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UNIT-1 SOLVED PROBLEMS

1.3.

An electron with a velocity of 3 x 105 ms-1 enters an electric field of 910 v/m making an
angle of 600 with the positive X direction. The direction of the electric field is in the positive
Y direction. Calculate the time required to reach the maximum height.
[Nov 04, Jun 05, May 06, Aug 07]

SOLUTION:
Given V= 3 105 m

;E=
950V / m.;
sec.
Component of velocity in y direction = V Sin

= 60

= 3 10 0.866 ; Electron feels a retarding force due to electronic field and


at maximum height final velocity will be zero.
eE 1.6 1019 910
u
V u at (or )0 at (or )t ; a
1.6 1014 m sec2
31
a
m
9.110
5
3 10 0.866
V sin
1.62 109.sec.
For a projectile time of ascent =
=
14
1.6 10
a
1.4) The magnetic flux density B=0.02 wb/m2 and electric field strength E=105 v/m are uniform
fields, perpendicular to each other. A pure source of an electron is placed in a field. Determine the
minimum distance from the source at which an electron with 0V will again have 0V in its trajectory
under the influence of combined electric and magnetic fields.[May 03, Nov 05, May 06, Aug
06, May/Aug 07]
SOLUTION:
Angular velocity of rolling circle w,
eB

velocity of translation of center of the


m
B
rolling circle.
u
B

B
e
w B e m
mB 2
105
1420 10 6
=
11
2
1.76 10 (0.02)
Z 2 Q 2 1420 106 8922 106 0.8922cm.

1.5) Two parallel plates of a capacitor are separated by


4cms. An electron is at rest initially at the bottom
plate. Voltage is applied between the plates, which increases linearly from 0v to 8v in 0.1 m.sec . If
the top plate is +ve, determine
i.

The speed of electron in 40 n.sec.

ii.

The distance traversed by the electron in 40 n.sec. [Nov 03, May 06, Aug 06, May 07]

SOLUTION:

v x = 1.76 1017 t 2 ; Distance x vxdt

x 1.76 1017 t 2
o

37546 1010 3.754 106 3.754 m

3
1.76
1017 40 103
3

9, Velocity
vx 1.76 1017 40 109

When t 40 10

2816 101 281.6m / Sec

1.6) In a electro static deflecting CRT the length of the deflection plates is 2 cm , and spacing
between deflecting is 0.5 cm , the distance from the centre of the deflecting plate to the screen is
20 cm . The deflecting voltage is 25 V . Find the deflection sensitivity, the angle of deflection and
velocity of the beam. Assume final anode potential is 1000 V . [Apr/May 03, May 06,

Aug 06]
SOLUTION:
lLVd
lL
S
;
2dVa
2dVa
d
= 0.5 cm;
Vd
L
= 20 cm
Va
= 1000 V.

l = 2 cm

D=

D?

= 25 V

2 102 20 102
lL
5
=
= 40 10 0.04
2dVa 2 0.5 102 1000

cm/V
tan

D S .Vd 0.04 25 102

0.05
L
L
20 102

tan 0.05

OR 2.860

2eVa
= 21.7610111000 1.87610 7 m/sec.
m
Resultant velocity
v
1.876 107 1.876 107
vr ax

= 1.8778 x 107 m/sec.


o
Cos
.999
Cos 2.80

Velocity vax

1.7)

When an electron is placed in a magnetic field with a period of rotation T=

35.3
1012 sec so
B

that the trajectory of an electron is a circle?


a.

What is the radius described by an electron placed in a magnetic field, perpendicular


to its motion, when the accelerating potential is 900 v and B=0.01 wb/m2 .

b.

What is the time period of rotation?

