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be looking at factor analysis. This type of analysis is used to reduce a larger number of manifest variables down to a smaller number of latent variables. In this week’s seminar there are three examples for you to work through. The data files are, as usual, located on the SPSS2 intranet site, to be found at http://www.lifesci.sussex.ac.uk/teaching/index.php?id=909C8. The files are called “factor analysis ex 1”, “factor analysis ex 2” and “factor analysis ex 3”. One note of warning if you’re printing: factor analysis can produce loads of output. Exercise one This set of data gives the responses of children to a number of questions asking them about school. We will run a factor analysis on this data to see if these variables can be reduced to reveal a number of latent variables. To run this analysis go to Analyse > Data reduction > Factor and the following dialog box will open. Select all of the variables and move them across to the “Variables” box. Next you need to select some of the options. First click on “Descriptives” and select the options shown. Click “Continue” to get back to the main factor analysis dialog box. Next click on “Extraction”. The options that you select tell SPSS how to extract the factors from the variable you have entered into the analysis. Most of the options in this box should be there by default. Make sure that the selected method is “Principle components” and that you have selected the “Scree plot” option. Click “Continue” to get back to the main factor analysis dialog box. Next click on “Rotation”. The extraction of factors can be improved upon by rotation, and here you tell SPSS which method of rotation to use (for more details about methods of rotation see Andy Field’s book, pp. 438-441, 449-451). In this box select the “Varimax” method of rotation and select the “Loading plots” option. Click “Continue” to get back to the main factor analysis dialog box. Next click on “Scores”. By selecting options in this box SPSS will save new variables in the data view that represent each participant’s performance for each of the extracted factors or new latent variables. This is useful if you want to run any further analysis on these factor scores. Select “Save as variables” using the “Anderson-Rubin” method. Click

Dr Sam Knowles (skzk20@susx.ac.uk)

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“Continue” to get back to the main factor analysis dialog box. Finally click on “Options”. Your first option is based on how to deal with missing data. The best method to select is to “Exclude cases pairwise”. Second you can select options to make your final factor analysis solution easier to understand and interpret. Select “Sorted by size” and to “Suppress absolute values”. Make sure you change this value to 0.40. Click on “Continue” to get back to the factor analysis dialog box and then “OK” to get the output from the analysis. As mentioned earlier, you get lots of output from a factor analysis. Not all of the output will be mentioned here, just the most important sections for the interpretation of the analysis. Some sections will be referred to but not reproduced in the handout. First you get a descriptive statistics table (not shown here). This tells you about participants’ performance on each of these variables. Next you get a massive table that gives you the correlation coefficients and significance levels for the correlations between each of the variables (also not shown here). This table is important as you would expect some of the variables to be correlated if they are representing the same underlying latent variable, although you don’t want all of the variables to be highly correlated as this would indicate singularity. Hidden at the bottom left of this table is the determinant statistic that tests for the problem of singularity. You want this value to be greater than 0.00001. In this case it is 0.000017 so it can be assumed that there is no singularity in the data. The next table gives the KMO and Bartlett’s statistics (shown below). Each of these assesses whether there are patterns of correlations in KMO and Bartlett's Test the data that indicate that factor analysis is Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .832 suitable. The KMO ranges from 0-1, with higher values indicating greater suitability. Bartlett's Test of Approx. Chi-Square 1030.136 Sphericity df 78 Ideally you want this value to be greater than Sig. .000 0.7. You also want Bartlett’s statistic to be significant. In this case the KMO is greater than 0.7 at 0.832 and Bartlett’s is significant [χ2(78)=1030, p<0.001] and therefore it seems that factor analysis is suitable for this data set. The next table gives you the communalities for each of the variables that you have entered into the analysis (not shown here). The communality given in the extraction column represents the proportion of shared variance for each variable. So for example we can see that “I like my classmates” shares 80.1% of its variance with other variables.

Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues % of Variance Cumulative % 36.859 36.859 25.700 62.559 18.281 80.840 3.220 84.059 2.824 86.883 2.509 89.393 2.037 91.430 1.851 93.281 1.726 95.008 1.607 96.614 1.422 98.037 1.054 99.091 .909 100.000 Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % 4.792 36.859 36.859 3.341 25.700 62.559 2.376 18.281 80.840 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % 4.065 31.268 31.268 3.975 30.575 61.843 2.470 18.997 80.840

Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Total 4.792 3.341 2.376 .419 .367 .326 .265 .241 .224 .209 .185 .137 .118

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Next is the “Total Variance Explained” table (shown above). Initially the factor analysis extracts as many factors as there are variables, however, when running the analysis, you told it to only extract factors that had eigenvalues above 1. From looking at the

Dr Sam Knowles (skzk20@susx.ac.uk)

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“Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings” you can see that only three factors have been extracted with eigenvalues over one, with the fourth factor having an eigenvalue of only 0.419. Remember also that we told SPSS to use a Varimax rotation to improve the extraction of factors. The values given for each factor after rotation is given in the “Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings”. This section of the table will be used for the next section of interpretation. We know that this analysis has extracted three factors, and here we can see that factor one has an eigenvalue of 4.065 and accounts for 31.27% of the variance, factor two has an eigenvalue of 3.975 and accounts for 30.58% of the variance and factor three has an eigenvalue of 2.470 and accounts for 19% of the variance. In total the three factors account for 80.84% of the variance in the questionnaire and therefore seem to be a good representation of the original data set. The scree plot (not shown here) can also be used to confirm that three factors have been extracted. In this graph each point represents one of the factors, plotted along the X-axis, with its eigenvalue plotted up the Y-axis. From this you can see that three factors have eigenvalues over one. Next you are given the component matrix (not shown here). This tells you how much each manifest variable loads onto each of the three latent variables before rotation. Every variable loads onto each of the three factors, but remember that we told SPSS to suppress loadings less that 0.40 when running the analysis, therefore the blanks are actually small loadings. Next is the rotated components matrix (shown below), which gives the same information but after a Rotated Component Matrix rotation. This is the table that tells you Component which variables map onto which factors 1 2 3 my parents say I have to .905 most significantly and in size order. From go to school I am driven to school this matrix we can see that factor one .903 when it rains includes five variables, as does factor two, my siblings go to the .892 same school whereas factor three is only comprised of My parent(s) have meet .887 three variables. Try to look at the questions my teachers my classroom is well in each factor and see if you can give each .883 decorated one a name. Are there questions placed maths is enjoyable .890 Science is neat .890 into a factor that don’t seem to belong I miss school when I am .890 there? In this analysis each of the variables ill I like my classmates .885 fall neatly into separate factors. Sometimes english is enjoyable .875 SPSS will place a variable into more than we have good computers .917 one factor. If this occurs the variable we have a nice play .901 ground belongs in the factor to which it has the the toilets are clean .887 highest loading. Finally, take a look back at Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. your data view and you will see that three a. Rotation converged in 4 iterations. new variables have appeared. These represent the factor scores for each of the three factors. These could be used for further analysis if you wished to do so. Exercise two This file contains data taken from a set of items measuring dissociation or spaciness (see Wright and Loftus (1999). Measuring dissociation: comparison of alternative forms of the dissociative experiences scale. American Journal of Psychology 112(4): 497-519). These measures are usually taken to represent one overall measure of dissociation. Run a factor analysis on this data. How many factors do there seem to be?

Dr Sam Knowles (skzk20@susx.ac.uk)

3

Exercise three This file gives data from a questionnaire given to teachers in Australia and China asking them about various aspects of their job and how stressful they find it. Run a factor analysis on this data, making sure you do NOT include the “location” and “teach_no” variables. How many factors come out of this analysis? What do you think they might represent, given traditional ideological differences between the two nations? Now run t tests on the saved factor values to see if there are differences between teachers from China and Australia. Next week’s seminar Next week we will be returning to analysis of variance. Last term we ran two forms of ANOVA: one-way independent measures and one-way repeated measures ANOVA. In the next seminar we will be looking at more complicated forms of ANOVA such as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and two-way ANOVAs in which two independent variables can be analysed.

Dr Sam Knowles (skzk20@susx.ac.uk)

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