1.3.
An electron with a velocity of 3 x 105 ms1 enters an electric field of 910 v/m making an
angle of 600 with the positive X direction. The direction of the electric field is in the positive
Y direction. Calculate the time required to reach the maximum height.
[Nov 04, Jun 05, May 06, Aug 07]
SOLUTION:
Given V= 3 105 m
;E=
950V / m.;
sec.
Component of velocity in y direction = V Sin
= 60
B
e
w B e m
mB 2
105
1420 10 6
=
11
2
1.76 10 (0.02)
Z 2 Q 2 1420 106 8922 106 0.8922cm.
ii.
The distance traversed by the electron in 40 n.sec. [Nov 03, May 06, Aug 06, May 07]
SOLUTION:
x 1.76 1017 t 2
o
3
1.76
1017 40 103
3
9, Velocity
vx 1.76 1017 40 109
When t 40 10
1.6) In a electro static deflecting CRT the length of the deflection plates is 2 cm , and spacing
between deflecting is 0.5 cm , the distance from the centre of the deflecting plate to the screen is
20 cm . The deflecting voltage is 25 V . Find the deflection sensitivity, the angle of deflection and
velocity of the beam. Assume final anode potential is 1000 V . [Apr/May 03, May 06,
Aug 06]
SOLUTION:
lLVd
lL
S
;
2dVa
2dVa
d
= 0.5 cm;
Vd
L
= 20 cm
Va
= 1000 V.
l = 2 cm
D=
D?
= 25 V
2 102 20 102
lL
5
=
= 40 10 0.04
2dVa 2 0.5 102 1000
cm/V
tan
0.05
L
L
20 102
tan 0.05
OR 2.860
2eVa
= 21.7610111000 1.87610 7 m/sec.
m
Resultant velocity
v
1.876 107 1.876 107
vr ax
Velocity vax
1.7)
35.3
1012 sec so
B
b.
SOLUTION
35.3
1012 sec.
B
Va = 900 V; B= 0.01 Wb/m;
T = ?, r = ?
12
35.3 10
35.3
3530 1012 Sec.
T
1012 sec. =
0.01
B
Given
[May 06]
2eVa
mV
V
;
V 2 1.76 1011 900 17.79 106 m / sec.
eB
m
17.79 106
r
1010.8 105 10.11mm
11
1.76 10 0.01
r
1.7)
The distance between the plates of a plane parallel capacitor is 1 cm. An electron
starts at rest at the negative plate. If a direct voltage of 1000V is applied how
long will it take the electron to reach the positive pla te?
[May 02, Nov 04]
+

+
 1000 V
1 Cm.
S= 1 cm ; u 0 ;
Given:
Final Velocity V
2eVa
m
Va 1000V ;
1
2
v / t t 2 vt / 2 ;
2S
2 102
1.9) . An electrostatic cathode ray tube has a final anode voltage of 600V. The
deflection plates are 1.5cm long and 0.8cm apart. The screen is at a distance of
20cm from the centre of plates. A voltage of 20V is applied to the deflection
plates. Calculate.
a.
b.
c.
d.
[Jun 01]
SOLUTION
Va 600V ; l 1.5cm; d 0.8cm; L 20cm;Vd 20V
lLVd
D
2dVa
Part (a) velocity of electron reaching the field
2eVa
vox
2 1.76 1011 600
Vox = 14532721 m/sec.
m
Part (b) Acceleration due to electric field.
eV
1.76 1011 20
ay d
4.4 1014 m / sec2
2
md
0.8 10
Part (c) deflection produced in cm.
lLVd 1.5 102 20 102 20
D
S 0.03125cm / V .
Vd
20
1.10). The electrons emitted from the thermonic cathode of a cathode ray Gun are accelerated by a
potential of 400V. The essential dimensions are L=19.4cm, l =1.27cm and d=0.475 cm. Determine
deflection sensitivity. What must be the magnitude of transverse magnetic field acting over the whole
length of the tube in order to produce the same deflection as that produced by a deflection potential of
30V?
[Nov 04]
SOLUTION
Va 400V ; L 19.4cm; l 1.27cm ;
lLVd
;
2 dVa
D
; B ? for Vd 30V
Vd
d 0.019
lLB
e
;
m
Va
D Va
lL
e 1
m 2
0.019 X 400
1.76 X 1011
2
0.38
5.199 X 104 wb/ m2
730.88
1.11) In a parallel place diode, the cathode and anode are spaced 5mm apart and the anode is kept at
200V d.c. with respect to cathode. Calculate the velocity and the distance traveled by an electron after
a time of 0.5ns, when:
(a)The initial velocity of an electron is zero and
(b)The initial velocity is 2X106m/s in the direction towards the anode.
SOLUTION
v ?; t 0.5ns
D=5mm
Vd=200V
when (a) u=0, (b) u=2x106m/s
Electrons follow Newtons laws of motion v=u+at
v
200
7.036 1015 m / sec2
Where a e . d ; a 1.759 1011
3
m d
5 10
case (a) when initial velocity u=0
V=at = 7.036x1015x0.5x109= 3.518x106 m/s =3518 km/sec.
