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BRIDGING PROBLEM

197

Hookes law. When the spring is extended by a distance x, the

force exerted by the spring has magnitude ax 2, where a is a positive constant. The spring is not extended when a block of mass

m is attached to it. The block is then released, stretching the

spring as it falls (Fig. 6.29). (a) How fast is the block moving

when it has fallen a distance x1? (b) At what rate does the spring

do work on the block at this point? (c) Find the maximum distance x2 that the spring stretches. (d) Will the block remain at the

point found in part (c)?

Hookes law.

SOLUTION GUIDE

See MasteringPhysics study area for a Video Tutor solution.

1. The spring force in this problem isnt constant, so you have

to use the workenergy theorem. Youll also need to use

Eq. (6.7) to find the work done by the spring over a given

displacement.

2. Draw a free-body diagram for the block, including your choice

of coordinate axes. Note that x represents how far the spring is

stretched, so choose the positive x-axis accordingly. On your

coordinate axis, label the points x x1 and x x2.

3. Make a list of the unknown quantities, and decide which of

these are the target variables.

EXECUTE

4. Calculate the work done on the block by the spring as the block

falls an arbitrary distance x. (The integral isnt a difcult one.

Use Appendix B if you need a reminder.) Is the work done by

the spring positive, negative, or zero?

Problems

5. Calculate the work done on the block by any other forces as the

block falls an arbitrary distance x. Is this work positive, negative,

or zero?

6. Use the workenergy theorem to find the target variables.

(Youll also need to use an equation for power.) Hint: When

the spring is at its maximum stretch, what is the speed of the

block?

7. To answer part (d), consider the net force that acts on the block

when it is at the point found in part (c).

EVALUATE

8. We learned in Chapter 2 that after an object dropped from rest

has fallen freely a distance x1, its speed is 12gx 1. Use this to

decide whether your answer in part (a) makes sense. In addition, ask yourself whether the algebraic sign of your answer in

part (b) makes sense.

9. Find the value of x where the net force on the block would be

zero. How does this compare to your result for x2? Is this consistent with your answer in part (d)?

. , .. , ... : Problems of increasing difculty. CP: Cumulative problems incorporating material from earlier chapters. CALC: Problems

requiring calculus. BIO: Biosciences problems.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

Q6.1 The sign of many physical quantities depends on the choice

of coordinates. For example, ay for free-fall motion can be negative or positive, depending on whether we choose upward or

downward as positive. Is the same thing true of work? In other

words, can we make positive work negative by a different choice

of coordinates? Explain.

Q6.2 An elevator is hoisted by its cables at constant speed. Is the

total work done on the elevator positive, negative, or zero? Explain.

Q6.3 A rope tied to a body is pulled, causing the body to accelerate. But according to Newtons third law, the body pulls back on

the rope with an equal and opposite force. Is the total work done

then zero? If so, how can the bodys kinetic energy change?

Explain.

kinetic energy K, starting from rest, what will be the objects speed

(in terms of v) and kinetic energy (in terms of K ) if we do twice as

much work on it, again starting from rest?

Q6.5 If there is a net nonzero force on a moving object, is it possible for the total work done on the object to be zero? Explain, with

an example that illustrates your answer.

Q6.6 In Example 5.5 (Section 5.1), how does the work done on the

bucket by the tension in the cable compare to the work done on the

cart by the tension in the cable?

Q6.7 In the conical pendulum in Example 5.20 (Section 5.4),

which of the forces do work on the bob while it is swinging?

Q6.8 For the cases shown in Fig. Q6.8, the object is released

from rest at the top and feels no friction or air resistance. In

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