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You are on page 1of 19

Dewei(David) Xu

Electrical & Computer Engineering Department

Ryerson University

1/37

Content

Basic equations

Magnetic equivalent circuits

Fringing effect

Inductance

Self inductance

Leakage inductance

Mutual inductance

Core losses

Hysteresis loss

Eddy current loss

Sinusoidal excitation

2/37

Two types of magnet

Permanent magnet

Electromagnet

Hdl = i

l

field intensity along path l

3/37

Core with winding

Assumption :

All the fluxes are confied to the core

The fluxes are uniformaly distributed in the core

Use Ampere' s law

Ni = Hl

where :

N # of turns of the coil

i current in the coil

F = Ni magnetomotive force (mmf)

H magnetic field intensity

l mean length of the core

Hl mmf drop

Ni

Then H =

[At/m] or [A/m]

l

4/37

Flux density and B-H curve

Case 1: Non-magnetic material core (copper,

aluminum, air, plastic, wood,)

B = 0 H

[Tesla]

[ m]

7

Other units :

1 Tesla = 108 lines/m 2 = 1 Wb/m 2

1 Tesla = 10 4 lines/cm 2 = 10 4 Gauss

Linear

Hl = Ni

l = Ni B =

0 Ni

5/37

Flux density and B-H curve

Case 2: Ferromagnetic material core (iron, steel,

ferrite,)

B = H = 0 r H

[Tesla]

where r =

is the relative permeability of the material

0

For example : r = 4000 for iron core.

Note : r = f (H ) is a function of H

Nonlinear

B

= 0 r

H

Ni

B

Hl = Ni l = Ni B = 0 r

6/37

How to find flux

Assumption :

All the fluxes are confied to the core

The fluxes are uniformaly distributed in the core

Ni

Ni

Ni F

= BA = HA =

=

=

A=

l

l

A

where :

F = Ni magnetomot ive force (mmf)

= l

A reluctance [A/Wb]

A cross - section area [m2 ]

Then :

F=

7/37

Analogous

Magnetic

equivalent circuit

Electric

equivalent circuit

Kirchhoff voltage and current laws (KVL & KCL)

8/37

Example 1

Given: N1=700,

N2=200, r=, cross

section area of the

core: 2.5cm2.5cm

Find: and B in the

airgap when i=0.5A

i

N1

N2

Assumption :

All the fluxes are confied to the core

The fluxes are uniformaly distributed

on the cross section area

9/37

Example 1

Solution:

Step 1: draw flux paths

Step 2: Find mmfs and reluctances along the flux lines

Step 3: Draw equivalent circuit

a

ab

b

c

N1

af

ad fe

bc

N2

cd

ed

ab

f

bc

F1 = N1i

ad

af

fe

cd

F2 = N 2i

ed

10/37

Example 1

Solution:

Step 4: Simplify the

equivalent circuit

g1 = bc =

g 2 = fe =

c 1

c 2

c 3

g1

F1

g 2

F2

0.05 102

lbc

=

0 A1 4 107 (2.5 2.5 104 )

l fe

0 A2

0.1 102

4 10 (2.5 2.5 104 )

7

Q c = r 0 =

c1 = ab + cd =

c 2 = ad =

lad

c Ac

c 3 = af + ed =

lab

c Ac

lcd

=0+0= 0

led

=0+0= 0

c Ac

=0

laf

c Ac

c Ac

Example 1

Loop 1 :

Solution:

Loop 2 :

F1 F2 1 g1 = 0

KCL

2

F1

g1

g 2

F2

(1)

F1 F2 2g 2 = 0

(2)

1 =

11/37

F1 F2 N1i N 2i

=

g1

g1

= 0.393 103

636 103

F F2 N1i N 2i

2 = 1

=

g 2

g 2

=

= 0.196 103

1273 103

0.393 103

= 0.63 Tesla

B1 = 1 =

6.25 104

A1

=

B2 =

2 0.196 103

=

= 0.31 Tesla

6.25 104

A2

12/37

Example 2

a c

with given B-H curve.

N=500 turns. Bg=0.8T.

Find:

(1) i=? to produce

Bg=0.8T.

(2) c and r of the core.