SOLUTION
35.3
1012 sec.
B
Va = 900 V; B= 0.01 Wb/m;
T = ?, r = ?
12
35.3 10
35.3
3530 1012 Sec.
T
1012 sec. =
0.01
B

Given

[May 06]

2eVa
mV
V
;
V 2 1.76 1011 900 17.79 106 m / sec.
eB
m
17.79 106
r
1010.8 105 10.11mm
11
1.76 10 0.01
r

1.7)

The distance between the plates of a plane parallel capacitor is 1 cm. An electron
starts at rest at the negative plate. If a direct voltage of 1000V is applied how
long will it take the electron to reach the positive pla te?
[May 02, Nov 04]
+
-

+
- 1000 V
1 Cm.
S= 1 cm ; u 0 ;

Given:

Final Velocity V

2eVa
m

Va 1000V ;

2 1.76 1011 1000 = 1.876 107 m / sec

Electron follows Newton Laws of motion.


=
at
or a v
V u at
s ut 12 at 2 12 at 2

1
2

v / t t 2 vt / 2 ;

2S
2 102

1.066 109 1.066n sec.


7
v 1.876 10

1.9) . An electrostatic cathode ray tube has a final anode voltage of 600V. The
deflection plates are 1.5cm long and 0.8cm apart. The screen is at a distance of
20cm from the centre of plates. A voltage of 20V is applied to the deflection
plates. Calculate.
a.

Velocity of electron on reaching the field

b.

Acceleration due to deflection field

c.

Deflection produced on the screen In cm.

d.

Deflection sensitivity in cm/V.

[Jun 01]

SOLUTION
Va 600V ; l 1.5cm; d 0.8cm; L 20cm;Vd 20V
lLVd
D
2dVa
Part (a) velocity of electron reaching the field
2eVa
vox
2 1.76 1011 600
Vox = 14532721 m/sec.
m
Part (b) Acceleration due to electric field.
eV
1.76 1011 20
ay d
4.4 1014 m / sec2
2
md
0.8 10
Part (c) deflection produced in cm.
lLVd 1.5 102 20 102 20
D

6.25 103 m .625cm


2dVd
2 0.8 102 600
Part (d) deflection sensitivity in cm.
D 0.625

S 0.03125cm / V .
Vd
20

1.10). The electrons emitted from the thermonic cathode of a cathode ray Gun are accelerated by a
potential of 400V. The essential dimensions are L=19.4cm, l =1.27cm and d=0.475 cm. Determine
deflection sensitivity. What must be the magnitude of transverse magnetic field acting over the whole
length of the tube in order to produce the same deflection as that produced by a deflection potential of
30V?
[Nov 04]
SOLUTION
Va 400V ; L 19.4cm; l 1.27cm ;

Electro static deflection: D=

lLVd
;
2 dVa

D
; B ? for Vd 30V
Vd

1.27 X 102 X 19.4 X 10 2 X 30


0.019m 1.9cm
2 X 0.475 X 10 2 X 400

d 0.019

6.3 104 m / V 0.06cm


Vd
30

Electro magnetic deflection:

lLB
e
;

m
Va

D Va
lL

e 1
m 2

0.019 X 400

1.27 X 102 X 19.4 X 102

1.76 X 1011
2

0.38
5.199 X 104 wb/ m2
730.88

1.11) In a parallel place diode, the cathode and anode are spaced 5mm apart and the anode is kept at
200V d.c. with respect to cathode. Calculate the velocity and the distance traveled by an electron after
a time of 0.5ns, when:
(a)The initial velocity of an electron is zero and
(b)The initial velocity is 2X106m/s in the direction towards the anode.
SOLUTION
v ?; t 0.5ns
D=5mm
Vd=200V
when (a) u=0, (b) u=2x106m/s
Electrons follow Newtons laws of motion v=u+at
v
200
7.036 1015 m / sec2
Where a e . d ; a 1.759 1011

3
m d
5 10
case (a) when initial velocity u=0
V=at = 7.036x1015x0.5x10-9= 3.518x106 m/s =3518 km/sec.
Case(b) V=u + at = 2x106 + 3.518x106 =5.518x106 m/sec or 5518 km/sec.
Distance S ut 1 at 2
2

Case(a): u=0; S 1 at 2 1 7.036 1015 0.5 109


2

0.8795 103 metres

2
Case(b): S 2x106 0.5x109 0.8795 103 1x103 1.8795 103 m

1.12) Calculate the deflection of a cathode ray beam caused by earth magnetic field. Assume that
the tube axis is normal to the field, of strength 0.6 Gauss. The anode potential is 400 V. The
distance between the anode screen distances is 20cm.

