn or react with oxygen or oxygen-containing compounds. (2) salinity. it is an end-product of the combustion of hydrogen. forming a single homogeneous liquid. usually forming layers with the least dense liquid as the top layer.thermal motion. greater quantities than any other physical. and 2) increase overall volume of the liquid as the molecules begin to orient into the organized structure of ice. sodium. and (3) Density: mass per unit volume pressure. Water is miscible with many liquids. calcium. and allows 4 °C. Water can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen. As water is cooled there are two competing effects: 1) decreasing volume. Being a flammable gas. aids in heat maximum density for pure water is distribution. liquid. Water forms an azeotrope with many other solvents. the second effect will cancel the first effect so the net effect is an increase of volume with decreasing temperature. forming hydroxides.98 °C and 0 °C. the freezing point decreases with increasing salinity seasonal stratification .

Transparency absorption high for infrared and ultraviolet Objects appear closer than in air Important for photosynthesis Allows for sonar and precision depth recorders to rapidly determine water Sound transmission Good compared with other fluids depth. Water can dissolve many different substances. giving it varying tastes and odors. Humans.Surface tension Conduction of heat Heat capacity Controls drop formation in Highest of all common liquids rain and clouds. and other animals. important in cell physiology Important on the small Highest of all common liquids scale. and to detect subsurface features and animals.. have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid. especially on cellular level Highest of all common solids and liquids Prevents extreme range in Earth's temperatures (i. great heat moderator) Thermostatic heat- Latent heat of Highest of all common liquids and regulating effect due to the fusion most solids release of heat on freezing and absorption on melting Immense importance: a Latent heat of vaporization major factor in the transfer Highest of all common substances of heat in and between ocean and atmosphere. sounds can be heard great distances underwater Compressibility Only slight Boiling and melting points Unusually high Density changes only slightly with pressure/depth Allows water to exist as a liquid on most of Earth Taste and odor Pure H2O is tasteless and odorless. often advertised in marketing of . driving weather and climate Refractive index Increases with increasing salinity and decreases with increasing temperature Relatively great for visible light. The taste of spring water and mineral water.e.

[16][17] Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas. and that of its moon Europa[25] Atmosphere of Saturn – in ices only. as well as that of the Moon in trace amounts[21] Atmosphere of Mars: 0. and large amounts of water in Mercury's exosphere[19] Atmosphere of Venus: 0. the "discovery shows that water has been prevalent in the universe for nearly its entire existence". are among the most abundant elements in the universe. Enceladus: 91%[26] and Dione (exosphere) Atmosphere of Uranus .0004%[24] – in ices only.[citation needed] Based on models of the formation and evolution of the Solar System and that of other star systems.consumer products.found in the deeper layers[28] Extrasolar planet atmospheres: including those of HD 189733 b[29] and HD 209458 b.[33][34] IRC +10216[35] and APM 08279+5255[16][17] .[citation needed] Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies.in trace amounts below 50 bar[27] Atmosphere of Neptune . derives from the minerals dissolved in it. The advertised purity of spring and mineral water refers to absence of toxins. pollutants.40% over full atmosphere. the Milky Way. When stars are born. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas. and microbes. typically 1–4% at surface. According to the researchers. hydrogen and oxygen. because its components.4%. most other planetary systems are likely to have similar ingredients. too. their birth is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust.03%[22] Atmosphere of Ceres[23] Atmosphere of Jupiter: 0. the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. Distribution in nature In the universe Much of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation.002%[20] Earth's atmosphere: ~0.[15] On 22 July 2011 a report described the discovery of a gigantic cloud of water vapor containing "140 trillion times more water than all of Earth's oceans combined" around a quasar located 12 billion light years from Earth. and that of its moons Titan (stratospheric). Water vapor Water is present as vapor in: Atmosphere of the Sun: in detectable trace amounts[18] Atmosphere of Mercury: 3.[30] Tau Boötis b[31] and HAT-P-11b[32] Circumstellar disks: including those of TW Hydrae. not to the absence of naturally occurring minerals.

as a subsurface layer.Liquid water Liquid water is known to be present on Earth. Water is present as ice on: Mars: under the regolith and at the poles Earth-Moon system: mainly as ice sheets on Earth and in Lunar craters and volcanic rocks[40] NASA reported the detection of water molecules by NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper aboard the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in September 2009. and deeper down as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. if it were slightly closer to or . as a 10 kilometre thick ocean approximately 30-40 kilometres below Enceladus' south polar surface.[39] Water ice Turquoise water with a bit of Sun.[41] Jupiter's moons: Europa's surface and also that of Ganymede Saturn: in the planet's ring system [42] and on the surface and mantle of Titan and Enceladus Pluto-Charon system [42] Comets and related (Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects).[36][37] and Titan. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the solar system. on Earth are vital to the existence of life on Earth as we know it.[38] Liquid water may also exist on Jupiter's moon Ganymede as a layer sandwiched between high pressure ice and rock.[44] Water and habitable zone Further information: Water distribution on Earth The existence of liquid water. and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms. possibly mixed with ammonia. Scientists believe liquid water is present in the Saturnian moons of Enceladus. covering 71% of our planet's surface. And may also be present on: Mercury's poles[43] Ceres Tethys Exotic forms Water and other volatiles probably comprise much of the internal structures of Uranus and Neptune and the water in the deeper layers may be in the form of ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions.