(3) If lg=0, find i to keep

Bg=0.8T.

b d

B[T ]

0.8

H [ A / m]

510

13/37

Example 2

Solution:

ab

From B - H curve : Bc = 0.8T H c = 510 A/m

g1

cd

Ni

Bg

0.8

=

= 6.37 105 A/m

Q Bg = 0.8T H g =

0 4 107

g 2

F = Ni = H c lc + H g l g = 1910 + 184 = 2094A

F 2094

=

= 4.19A

N

500

B

0.8

= 1.57 103 H/m and

(2) c = c =

H c 510

i =

r =

c 1.57 103

= 1250

=

0 4 103

c

Ni

i =

F 184

=

= 0.368A

N 500

14/37

Summary

Basic theory

Amperes law

Linear and nonlinear B-H curve

Flux, flux density and flux intensity

Reluctance

Magnetomotive force (mmf)

How to derive the circuit

How to use KCL and KVL to solve the circuit

15/37

Example 3

Given:

soft cast steel core with

given B-H curve.

N=500 turns.

i=4A.

Dimension as shown

Find:

a c

b d

Flux density B

16/37

Example 3

B-H curve for soft cast steel

17/37

Example 3

Solution:

B

B-H

Hg = g

curve

0

(b) Find Hc from B-H curve and Hg=Bg/0

(c) Calculate F=Hclc+Hglg

(d) Calculate i=F/N

(e) If calculated i given i, go to step (a) and try another B

18/37

Example 3

(a)

B

(b)

Hc

(c)

Hg

Hclc

Hglg

(d)

F

1st try

4.08

2nd try

4.0

Done

A: Assume r=, then find B1. The actual B<B1

Q: How to determine the nth try is done?

A: If the relative error is small enough

Q: How to get (n+1)th try from the result of nth try?

A: Several numerical method, e.g. Newton-Lapson method

19/37

Example 3

Method 2: Graphical method

Ni = H c lc + H g lg = H c lc +

B[T ]

0 Ni

lg

Bc = c H c

Bc = Bg

Bc

l

Ni

Bg = 0 c H c + 0

l

lg

g

1.08T

Slope

H c = 785 A/m

Bg

lg

l

Ni

Bg = 0 c H c + 0

l

lg

g

Bc = c H c

Bc = Bg

Y-axis intercept

H c [A/m ]

10

20/37

Fringing effect:

Bulging of the flux lines in the airgap

Effect

The effective cross section area of

airgap the reluctance of airgap

The flux density Bg<Bc, Bc is the flux

density in the core.

the width and depth of the airgap),

fringing effect can be neglect.

In practical, large airgap will be

divided into several small airgaps

to reduce the fringing effect.

21/37

1.4 Inductance

Definition

N

i

i

where = N is flux linkage

L=

i the current in the coil

11

22/37

1.4 Inductance

Multiple coils system

i2

i1

l2

l1

l1

leakage fluxes

l2

23/37

1.4 Inductance

Self inductances, leakage inductance & mutual inductance

N1

i1

N1

(

i1

L1 =

1

i2 = 0

) = N1

m1

l1

i1

where Lm1 =

N1 m1 N1 N1i1 N

=

=

i1

i1 c

c

N2

i2

N2

(

i2

L2 =

i1 = 0

l1

= Lm1 + Ll1

2

1

N1

i1

m1

m2

l2

) = N2

Ll 1, Ll 2 leakage inductance,

N2

i2

m2

Lm1 , Lm 2 Magnetizin g

inductance,

i2

L1 , L2 Self inductance,

l2

= Lm 2 + Ll 2

M Mutual inductance

N 2 m 2 N 2 N 2i2 N 22

=

=

i2

i2 c

c

where Lm 2 =

M=

N1

i2

1

i1 =0

N

or M = 2

i1

N1

i2

2

i2 =0

m2

N2

i1

N1 N 2i2 N1N 2

=

= Lm1 Lm 2

i2 c

c

m1

N 2 N1i1 N1 N 2

=

= Lm1 Lm 2

c

i1 c

12

Example 4

B[T ]

0.5

H [ A / m]

350

NA=350, NB=150,

Bg=0.5T, A=410-4m2,

and two coils are in series

Find:

(1) Two values of i to

produce Bg=0.5T.