Anode
Given: B = 0.6 Gauss V = 400 Volts;screen distance
= 20 cm.
To calculate:
Deflection
D=?
To find out D, we must know radius R.
v ( m)
R is given by, R
we know m, e & B, v to be found.
e( B )
2eVa
(or )5.93 105 Va
m
Velocity of electron along x-ox is, vox 5.93 105 400 = 5.93 x 105 x 20 = 118.6 x 105 m/sec.
= 1.19 x 107 m ./sec.
B
= 0.6G.;
1 Wb / m2
=
104 Gauss
B
= 0.6 x 10-4 Wb / m2
= 6.0 x 10-5 wb / m2
v.m
v
1.19 10 7

R
=
( e / m = 1.759 x 1011)
11
5
eB (e / m) B 1.759 10 6 10
= 0.112 x 10 = 1.12 m = 112 cm.
In PYZ, YZ2 = PZ2 + PY2
YZ
= OP = 112 cm; PY = 20 cm.; PZ
= OZ OP
(Deflection D = OP)
(YZ)2 = (PZ)2 + (PY)2 112 2 = (112 D)2 + 202 1122 = 1122 224D + D2 + 400
or D2 224D + 400
=0

v is given by v

This is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0, quadratic equation. Where x

b b 2 4ac
2a

D can be found by above equation , As D = 1.8 cm.


MOTION OF ELECTRON IN VARYING ELECTRIC FIELD.
Example: An electron starts at rest on one plate of a plane parallel capacitor whole plates are
5cm., apart. The applied voltage is zero at the instant the electron is released, and it increases linearly
from zero to 10V in 0.1 sec.
a)
If the opposite plate is positive, what speed will the electron attain 50 n sec..
b)
Where will it be at the end of this time?
c)
With what speed will the electron strike the positive plate?
Solution: a)
Magnitude of field intensity will be gradually increasing with time and given by:
t
10 X 7
10 =2 x 109 t V/m
= (Voltage X time) / Distance
5 X 102
We know acceleration a = dv /d t. = f/m. = e/m.
Or
a = (1.76 x 1011) ( 2 x 109t)
= 3.52 x 1020 t m /sec2
l

We know, v =

a dt

3.52 X 1020 t dt = 1.76X1020 t2 m/sec

At t
v
b)

= 50 n.sec.
= 50 x 10-9
20
= 1.76 x 10 (50 x 10-9)2
Distance travelled

= 4.4 x 105 m /sec.


t

x v.dt 1.76 1020 t 2 5.87 1019 t 3

At t = 50 n sec.,
x = 5.87 x 1019 (50 x 10-9)3 =
7.32 X 10-3m = 0.732 cm.
c)
To find the speed at which the electron strikes the positive plate, we must find the time
taken to reach the plate (i.e., to travel the distance x)
x
= 5.87 x 1019 t3
x
0.05
or
(distance x = 5 cm) t
= 9.46 x 10-8 sec.
t3

19
19
5.87 10
5.87 10
1.14 Derive the expression for acceleration, velocity and displacement of a changed particle in an
electgric field
SOLUTION:
(i) F ma eE a eE --------(1);
m