Case(b) V=u + at = 2x106 + 3.518x106 =5.518x106 m/sec or 5518 km/sec.
Distance S ut 1 at 2
2
2
Case(b): S 2x106 0.5x109 0.8795 103 1x103 1.8795 103 m
1.12) Calculate the deflection of a cathode ray beam caused by earth magnetic field. Assume that
the tube axis is normal to the field, of strength 0.6 Gauss. The anode potential is 400 V. The
distance between the anode screen distances is 20cm.
Anode
Given: B = 0.6 Gauss V = 400 Volts;screen distance
= 20 cm.
To calculate:
Deflection
D=?
To find out D, we must know radius R.
v ( m)
R is given by, R
we know m, e & B, v to be found.
e( B )
2eVa
(or )5.93 105 Va
m
Velocity of electron along xox is, vox 5.93 105 400 = 5.93 x 105 x 20 = 118.6 x 105 m/sec.
= 1.19 x 107 m ./sec.
B
= 0.6G.;
1 Wb / m2
=
104 Gauss
B
= 0.6 x 104 Wb / m2
= 6.0 x 105 wb / m2
v.m
v
1.19 10 7
R
=
( e / m = 1.759 x 1011)
11
5
eB (e / m) B 1.759 10 6 10
= 0.112 x 10 = 1.12 m = 112 cm.
In PYZ, YZ2 = PZ2 + PY2
YZ
= OP = 112 cm; PY = 20 cm.; PZ
= OZ OP
(Deflection D = OP)
(YZ)2 = (PZ)2 + (PY)2 112 2 = (112 D)2 + 202 1122 = 1122 224D + D2 + 400
or D2 224D + 400
=0
v is given by v
b b 2 4ac
2a
We know, v =
a dt
At t
v
b)
= 50 n.sec.
= 50 x 109
20
= 1.76 x 10 (50 x 109)2
Distance travelled
At t = 50 n sec.,
x = 5.87 x 1019 (50 x 109)3 =
7.32 X 103m = 0.732 cm.
c)
To find the speed at which the electron strikes the positive plate, we must find the time
taken to reach the plate (i.e., to travel the distance x)
x
= 5.87 x 1019 t3
x
0.05
or
(distance x = 5 cm) t
= 9.46 x 108 sec.
t3
19
19
5.87 10
5.87 10
1.14 Derive the expression for acceleration, velocity and displacement of a changed particle in an
electgric field
SOLUTION:
(i) F ma eE a eE (1);
m
(ii) Velocity v
dt
d x
a dv d dx
(2)
dt dt dt dt 2
d 2 x eE
(3)
m
dt 2
t
eE
V adt eE dt
t C1 (C1 is constant)
om
m
o
Average velocity eE
m
dx eE
OR
t C1 At + =0; x 0; C1 0
dt m
t
dx t
dt
o
o
Distance x
dx eE
t (4)
dt m
eE
t dt
m
eEt 2
(5)
2m
eE t 2
C2
m 2
If C 2 is taklen as 0
eE 2
Distance x
t 5
2m
UNIT III SOLVED PROBLEMS
1 Q) A 15 0 15 volts (rms) ideal transformer is used with a FWR with diodes having fwd
drop of 1 volt. The load resistance in 100 and capacitor of 10,000 f is used on filter.
Calculate the Dc load current and voltage.
(JNTU 2005)
Solution: I DC
where f is power line frequency.
4 fc
Vrms = 15V, Assume voltage drop (rms) across diode as
1V.
Vrms across load = 14V.
4170 Idc
4170 Idc
Vdc = Vm = 19.8 C
10,000
100 Idc ; 19.8 (or) Idc ; 0.198 Amp
VDC Vm
2 Q)
A FWR is used to supply power to a 2000 load, choke of 20H and capacitor of 16f are
available. Compute ripple factor using filter 1 (i) one inductor (ii) one capacitor (iii)
single L type.
Solution:
i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
3 Q)
75.31103 0.075
CRL 16 2000
Single LC Type Filter
0.83
0.83
r
0.0025
LC 20 16
Selection
3330
3330
r
(1)
2 1
1
.
.
3 2 wc 2 wL.
Where LC = RL / 1130.
0.83
Or
LC
41.5 (2)
0.02
Critical Inductance (value of Inductance for which diode
conducts continuously)
Else r
V
RL
9
.; RL DC
90
1130
I DC 100mA
Lc = 41.5
(2)
41.5
C
521 f
79.6 103
Transformer rating Vrms = ?; Diode ratings PIV= Vm ;
L = 796mH;
C = 521f
LC
4 Q)
A FWR operating at 50 Hz i.e., to provide DC current of 50mA at 30V with a 80f, C type
filter. Calculate (i) Vm the peak secondary voltage of the transformer (ii) Ratio of surge to
mean currents of diode (iii) The ripple factor of the output.