of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist. as it was observed on exoplanets Gliese 436 b[47] and GJ 1214 b. the oceans contain 96. It also exists as groundwater in aquifers. If Earth were smaller. Earth's approximate water volume (the total water supply of the world) is 1. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid. stream.[48] On Earth Main articles: Hydrology and Water distribution on Earth Hydrology is the study of the movement. Water is important in many geological processes. such as an ocean. which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. and over the surface of a planet is called the hydrosphere. which is determined by the planet's gravity. contributing to the Earth's albedo. The study of the distribution of water is hydrography. and quality of water throughout the Earth.000. sea. river. canal. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds.000. or puddle. lake. indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. because of the high pressure caused by gravity. The state of water on a planet depends on ambient pressure. distribution. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis. The collective mass of water found on. thus preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars). Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology. Liquid water is found in bodies of water. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a temperature buffer (greenhouse effect) which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. liquid.000 mi3). Groundwater is present in . The Antarctic ice sheet.000 km 3 (321. a thinner atmosphere would allow temperature extremes. pond. under.[45][46] Earth's gravity allows it to hold an atmosphere. The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation).farther from the Sun (about 5%. is visible at the bottom.338.[2] Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. and vapor states. or about 8 million kilometers).5% of the Earth's water. If a planet is sufficiently massive. of glaciers is glaciology. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology. the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures.

A mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters is a hydrological transport model. is covered with water. Some water is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. precipitation. water is important in both chemical and physical weathering processes. snow. evaporation and transpiration contribute another 72 Tt per year.[49] Dew is small drops of water that are condensed when a high density of water vapor meets a cool surface. has several forms: most commonly rain. soil water. Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans. from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean. surface water. and to a lesser but still significant extent. which make up the geologic record of Earth history. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region . Through erosion. between the atmosphere. On the surface of the Earth. runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers. Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle Water cycle consisting of following transfer processes: evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air. It is when a river overflows its banks or flood comes from the sea. but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea. Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. and hail. Deposition of transported sediment forms many types of sedimentary rocks. Water cycle Main article: Water cycle The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere.most rocks. Water. A flood occurs when an area of land. and plants. runoff from the land usually reaching the sea.[50] Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows. just before sunrise and when the temperature of the earth's surface starts to increase. Dew usually forms in the morning when the temperature is the lowest. groundwater. are also responsible for a large amount of sediment transport that occurs on the surface of the earth. about 47 Tt per year. with some contribution from fog and dew. Over land. at a rate of 119 Tt per year over land. and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting. Precipitation. ice. usually low-lying. Water in the mantle is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes at subduction zones.

The physical properties of sea water differ from fresh water in some important respects. Fresh water storage Main article: Water The Bay of Fundy at high tide (left) and low tide (right) resources Some runoff water is trapped for periods of time. It freezes at a lower temperature (about −1. for example in lakes. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells.notes a deficiency in its water supply. Tides Main article: Tide Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. it is in short supply. since clean. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating . or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. snow pack and glaciers.0% in the Red Sea. during winter. Sea water Main article: Seawater Sea water contains about 3. In many parts of the world.5% salt on average. snow collects in ice caps. instead of reaching maximum density at a temperature above freezing. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0. and in the far north and south. At high altitude.9 °C) and its density increases with decreasing temperature to the freezing point. This water storage is important. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs. plus smaller amounts of other substances.7% in the Baltic Sea to 4. fresh water is essential to human and other land-based life. This occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation.

the intertidal zone. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. Without water. which can be respired to water and (CO2 ). All known forms of life depend on water. that is. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. glucose. water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e. water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body.g. An acid. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. Effects on life An oasis is an isolated water source with vegetation in a desert. water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e. From a biological standpoint. triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). replication. is an important ecological product of ocean tides. a hydrogen ion (H+. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. Water is considered to be neutral. fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Water (at right). with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function.g. can be neutralized by a base. starches. Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. In catabolism. a proton acceptor such as a hydroxide ion (OH−) to form water.currents known as tidal streams. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values . In anabolism. together with carbon dioxide (CO2 ). these particular metabolic processes could not exist. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration). form oxygen and organic compounds (at left). The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. a proton) donor.

spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Montreal. and they do so in various ways. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. Effects on human civilization Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways. Chicago. have flourished for the same reason. Marine mammals. New York City. and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. such as the lungfish. Buenos Water fountain Aires.greater than 7. otters. and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. such as dolphins and whales. Aquatic life forms Main articles: Hydrobiology and Aquatic plant Earth surface waters are filled with life. like Singapore. was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Tokyo. Fish have gills instead of lungs. although some species of fish. In . the so-called cradle of civilization. whales. Large metropolises like Rotterdam. Some kinds of animals. Islands with safe water ports. However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. such as dolphins. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect Some marine diatoms – a key phytoplankton group and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus). and there are many types of marine mammals. the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. The earliest life forms appeared in water. Paris. London. have both. such as amphibians. nearly all fish live exclusively in water. Shanghai. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Mesopotamia.

or by a range of other methods. The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1. In the USA. non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater. Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly. showers and kitchen runoff. some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water. and blackwater. which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again. and is sometimes called safe An environmental science program a student from Iowa State University sampling water water. Greywater composes 50–80% of residential wastewater generated by a household's sanitation equipment (sinks. Health and pollution Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. however. Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light. access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation. Currently. Therefore. This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places.4 million child deaths from diarrhea each year. is not a finite resource.) These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures. but not toilets. it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water and over a billion without access to adequate sanitation. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit. which is .[52] Water. and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water. but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation in quantities many degrees of magnitude higher than human consumption. where water is more scarce.places such as North Africa and the Middle East. which generate blackwater. and its availability is a major social and economic concern. Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water.[51] Even if this difficult goal is met. which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable. or "safe for bathing". about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water.

Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water (to leave enough for local human consumption). giving rise to the concept of peak water. there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. but it also degrades groundwater resources. rather. Today. urbanisation and biofuel crops. At this time. which is a key component to produce enough food. also suffer from medium or high water stress. with roughly a third of the world's population.replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years). 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation). and there is increasing competition for water from industry. Human uses Further information: Water supply Agriculture The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation. 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams. consumed fewer calories and ate less meat. even more water will be needed to produce food because the Earth's population is forecast to rise to 9 billion by 2050. rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the earth. that is a non-renewable resource. their consumption of water-thirsty meat and vegetables is rising. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries[55] and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (United States. so less water was needed to produce their food.[54] The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes. and it is.[58] An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in 2007 by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world . the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles. In the developing world.[53] Some 50 countries. the competition for Irrigation of field crops the fixed amount of water resources is much more intense.[57] This is because there are now nearly seven billion people on the planet. People were not as wealthy as today. the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce. They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. In future.[56] Water distribution in subsurface drip irrigation Fifty years ago. since the manufacturing process uses around 10 to 100 times products' masses in water.

one thousand times more massive. though most specialists agree that approximately 2 liters (6 to 7 glasses) of water daily is the minimum .[59] It assessed the current availability of water for agriculture on a global scale and mapped out locations suffering from water scarcity. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less deuterium than seawater. a metallic reference standard was required. defined as exactly 273. the gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter. more than 1.01 °C. which was originally defined according the boiling point (set to 100 °C) and melting point (set to 0 °C) of water.[63] To function properly. standard water is defined in the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water specification. farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food. where there is not enough water to meet all demands. and other factors. and at the temperature of melting ice."[61] For practical purposes though.2 billion. which was measured at the time as 4 °C (39 °F). In spite of the fact that the decreed definition of the gram specified water at 0 °C — a highly reproducible temperature — the scientists chose to redefine the standard and to perform their measurements at the temperature of highest water density.6 billion people live in areas experiencing economic water scarcity. A further 1. It found that a fifth of the world's people. temperature. For drinking Main article: Drinking water The human body contains from 55% to 78% water. while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently. The scale is an absolute temperature scale with the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale. the kilogram. but it still affects the properties of water.[60] As a scientific standard On 7 April 1795. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people. humidity. live in areas of physical water scarcity. Therefore. the precise amount depends on the level of activity.had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population. Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water. where the lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity make it impossible for authorities to satisfy the demand for water. Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen-16. but there is also a small quantity of heavier isotopes such as hydrogen-2 (deuterium).[62] The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point of water. To avoid a global water crisis. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration. The amount of deuterium oxides or heavy water is very small. The report found that it would be possible to produce the food required in future. depending on body size. but that continuation of today's food production and environmental trends would lead to crises in many parts of the world.16 K or 0.

it is rather difficult to drink too much water. through urine and feces. Common impurities include metal .[64] Medical literature favors a lower consumption. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms.[66][67] The popular claim that "a person should consume eight glasses of water per day" seems to have no real basis in science. excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather. Humans require water with few impurities.to maintain proper hydration. which can be fatal.[72] Also noted is that normally.) recommends that. With physical exertion and heat exposure.4 liters (10 cups) and breastfeeding women should get 3 liters (12 cups). on average. about 20% of water intake comes from food.7 liters of water total for women. men consume 3. through sweating. typically 1 liter of water for an average male.[69] An original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising. putting them at risk of water intoxication (hyperhydration). Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods.S. while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). pregnant women should increase intake to 2."[70] The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended (including food sources): 3. and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath.2 liters. however.[68] Similar Water availability: fraction of population using improved water sources by country misconceptions concerning the effect of water on weight loss and constipation have also been dispelled.7 liters for men and 2. pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. A young girl drinking bottled water but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little.[65] For those who have healthy kidneys.0 liters and women 2. The Institute of Medicine (U.[71] Hazard symbol for non-potable water Specifically. water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well. since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing.

In the United States. Nevertheless. Also. steam turbine and condenser).[73] and/or harmful bacteria. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea. Transportation The use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy. cooling power plants is the largest use of water. In inorganic reactions. it is not usually used as a reaction solvent. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water. water can also be used as a neutron moderator. dissolving many ionic compounds. In most nuclear reactors. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. In organic reactions. Heat exchange Water and steam are a common fluid used for heat exchange. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilic. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently. iron. water is used as the working fluid (used in a closed loop between boiler. calcium and lead. It's especially effective to transport heat through vaporization and condensation of water because of its large latent heat of vaporization. A disadvantage is that metals commonly found in industries such as steel and copper are oxidized faster by untreated water and steam. suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances. such as Vibrio. This provides something of a passive safety measure. However other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core .[56] In the nuclear power industry. due to its availability and high heat capacity. water is both a coolant and a moderator.salts and oxides.[74] The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia.[75] Washing The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. both for cooling and heating. In almost all thermal power stations. water is a common solvent. Chemical uses Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. including copper. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. and the coolant (used to exchange the waste heat to a water body or carry it away by evaporation in a cooling tower). these properties are sometimes desirable. as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down.