(ii) Velocity v

adt & a dv ; v dx ;(or ) ;


dt

dt

d x
a dv d dx
(2)
dt dt dt dt 2

Substituting value of a from Eqn.(2) in to Eqn (1)=

d 2 x eE

(3)
m
dt 2

t
eE
V adt eE dt
t C1 (C1 is constant)
om
m
o

Average velocity eE

m
dx eE
OR

t C1 At + =0; x 0; C1 0
dt m
t

dx t

dt
o
o

Distance x

dx eE

t (4)
dt m

eE
t dt
m

eEt 2
(5)
2m

eE t 2
C2
m 2

If C 2 is taklen as 0
eE 2
Distance x
t 5
2m
UNIT III SOLVED PROBLEMS
1 Q) A 15 0 15 volts (rms) ideal transformer is used with a FWR with diodes having fwd
drop of 1 volt. The load resistance in 100 and capacitor of 10,000 f is used on filter.
Calculate the Dc load current and voltage.
(JNTU 2005)

Solution: I DC
where f is power line frequency.
4 fc
Vrms = 15V, Assume voltage drop (rms) across diode as
1V.
Vrms across load = 14V.
4170 Idc
4170 Idc
Vdc = Vm = 19.8 C
10,000
100 Idc ; 19.8 (or) Idc ; 0.198 Amp
VDC Vm

Vdc = 19.8 Volts.


Vm = Vrms 2 = 142 = 19.8 volts.

2 Q)

A FWR is used to supply power to a 2000 load, choke of 20H and capacitor of 16f are
available. Compute ripple factor using filter 1 (i) one inductor (ii) one capacitor (iii)
single L type.

Solution:
i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

3 Q)

RL = 2000; C = 16f; L = 20H.

One Inductor Filter


RL
2000
1
r

6.25 103 0.006


16000 L 16000 20 160
One capacitor filter:
2410
2410
r

75.31103 0.075
CRL 16 2000
Single LC Type Filter
0.83
0.83
r

0.0025
LC 20 16
Selection
3330
3330
r

325 106 .000325


CC1 L1 RL 16 16 20 2000
Design a full wave rectifier with an LC filter to provide 9V DC at 100mA with a max
ripple of 2%. Given line frequency f = 60Hz.
(JNTU 2000)

Solution: Given VDC = 9V,


To find: L, C.

f = 60Hz.; IL 100mA, r = 2% = 0.02

r 0.83 when f = 60 Hz. (1)

(1)

2 1
1
.
.
3 2 wc 2 wL.
Where LC = RL / 1130.
0.83
Or
LC
41.5 (2)
0.02
Critical Inductance (value of Inductance for which diode
conducts continuously)

Else r

V
RL
9
.; RL DC
90
1130
I DC 100mA
Lc = 41.5
(2)
41.5
C
521 f
79.6 103
Transformer rating Vrms = ?; Diode ratings PIV= Vm ;
L = 796mH;
C = 521f
LC

4 Q)

current rating = load current

A FWR operating at 50 Hz i.e., to provide DC current of 50mA at 30V with a 80f, C type
filter. Calculate (i) Vm the peak secondary voltage of the transformer (ii) Ratio of surge to
mean currents of diode (iii) The ripple factor of the output.
(JNTU 2002)

Solution: Given f = 50 Hz,


IDC = 50mA
VDC = 30V.

C = 80f
To find Vm = ? ratio of surge to mean current

Part (i) Vm = ?
VDC = 0.636 Vm.
Or Vm = VDC/0.636 = 30/0.636 = 47.17 volts.
Part ii Ratio of surge to mean current
----------------------------------------X-------------------------X-------------------------------------Surge Current

It is the current flowing through the diode, when the power supply is just switched on i.e., at
time t = 0+. At time t = 0+. Voltage across capacitor will be zero.
--------------------------------X-------------------------------------X
--------X--------------------V -V
Current through the diode at any time S C
R d +R S
When Vc = 0, Id will be max =

VS max
Vm

Rd RS Rd RS

This is called surge current.