(2) Self inductance LA and

LB, mutual inductance M

24/37

lA

NA

Assume

lB

No leakage fluxes,

lA= lB=0

No fringing effect

NB

25/37

Example 4

Solution :

(a) F = H g lg + H c lc =

Bg

l g + H c lc =

0.5

0.15 102 + 350 0.3185 = 708.3 A

4 107

FA

FA

FB

FB

i

B

F

708.3

i=

=

= 1.42 A

N A + N B 350 + 150

F

708.3

i=

=

= 3.54 A

N A N B 350 150

13

26/37

Example 4

Solution :

(b) LA =

NA

iA

LB =

NB

iB

M=

NB

iA

N A N AiA

N A2

N A2

3502

=

=

=

= 34.6 mH

i A A,total A,total c + g 3.537 106

N B N B iB

N B2

N B2

1502

=

=

=

= 6.36 mH

iB B ,total B ,total c + g 3.537 106

N B N AiA N A N B

N AN B

350 150

=

=

=

= 14.83 mH

iA A

A

c + g 3.537 106

A

iB =0

B

i A =0

B

iB =0

l

0.3185

c = c =

= 0.557 106 A/Wb

c Ac 0.00143 4 104

B

0.5

where c = c =

= 0.00143 H/m

H c 350

g =

lg

0 Ag

0.15 10

= 2.96 106 A/Wb

4 107 4 104

N Ai A

N BiB

27/37

Example 4

Q : Total L for additive mmfs

A:L =

(N A + N B )2

c + g

5002

= 70.6 mH (LA + LB )

3.537 106

L = LA + LB + 2 M

Q : Total L for substrative mmfs

A:L =

(N A N B )2

c + g

2002

= 11.31 mH (LA LB )

3.537 106

L = LA + LB 2 M

Q : Why M = LA LB ?

A : No leakage inductance : LA = LmA and LB = LmB M = LmA LmB = LA LB

Usually M LA LB

14

28/37

1.5 Hysteresis

Hysteresis loop

Uniform distribution

Ni

H=

l

From Faraday' s law

i

+

H c coercive force

B

dB

d

d

follow a different

e=

=N

= NA

path when the current

dt

dt

dt

is reduced

t

e

dt ,

B=

NA

where A is the cross section area

Br

Hc

29/37

1.5 Hysteresis

Hysteresis loss

Field energy

Input power :

dB

dB

d

= iNA

= HlA

dt

dt

dt

pdt = lA HdB = Vcore HdB

p = ei = i

B2 W t 2

B1 t

1

t2

B2

t1

B1

where Vcore is the volume of the core

15

30/37

1.5 Hysteresis

Hysteresis loss

One cycle energy loss

Wcycle = Vcore HdB = Vcore ABH

Hysteresis power loss

Ph =

ABH

Wcycle

= Vcore ABH f

T

where f is the operating freqency and T is the period

31/37

1.5 Hysteresis

Hysteresis loss

Empirical equation

n

ph = K h Bmax

f

[W/m3 ]

K h , n constants, depending on core material, available

in various design handbook (n = 1.5 ~ 2.5)

Bmax maximum flux density

Summary : Hysteresis loss is proportional to f and ABH

16

32/37

Eddy current

Along the closed path, apply Faraday' s law

d

dB

d

e=

,

=N

= NA

dt

dt

dt

where A is the closed area

Changes in B

= BA changes

ie

p=

e2

, where R is the equivalent resistance along the closed path

R

33/37

How to reduce eddy current loss

Use high resistivity core material

e.g. silicon steel, ferrite core

(semiconductor) i

Use laminated core

To decrease the area closed

ie

by closed path

e2

p = A2

R

B

Lamination thickness

0.5~5mm for machines, transformers at line frequency

0.01~0.5mm for high frequency devices

17

34/37

Calculation of eddy current loss

Finite element analysis

Use software: Ansys, Maxwell, Femlab, etc

Empirical equation

2

pe = K e Bmax

f2

[W/m3 ]

K e constant, depending on the core material and

lamination thickness

Bmax maximum flux density

f operating frequency

2

Summary : Eddy current loss is proportional to f 2 and Bmax

35/37

excitation

Core loss:

Pc = Ph + Pe , where Ph hysteresis loss, Pe eddy current loss

Assume

sin t , where

Use Faraday' s law

d ( m sin t )

d

d

=N

=N

= N m cos t = Em cos t

dt

dt

dt

where Em = N m is the amplitude of induced voltage

e=

Erms =

Em 2fN

=

2

2

= 4.44 fN

18

36/37

excitation

Relation between flux and induce voltage

Erms = 4.44 fN

i

+

Em

37/37

Summary

Magnetic equivalent circuits

Fringing effect

Inductance

Self inductance

Leakage inductance

Mutual inductance

Core loss

Hysteresis loss

Eddy current loss

Sinusoidal excitation

19

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