Humans also use water for snow sports i. when substances which react with water. cisterns for rainwater harvesting. which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces. It is dangerous to use water on fires involving oils and organic solvents. and fountains and other water features are popular decorations. In addition. Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion. beaches and water parks are popular places for people to Grand Anse Beach. boating. water supply networks. and of a hydrogen explosion. waterskiing. West Indies go to relax and enjoy recreation. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show. St. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium. or coke graphite. and companionship. such as certain metals or hot carbon such as coal. Water industry The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to households and industry.e. surfing and diving. because many organic materials float on water and the water tends to spread the burning liquid. Many find the sound and appearance of flowing water to be calming. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. like ice hockey and ice skating. water towers. Water is used for fighting wildfires. producing water gas. Lakesides. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme overheating of the core caused water to flash into steam. Recreation Main article: Water sport (recreation) Humans use water for many recreational purposes. and water purification facilities. some sports. Some of these include swimming. Grenada. snowmobiling or snowboarding. Water supply facilities include water wells.covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling. water tanks. water pipes including old . fun. charcoal. George's. Fire extinction Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert. are played on ice. decompose the water. which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster. which require the water to be frozen. as well as for exercising and for sports. sledding. although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor's own water cooling system. skiing.

regardless of benefits to the polluter. Like other types of pollution. The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems. tanker delivery or as bottled water. In some cities such as Hong Kong. to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water. Distillation does all three functions. dissolved substances and harmful microbes. victims of this pollution. Atmospheric water generators are in development. this does not enter standard accounting of market costs. Reducing usage by using drinking (potable) water only for human consumption is another option. This may involve removal of undissolved substances. boiling kill harmful microbes. while chlorination and A water-carrier in India. water has to be transported by people. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material. Water may require purification for human consumption. Other water sources include rainwater collection. Drinking water is often collected at springs. In many places where running water is not available.aqueducts. sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources. such as reverse osmosis. 1882. or pumped from lakes and rivers. More advanced techniques exist. Governments in many countries have A manual water pump in China programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution. . being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates. it becomes a waste of the resource. Water purification facility Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water. while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population. assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water. extracted from artificial borings (wells) in the ground.

Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. renewable energy source. very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydro-electric power station. It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent overheating. Another way to remove pollution from surface runoff water is bioswale. in addition to its use as a chemical solvent. is relatively safe. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost. Industrial applications Water is used in power generation. Food processing Boiling. such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger. . steaming. and is not harmful to the environment. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and discharged coolant water (thermal pollution). It works very well. The energy is supplied by the motion of water. Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines. and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state. Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Water also plays many critical roles within the field of food science. Also. steam. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles. creating an artificial lake behind it.Wastewater facilities are storm sewers and wastewater treatment plants. Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge. non-polluting. Typically a dam is constructed on a river. Water flowing out of the lake is forced through turbines that turn generators. or prevent saw blades from overheating. Water is also used for dishwashing.

Water right and Water crisis Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. the authors also make clear that this is a global average and circumstantial factors determine the amount of water used in beef production. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water is one of .51 °C (32.[76] Solutes in water also affect water activity that affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food.[78] Law.918 °F). and crisis Main articles: Water law.836 °F). similarly. For example.[4] To halve. politics. This trend is projected to continue.[77] Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water.02 °C (33. water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. there is a loss of effectiveness for its use as a sanitizer. One mole of sucrose (sugar) per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0.[79] The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30% in 1970[80] to 71% in 1990.products. 79% in 2000 and 84% in 2004.[vague][76] The hardness of water also affects its pH balance.[76] Solutes in water lower water activity—this is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity.[citation needed] Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water. but also the preservation and shelf life of food.[77] Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food. Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing and may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990. as well as playing a role in sanitation. as well as air pressure. The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes. with increasing hardness. hard water prevents successful production of clear beverages. by 2015. medium if it contains 5 to 10 grains and hard if it contains 11 to 20 grains.[76] According to a report published by the Water Footprint organization in 2010. which is in turn is affected by altitude. Water hardness is measured in grains: 0. and one mole of salt per kg raises the boiling point by 1. 1.064 g calcium carbonate is equivalent to one grain of hardness. increasing the number of dissolved particles lowers water's freezing point. which plays a critical role in food processing. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure that occurs at higher elevations. It causes health impacts and damage to biodiversity. For this reason. a single kilogram of beef requires 15 thousand litres of water. Water hardness also affects sanitation.[76] Water is classified as soft if it contains 1 to 4 grains. however. Water hardness is classified based on the amounts of removable calcium carbonate salt the water contains per gallon.

