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process 3 S 1 is at a constant

Figure P20.40

pressure of 1.00 atm. The

p

value of g for this gas is 1.40.

2 T 5 600 K

2

(a) Find the pressure and volume at points 1, 2, and 3. (b)

Calculate Q, W, and U for

each of the three processes. (c)

3

Find the net work done by the

1.00 atm 1

T

5

300

K

T

5

492 K

1

3

gas in the cycle. (d) Find the net

V

heat ow into the engine

O

in one cycle. (e) What is the

thermal efciency of the engine? How does this compare to the

efciency of a Carnot-cycle engine operating between the same

minimum and maximum temperatures T1 and T2 ?

20.41 .. CALC You build

a heat engine that takes Figure P20.41

1.00 mol of an ideal

p (Pa)

diatomic gas through the

b

c

cycle shown in Fig. 4.0 3 105

P20.41. (a) Show that segment ab is an isothermal

5

a

compression. (b) During 2.0 3 10

which segment(s) of the

cycle is heat absorbed by

V (m3)

0.005 0.010

O

the gas? During which segment(s) is heat rejected?

How do you know? (c) Calculate the temperature at points a, b,

and c. (d) Calculate the net heat exchanged with the surroundings

and the net work done by the engine in one cycle. (e) Calculate the

thermal efciency of the engine.

20.42 . Heat Pump. A heat pump is a heat engine run in reverse.

In winter it pumps heat from the cold air outside into the warmer air

inside the building, maintaining the building at a comfortable temperature. In summer it pumps heat from the cooler air inside the

building to the warmer air outside, acting as an air conditioner.

(a) If the outside temperature in winter is -5.0C and the inside

temperature is 17.0C, how many joules of heat will the heat pump

deliver to the inside for each joule of electrical energy used to run

the unit, assuming an ideal Carnot cycle? (b) Suppose you have the

option of using electrical resistance heating rather than a heat

pump. How much electrical energy would you need in order to

deliver the same amount of heat to the inside of the house as in part

(a)? Consider a Carnot heat pump delivering heat to the inside of a

house to maintain it at 68F. Show that the heat pump delivers less

heat for each joule of electrical energy used to operate the unit as

the outside temperature decreases. Notice that this behavior is

opposite to the dependence of the efciency of a Carnot heat

engine on the difference in the reservoir temperatures. Explain

why this is so.

20.43 . CALC A heat engine

Figure P20.43

operates using the cycle shown

p

in Fig. P20.43. The working

b

substance is 2.00 mol of helium

gas, which reaches a maximum

temperature of 327C. Assume

the helium can be treated as an

ideal gas. Process bc is isothermal. The pressure in states a

a

c

and c is 1.00 * 10 5 Pa, and the

pressure in state b is 3.00 *

V

O

10 5 Pa. (a) How much heat

enters the gas and how much

683

leaves the gas each cycle? (b) How much work does the engine do

each cycle, and what is its efciency? (c) Compare this engines

efciency with the maximum possible efciency attainable with

the hot and cold reservoirs used by this cycle.

20.44 . CP As a budding mechanical engineer, you are called

upon to design a Carnot engine that has 2.00 mol of a monatomic

ideal gas as its working substance and operates from a hightemperature reservoir at 500C. The engine is to lift a 15.0-kg weight

2.00 m per cycle, using 500 J of heat input. The gas in the engine

chamber can have a minimum volume of 5.00 L during the cycle.

(a) Draw a pV-diagram for this cycle. Show in your diagram where

heat enters and leaves the gas. (b) What must be the temperature of

the cold reservoir? (c) What is the thermal efciency of the

engine? (d) How much heat energy does this engine waste per

cycle? (e) What is the maximum pressure that the gas chamber will

have to withstand?

20.45 ... An experimental power plant at the Natural Energy

Laboratory of Hawaii generates electricity from the temperature

gradient of the ocean. The surface and deep-water temperatures are

27C and 6C, respectively. (a) What is the maximum theoretical

efciency of this power plant? (b) If the power plant is to produce

210 kW of power, at what rate must heat be extracted from the

warm water? At what rate must heat be absorbed by the cold

water? Assume the maximum theoretical efciency. (c) The cold

water that enters the plant leaves it at a temperature of 10C. What

must be the ow rate of cold water through the system? Give your

answer in kg>h and in L>h.

20.46 .. What is the thermal

Figure P20.46

efciency of an engine that operates by taking n moles of diatomic

p

2

3

ideal gas through the cycle 2p0

1 S 2 S 3 S 4 S 1 shown in

Fig. P20.46?

20.47 . CALC A cylinder conp0

tains oxygen at a pressure of

4

1

2.00 atm. The volume is 4.00 L,

and the temperature is 300 K.

Assume that the oxygen may be

V

2V0

V0

O

treated as an ideal gas. The oxygen is carried through the following processes:

(i) Heated at constant pressure from the initial state (state 1) to

state 2, which has T = 450 K.

(ii) Cooled at constant volume to 250 K (state 3).

(iii) Compressed at constant temperature to a volume of 4.00 L

(state 4).

(iv) Heated at constant volume to 300 K, which takes the system

back to state 1.

(a) Show these four processes in a pV-diagram, giving the numerical values of p and V in each of the four states. (b) Calculate Q and

W for each of the four processes. (c) Calculate the net work done

by the oxygen in the complete cycle. (d) What is the efciency of

this device as a heat engine? How does this compare to the efciency of a Carnot-cycle engine operating between the same minimum and maximum temperatures of 250 K and 450 K?

20.48 .. CP BIO Human Entropy. A person who has skin of

surface area 1.85 m2 and temperature 30.0C is resting in an insulated room where the ambient air temperature is 20.0C. In this

state, a person gets rid of excess heat by radiation. By how much does

the person change the entropy of the air in this room each second?

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