(JNTU 2002)
C = 80f
To find Vm = ? ratio of surge to mean current
Part (i) Vm = ?
VDC = 0.636 Vm.
Or Vm = VDC/0.636 = 30/0.636 = 47.17 volts.
Part ii Ratio of surge to mean current
XXSurge Current
It is the current flowing through the diode, when the power supply is just switched on i.e., at
time t = 0+. At time t = 0+. Voltage across capacitor will be zero.
XX
XV V
Current through the diode at any time S C
R d +R S
When Vc = 0, Id will be max =
VS max
Vm
Rd RS Rd RS
R Rs
Vm
d
Rd Rs Vm Vdc
Vm
47.17
47.17
2.75
Vm VDC 47.17 30 17.17
Note: Designer must cater for 3 times the required average current.
2410
Part III :
Ripple factor r
f = 60 Hz.
CRL
Or
Ripple factor r
1
4 3 fcRL
Vdc 300V
30V 2 = 600
Idc 50mA
1
106
r
0.006
4 3.50.80 106 600 16627687.75
RL
5 Q)
For a FWR circuit AC voltage input to transformer primary is 115V. Transformer secondary
voltage is 50V, RL =25. Determine
i)
Peak DC component, RMS and AC component of load voltage
ii)
Peak DC component, RMS and AC component of load current.
(June 2002)
Solution:
Given Vrms = 50V, to find Vm, Vr, Im, Ir.
V
RL = 25 Vm Vdc r
2
Part (i)
Vm
VRms
orVm 2;VRms 2,50 70.7Volts
V2
V
r r , r of FWR (without filter) = 0.48
Vdc
Vdc = 0.637
Vm = 0.637x7.07=45 volts
Vr = , Vdc = 0.48 x 45 = 21.6 volts
Peak DC component = VDC + Ripple voltage = 45+21.6 = 66.6 volts
peak
66.6
Vrms =
=
= 47 Volts
2
2
Part II
Vm 70.7
Im
2.828 Amps.
RL
25
Vr 21.6
0.864 Amps.
RL
25
Peak DC current component = 66.6/25 = 2.664 Amps.
Runs DC current component = 47/25 = 1.8 Amps.
Ir
Calculate ripple factor of capacitor filter with peak rectified voltage of 20V and C = 50 f and
IDC = 50mA.
(June 2004)
Solution: Vm = 20V, Idc = 50mA, C = 50f.
VDC
Vr
Vm = 20V
6 Q)
VDC Vm
Idc
4 fc
50 103
4 50 50 106
1000
20 5 15volts
200
VDC
15
150 1000
RL
300
Idc
50mA
50
1
1 106
100
1
r
= 0.192
4 3 fcRL 4 3 50 50 300 4 3 25 3 3 3
1Q) Determine the quiescent current and collector to emitter voltage for germanium
transistor with = 50 in selfbiasing arrangement draw the circuit with given component
value VCC = 20V, RC = 2K, RE = 100, R2 = 5K (Also find out stability factor).
(May 2005)
Solution: 
= 20
I C I E I C max
VCC
20
9.52mA
RC RE 2000 100
VCE max 20
10V
2
2
Ic max 9.52
=
4.76mA
2
2
Quiescent VCEQ =
Quiescent ICQ
IC
4.76
0.0952 mA ; Quiescent IEQ = ICQ + IBQ = 4.855mA.
50
Find out stability factor of the circuit given below:
(May 2005)
Quiescent IBQ =
Q)
RB
RE
S 1
;
RB
1
RE
1
RB
R1 R2 5 50
50
k 4.5k 4500
R1 R2 5 50
11
RB
4500
45
RE
100
1 45
S 50 1
24.54
1 50 45
For the circuit shown, determine the value of Ic and VCE. Assume VBE = 0.7V and = 100
(Sep.06)
Vin
Vcc .R2
10 5k
50
3.33volts
R1 R2 10 5 k 15
Rth
10 5
50
k k 3.33k .
10 5
15
Vth
48.88 A.
3300 50500 53800
I C .I B 4888 A.
I E I C I B 4888 48.88 49.6 A
IB
For the JFET shown in the circuit with the voltage divides bias as shown below.
Calculate VG, VS, VD and VDS if VGS = 2V.
(Sep. 2006)
Solution:
VDD .R2
15 4k
15
3.75V
R1 R2 12 4 k 4
Since gate circuit is negligible, Voltage drop across RG = 0
VG
Solution:
Ic 2mA
IB
0.02mA
100
I E I C I B 2 0.02 2.02mA
VE I E RE 2.02mA 500 1.01volts
VR 2 VE VBE 1.01 0.6 1.61volts
VR 2 1.61
0.161mA
R2 10k
VR1 = VCC VR2 = 15 1.61 = 13.39 volts
V
13.39
R1 R1
73.97k
I I B 0.161 0.02 mA
VR3 = VCC VE VCE;
VCE = 3V
VR3 = 15 1.01 3 = 10.99 volts
V
1099
R3 R 3
5.49k
IC
2mA
I
(Sep. 2006)
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