but that access to it is hampered by mismanagement and corruption. and the American Water Resources Association.2 million people died in 2000 from waterborne diseases (related to the consumption of contaminated water) or drought. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. often this means lack of sewage disposal. More than 2. see toilet. They also discovered that Cambodia's draft water law was much more complex than it needed to be. in the next 20 years. Mistakes have sometimes been made by trying to apply 'blueprints' that work in the developed world to developing world locations and contexts. the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%.[81] In addition. have not been taken up by water sector donors as effectively as they have in education and health. Water governance is the set of formal and informal processes through which decisions related to water management are made. 2003) from the World Water Assessment Program indicates that. A 2006 United Nations report stated that "there is enough water for everyone". Water related conventions are United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). .[82] The authors of the 2007 Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture cited poor governance as one reason for some forms of water scarcity.[83] The UN World Water Development Report (WWDR. potentially leaving multiple donors working on overlapping projects and recipient governments without empowerment to act. In 2004. Good water governance is primarily about knowing what processes work best in a particular physical and socioeconomic context. global initiatives to improve An estimate of the share of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000 the efficiency of aid delivery. Water 1st.the Millennium Development Goals. The International Water Management Institute undertakes projects with the aim of using effective water management to reduce poverty. WaterAid. the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases. 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. a review by the International Water Management Institute of policies in six countries that rely on the Mekong river for water found that thorough and transparent cost-benefit analyses and environmental impact assessments were rarely undertaken. The Mekong river is one example. This goal is projected to be reached. Organizations concerned with water protection include the International Water Association (IWA). such as the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.

[84] In the theory of the four bodily humors. James Legge's 1891 translation of the Dao De Jing states "The highest excellence is like (that of) water. the Rastafari movement. along with earth."[85] Guanzi in "Shui di" chapter further elaborates on symbolism of water. a ritual bath in pure water is performed for the dead in many religions including Islam and Judaism. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao" and "There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water. it is also a part of the practice of other religions. Taoism. including Islam (Ghusl). proclaiming that "man is water" and attributing natural qualities of the people of different Chinese regions to the character of local water resources. Judaism. emerged from water.United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Ramsar Convention. the five daily prayers can be done in most cases after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu). a monist.g. believed further that all things are made from water. and in its occupying. theorized that the earth. fire. water was associated with phlegm. unless water is unavailable (see Tayammum). without striving (to the contrary). Hinduism. In Islam. In culture Religion Main article: Water and religion Water is considered a purifier in most religions. Islam. which is denser than water. The classical element of water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy. and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed. Immersion (or aspersion or affusion) of a person in water is a central sacrament of Christianity (where it is called baptism). The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things. Plato believed the shape of water is an icosahedron which accounts for why it is able to flow easily compared to the cube shaped earth. the low place which all men dislike. or basic substance of the universe. in the ritual of misogi). Philosophy The Ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire. Thales. and Wicca. and metal. Water is also taken as a role model in some parts of traditional and popular Asian philosophy. Faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Christianity. In Shinto. who was portrayed by Aristotle as an astronomer and an engineer. Shinto.. Thales. wood. and was regarded as the ylem. earth and air. In addition. Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). World Day for Water takes place on 22 March and World Ocean Day on 8 June. water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e. as being cold and moist.[86] See also Main article: Outline of water .

Water is described in many terms and contexts: according to state solid – ice liquid – water gaseous – water vapor plasma according to meteorology: hydrometeor Liquid water and ice structures precipitation precipitation according to movement vertical (falling) precipitation precipitation according to state liquid precipitation rain rain freezing rain freezing rain drizzle drizzle freezing drizzle freezing drizzle snow dew snow pellets solid precipitation snow grains snow ice pellets snow pellets hail snow grains ice crystals ice pellets horizontal (seated) hail precipitation ice crystals dew hoarfrost hoarfrost atmospheric icing atmospheric icing glaze ice glaze ice mixed precipitation in temperatures around 0 °C levitating particles clouds fog mist ascending particles (drifted by wind) spindrift stirred snow according to occurrence .The water (data page) is a collection Water portal of the chemical and physical Sustainable development portal properties of water.

it contains balanced minerals that are not harmful to health (see below) purified water. without fouling. fresh water groundwater meltwater meteoric water mineral water – contains many minerals seawater surface water according to uses bottled water drinking water or potable water – useful for everyday drinking. the following: deionized water distilled water double distilled water reverse osmosis plant water tap water according to other features distilled water. analytical-grade or reagent-grade water – water which has been highly purified for specific uses in science or engineering. double distilled water. contains more minerals heavy water – made from heavy atoms of hydrogen – deuterium. laboratory-grade. this category of water includes. or Type III.brackish water brine connate water dead water – strange phenomenon which can occur when a layer of fresh or brackish water rests on top of denser salt water. without the two layers mixing. deionized water – contains no minerals hard water – from underground. Often broadly classified as Type I. Type II. It is dangerous for ship traveling. hydrates – water bound into other chemical substances soft water – contains fewer minerals tritiated water water of crystallization – water incorporated into crystalline structures according to microbiology drinking water stormwater or surface water wastewater according to religion . but is not limited to. It was used in construction of first nuclear reactors. It is in nature in normal water in very low concentration.

1021/ed070p612 .. David.. Central Intelligence Agency. Vital Water 4. Retrieved 14 September 2007. Tettamanti. ^ Ball. "Why is water blue?" . M. ^ a b "MDG Report 2008" 5.holy water Other topics Aquaphobia (fear of water) Dihydrogen monoxide hoax Drought Mirage Mpemba effect Oral rehydration therapy Ripple effect Thirst Water Pasteurization Indicator Water pinch analysis Willard Water References 1. & Weaver.. P. 10.. Charles L.ejcn. Table 2. L. Roberta (2011). "A Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2025". doi:10. ^ Water Vapor in the Climate System [dead link]. ^ Kotz. Treichel. Ariel.. 2. 13. ^ Ben-Naim et al. Force. Berati. Retrieved 20 December 2008. (1993).N (1998). Nature News. December 1995 (linked 4/2007).1038/sj. 15. Johns Hopkins University quoted in: "Discover of Water Vapor Near Orion .. 13. Gapminder video 6. 14. 7. J. Gary.H. Robin J. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity. and Surface – JRank Articles 12. 8. Water Resources Management 12 (3): 167–184. Neil A.The world factbook" . Oxford University Press. . Sergei N. C. L. "Burning water and other myths" . ^ Braun.1142/8068 . G. Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. [AGU].1 "Water reserves on the earth". P. Biology: Exploring Life . Singapore. Educ. Retrieved 25 July 2010.. J. ^ a bc Gleick. S. ed. ^ Campbell. 9. Ben-Naim. Chem. Retrieved 25 July 2010. Thomson Brooks/Cole.. ^ Baroni. doi:10. Cenci. ^ "Charting Our Water Future: Economic frameworks to inform decisionmaking" (PDF).. 11. doi:10. ISBN 0-534-39597-X. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (2): 279–286. Water. ISBN 0-13250882-6. ^ Kulshreshtha. ^ Capillary Action – Liquid. Smirnov (1993). 3. 70 (8): 612. M. doi:10.1602522 . "Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems". ^ "CIA . . Heyden (2006). (2005). Alice's Adventures in Waterland. (2007). Brad Williamson. ^ Melnick. Boston. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Neufeld. Philip (14 September 2007). C. p. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Freshwater Resources . ^ "Public Services" Special Report. PMID 17035955 . ISBN 978-981-4338-96-7. UNEP.1023/A:1007957229865 .

Neha Naika. Fussen. D. 22. Johnson. A. ^ Near-IR Direct Detection of Water Vapor in Tau Boo b : Alexandra C... Ann-Carine. P.1038/nature12918 . Marston. 28.. Belyaev.5143. Nature 505 (7484): 525–527.58. . Joe (12 December 2013).263. ISBN 978-3-642- 32762-9. 25 February 1999. Bibcode:2007Natur. 92. Von Allmen. PMID 17748350 . Science 311 (5766): 1422–5. "Astronomers Find Largest. 21.. ^ Water Found on Distant Planet 12 July 2007 By Laura Blue. et al. Villard. John S.02. 25. T. Jia-Rui C.947S . Retrieved 5 July 2008.. Bockelée-Morvan. Staff (22 July 2011). (2007).1126/science..013 . Bibcode:2005SSRv.2010. ^ Atreya.263. Whitney. and Gogulapati Supriya (2010). Ayres. M. Carr. ISSN 0028-0836 .646B . ^ Hansen. ^ Water Found in Extrasolar Planet's Atmosphere – Space. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. D. Livingston.275.1279 . 26. 18. J. Moreno. Travis Barman. Oldest Mass of Water in Universe" . p. NASA.Nebula Suggests Possible Origin of H20 in Solar System (sic)" . Bender. Sreelathaa. Carry. E. ^ Donald Rapp (28 November 2012).com 31. W.1016/j. Most Distant Reservoir of Water" 17.5304.1038/nature05974 . doi:10. Time 30. Crovisier. doi:10. Science 275 (5304): 1279–1280. "Astronomers Find Largest. 3 July 2008.. doi:10. Lee. Planetary Society.. Chad F. PMID 24451541 . Space. R.M. 9 April 1998. D.. "A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high-altitude measurements of HF. ^ Solanki. Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars . W. (1994). K. Barucci. L. 23. PMID 18046397 . ^ a b . JHU. ^ Hubbard.. ^ Encrenaz 2003. Bibcode:1994Sci.. doi:10... pp. Springer. P. Zakharov.1007/s11214-005-1951- 5 . 19..D. NASA.com.. Bibcode:2006Sci. "Water. Rob.. "Coupled Clouds and Chemistry of the Giant Planets — A Case for Multiprobes" (PDF). Müller. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 29.311. The Harvard University Gazette.116. "New Light on the Heart of Darkness of the Solar Chromosphere".1126/science. Science 263 (5143): 64–66.. Water Everywhere: Radio telescope finds water is common in universe" 16.. " 'Direct' evidence for water (H2O) in the sunlit lunar ambience from CHACE on MIP of Chandrayaan I". Tirtha Pratim Dasa.. S. ^ Bertaux.pss. "Space Cloud Holds Enough Water to Fill Earth's Oceans 1 Million Times" . D. Buis.. Teyssier. B. "Enceladus' Water Vapor Plume". (1997). ^ Sridharan. doi:10. T. Pradeepkumara. H2O and HDO". doi:10. J... Wong.. Sushil K. Retrieved 23 July 2011. J. PMID 9064785 . R. Headlines@Hopkins.121A . 24. Gutro. Oleg. Fedorova. The Harvard University Gazette. et al.(linked 4/2007) Clavin. A. Korablev. S. ^ Küppers.450. O'Rourke. Fohn. ^ Cook. doi:10. Planetary and Space Science 58 (6): 947. HCl. 20. Bibcode:2010P&SS. A. V. "Neptune's Deep Chemistry". Dwayne.. (23 January 2014).1121254 . 23 April 1998.. 27. John A. ISSN 0032-0633 ... Vandaele. S.. "Hubble Sees Evidence of Water Vapor at Jupiter Moon" . Ah-San (2005).1126/science.. PMID 16527971 . Space Science Reviews 116: 121–136.. Jean-Loup. Retrieved 25 July 2011.1422H ..64 . C. Harrington. Nature 450 (7170): 646–649.. B. Alan (22 July 2011).. Ahmed. P. Lockwood. "Localized sources of water vapour on the dwarf planet (1) Ceres". ^ "MESSENGER Scientists 'Astonished' to Find Water in Mercury's Thin Atmosphere" . Brown.64S . M. Quémerais.. (2006). 78–. ^ a b . E.

Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Freshwater Resources . 51. Whitney.J.344.. Armstrong. Bell. NASA. ^ Ravindranath. New Scientist. ^ Lloyd. Alice's Adventures in Waterland. C. J. David A. ^ UNEP International Environment (2002). Retrieved 3 April 2014. E. Hemingway. John S. Retrieved 3 April 2014.I..W.. (16 December 2009). "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur. 53. "NASA Telescopes Find Clear Skies and Water Vapor on Exoplanet" .fr. G8.. New Scientist. Parisi. ^ "Habitable Zone" . Sathaye (2002). Found Orbiting Star". Michele (24 September 2014). Chou. P. (4 April 2014). Villard. ^ http://in. ^ Aguilar. 33. 116. Carr. Giles (2006). Springer.1250551 . (2001). Oxford University Press. "The Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Enceladus" (6179): 78–80. Science 344 . ^ Herschel Finds Oceans of Water in Disk of Nearby Star 35. ^ http://www. Jacobson. 15. John A. L. P. Blake 32. Lunine. and interactions. "Integrated Management of Water Resources" ". Tortora. ^ Water Molecules Found on the Moon . Space.pdf 39. doi:10. 52. ^ Gleick. IWA Publishing. Retrieved 24 September 2014. R. Weaver. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. ^ Versteckt in Glasperlen: Auf dem Mond gibt es Wasser – Wissenschaft – Der Spiegel – Nachrichten 41.. Donna. and Ben-Naim. (2011). p. "J. David (6 May 2007). M. F. Felicia. Robin. Jayant A. ed.1142/8068 . ^ "World Health Organization. World Scientific Publishing. NASA. T. Richert. J. Astronomy and Spaceflight. P..1126/science.. Thunder Bay Press... Climate Change and . "Strange alien world made of "hot ice" " .. Brian (3 April 2014).H. R. Nijavalli H.int.com . ISBN 1-84339-008-6. inside Saturn Moon" 37. ^ Iess. Bender. 36. Table 2. ^ Shiga.. 38. (1993)..78I . Who. 25 June 2008. Jane. NASA. I. ^ Ehlers.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/2454. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Bibcode:2014Sci. doi:10.. Ducci. Geoffrey A. ed. 11 July 2001. 31. Retrieved 15 December 2006.com/article/2014/05/03/us-space-ganymedeidINKBN0DJ00H20140503 40.reuters. 44. Stevenson. ^ Herschel Finds Oceans of Water in Disk of Nearby Star 34. Off-the-Shelf Technology" . 48.A. Possible Comets. processes. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 47. Krafft. ISBN 978-9814338-96-7. Nimmo. Understanding the Earth System: compartments. Environmentally Sound Technology for Wastewater and Stormwater Management: An International Source Book. 50. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.H. Travis Barman. "MESSENGER Finds New Evidence for Water Ice at Mercury's Poles ".. ^ Weird water lurking inside giant planets . p. D. OCLC 49204666 . Retrieved 25 July 2010.3. The Solar System.w. Safe Water and Global Health" . ^ a b Sparrow..usra. ^ Ben-Naim. Johnson. Asmar.. 1 September 2010. ^ "G8 "Action plan" decided upon at the 2003 Evian summit" . 24 September 2009 42. ISBN 1- 59223-579-4. ^ Platt. Chad F. Johnson. 45. ^ Clavin. A.lpi. Dooge. "NASA Space Assets Detect Ocean . Alexander J. Retrieved 25 July 2010. "Water Vapor. M. ^ NASA. S. 54. 2 June 2003.. 49.. 43.Lockwood. Magazine issue 2776. D.w. p. 46.

1580/10806032(2005)16[221:WIAPCD]2. pp. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. Wright (1993). David LaHart. 68. 65. PMID 4021781 . New Hampshire 69. C. doi:10. The MadSci Network 64.CO. ^ Maton. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Retrieved 25 July 2010. 76. ^ Noakes TD. Medical Physiology (2nd ed. 2010 61. 67. et al. "Peak Water" . P. (Ed). Out of water. Med Sci Sports Exerc 17 possible complication during endurance exercise" (3): 370–375.). water softener critic. No. p.1073/pnas. Maryanna Quon Warner. Jayant A. PMID 16366205 . Taylor RK (2005). Sathaye (2002). National Atlas.free.1004812107 . 1945. ^ Décret relatif aux poids et aux mesures. Goodwin N. ISBN 0-7817-1936-4. 18 germinal an 3 (7 April 1795) . M.metre. ^ a b Water Use in the United States . 122. 55. S. Essentials of Food Science . OCLC 231965991 . Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ^ Gleick. 60. Anthea. La Détermination De L'Unité De Poids . Reprint and Circular Series.0. Elizabeth W (2007). Jill D. D. "Water intoxication: a . Vickie A. ^ Molden. . ^ "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day. Retrieved 1 February 2007. Wilderness Environ Med 16 (4): 221–7.54. doi:10. ^ "WBCSD Water Facts & Trends" 56. 71. Water: a shared responsibility . New Jersey. National Research Council. ISBN 0-387-69939-2. Rayner BL. (1985). ISBN 1-84545-177-5. ^ United Nations Press Release POP/952. histoire. Palaniappan. Principles of Food Chemistry 8342-1234-X. M. . 13 March 2007. Proceedings National Academy of Science (National Academy of Science) 107 (125): 11155–11162.. ^ "Healthy Water Living" . ^ Unesco (2006). 3–18. ^ Drinking Water – How Much? . and Christian. Published 2008 74. Human Biology and Health. ^ Chartres.com. OCLC 32308337 .1249/00005768-198506000-00012 . Goodwin N. Retrieved 25 July 2010. Lebanon. Earthscan/IWMI.H. 77.gov 57. ^ Ravindranath. BBC. ISBN 1-4020-0104-5. "Water intoxication: a possible complication during endurance exercise." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? by Heinz Valdin. Mayoclinic. ^ "Water: How much should you drink every day?" . 2007. Decree relating to the weights and measurements (in French). 72. ^ Conquering Chemistry 4th Ed. National Academy of Sciences. Springer. Charles William McLaughlin.2 .D.5 billion by 2050 59. ^ Re: What percentage of the human body is composed of water? Jeffrey Utz. 75. From Abundance to Scarcity and How to Solve the World's Water Problems FT Press (USA). Department of Physiology. 66. 125. ^ "Are you consuming enough water? recommendations from the United States National Research Council" ...du. doi:10. Berghahn Books.org web site and references within 70. ^ here L'Histoire Du Mètre.fr 63. ^ a bc de Vaclavik. John M (1999). (2010). ^ a b DeMan. Branken T. Tanner GA (2003). Springer. ISBN 0- . Retrieved 21 July 2014. USA: Prentice Hall. Rayner BL. Water for food. ^ Food and Nutrition Board. quartier-rural. and Varma. ^ Rhoades RA. World population will increase by 2. 1985". ^ Noakes TD. Springer. Dartmouth Medical School.org 62. Water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. 73. Retrieved 11 October 2011. OCLC 50554808 . Susan Johnson. Englewood Cliffs. Nijavalli H. Factsmart. Climate Change and Developing Countries. Jean Hopkins. 58.

^ The Millennium Development Goals Report . and institutional context. Mekonnen.M. Barbara. ^ Lomborg. Issue 5. Tucker. Water. Björn (2001). UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. ^ M. prehistory to A. Sacred-texts. religious. Retrieved 30 January 2014. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 82. Katharina. 2010. ^ "Internet Sacred Text Archive Home" 2010. p. 48 .Volume 1: Main report. A. (2008). (2nd ed. blue and grey wate r footprint of farm animals and animal products. "The green. The green. ISBN 0-521-01068-3. (2006). ^ UNESCO. D. ^ Lindberg. Retrieved 25 July . IWMI 84. The Skeptical Environmentalist . ^ Water governance . ^ Welle. 22. The beginnings of western science: The European scientific tradition in philosophical.D. Hoekstra (December 2010). 81. 2008 80.).8342-1234-X. Cambridge University Press.Volume 1: Main report" .Y. Alan (2008) Is water lagging behind on Aid Effectiveness? 83. Evans. 79. Water Issue Brief. 48 . Josephine and Nicol. a shared responsibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.com. 1450. 78. 86. blue and grey wate r footprint of farm animals and animal products. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2 . 85. ^ [1] . United Nations. Value of Water Research Report Series No.

.

.

Physics Today 56 (6). D. and HE Stanley.. New York. (editor). Island Press Jones.. Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. Norton and Company. beginning in 1998. AQUASTAT Definitions from Wiktionary The Water Conflict Chronology: Media from Commons Water Conflict Database US Geological Survey Water for News stories from Wikinews Schools information Quotations from Wikiquote Portal to The World Bank's strategy.C. United Nations World Water Development Report.. 2005 Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education Postel. UN World Water Development Report External links OECD Water statistics Find more about water at Wikipedia's sister projects The World's Water Data Page FAO Comprehensive Water Database. New York. New York. W. Island Press. (published every two years. Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. PG.W. Plenum Press. p. F (Ed).S.Further reading Debenedetti. Water.. Produced every three years. Downloadable PDF (1. "Supercooled and Glassy Water". Pharmaceuticals: a threat to drinking water? TRENDS in Biotechnology 23(4): 163. OA. A comprehensive treatise.M. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. JN Lester and N Voulvoulis. Penguin Books. 1992 Reisner.. 1986.) The World's Water. 1972–1982 Gleick. Washington. work and associated publications on Source texts from Wikisource water resources Textbooks from Wikibooks America Water Resources Learning resources from Wikiversity Association America Water Resources Association Water structure and science V· T · E Water [show] V· T · E Food chemistry [show] V· T · E Natural resources [show] . PH.9 MB) Franks. 40–46 (2003).

By using this site. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy..V· T · E Molecules detected in outer space Categories: Hydrogen compounds Oxygen compounds Inorganic solvents [show] Liquids Oxides Water This page was last modified on 1 December 2014 at 20:03. Inc. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. a non-profit organization. additional terms may apply. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view .