V Vdc
Mean diode current I d S
Rd RS
Ratio of surge current to mean current =
=

R Rs
Vm
d
Rd Rs Vm Vdc

Vm
47.17
47.17

2.75
Vm VDC 47.17 30 17.17

Note: Designer must cater for 3 times the required average current.
2410
Part III :
Ripple factor r
f = 60 Hz.
CRL

Or

Ripple factor r

1
4 3 fcRL

Vdc 300V

30V 2 = 600
Idc 50mA
1
106
r

0.006
4 3.50.80 106 600 16627687.75
RL

5 Q)

For a FWR circuit AC voltage input to transformer primary is 115V. Transformer secondary
voltage is 50V, RL =25. Determine
i)
Peak DC component, RMS and AC component of load voltage
ii)
Peak DC component, RMS and AC component of load current.
(June 2002)
Solution:
Given Vrms = 50V, to find Vm, Vr, Im, Ir.
V

RL = 25 Vm Vdc r
2

Part (i)
Vm
VRms
orVm 2;VRms 2,50 70.7Volts
V2
V
r r , r of FWR (without filter) = 0.48
Vdc
Vdc = 0.637
Vm = 0.637x7.07=45 volts
Vr = , Vdc = 0.48 x 45 = 21.6 volts
Peak DC component = VDC + Ripple voltage = 45+21.6 = 66.6 volts
peak
66.6
Vrms =
=
= 47 Volts
2
2
Part II
Vm 70.7
Im

2.828 Amps.
RL
25
Vr 21.6

0.864 Amps.
RL
25
Peak DC current component = 66.6/25 = 2.664 Amps.
Runs DC current component = 47/25 = 1.8 Amps.
Ir

Calculate ripple factor of capacitor filter with peak rectified voltage of 20V and C = 50 f and
IDC = 50mA.
(June 2004)
Solution: Vm = 20V, Idc = 50mA, C = 50f.
VDC
Vr
Vm = 20V
6 Q)

VDC Vm

Idc
4 fc

Suppose f = 50Hz, Then VDC 20

50 103
4 50 50 106

1000
20 5 15volts
200
VDC
15
150 1000
RL

300
Idc
50mA
50
1
1 106
100
1
r

= 0.192
4 3 fcRL 4 3 50 50 300 4 3 25 3 3 3
1Q) Determine the quiescent current and collector to emitter voltage for germanium
transistor with = 50 in self-biasing arrangement draw the circuit with given component
value VCC = 20V, RC = 2K, RE = 100, R2 = 5K (Also find out stability factor).
(May 2005)
Solution: -

= 20

For drawing DC load line we must know


a) VCE max when Ic = 0;
b) Ic max when VCE = 0
VCE max = VCC = 20V

I C I E I C max

VCC
20

9.52mA
RC RE 2000 100

VCE max 20

10V
2
2
Ic max 9.52
=

4.76mA
2
2

Quiescent VCEQ =
Quiescent ICQ
IC

4.76
0.0952 mA ; Quiescent IEQ = ICQ + IBQ = 4.855mA.

50
Find out stability factor of the circuit given below:
(May 2005)

Quiescent IBQ =
Q)

Stability factor of self-biased Circuit given by:

RB
RE
S 1
;
RB
1

RE
1

RB

R1 R2 5 50
50

k 4.5k 4500
R1 R2 5 50
11
RB
4500

45
RE
100

1 45
S 50 1
24.54
1 50 45

For the circuit shown, determine the value of Ic and VCE. Assume VBE = 0.7V and = 100
(Sep.06)

Vin

Vcc .R2
10 5k
50

3.33volts
R1 R2 10 5 k 15

Rth

10 5
50
k k 3.33k .
10 5
15

Vth

= IBRB + VBE + IERE


= IBRB + VBE + (+1)IBRE

Vth VBE = IB(RB+( + 1)RE)


3.33 0.7
Vth VBE
=
3.3K 101 500
RB 1 RE
2.63
2.63
IB

48.88 A.
3300 50500 53800
I C .I B 4888 A.
I E I C I B 4888 48.88 49.6 A

IB

Part (b) VCE = ?;


VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE VCE = VCC ICRC IERE
VCE = 10 4888 x 10-6x 103 4937 x 10-6 x 500
= 10 04.888 2.468
= 2.64 volts;
IC = 4.89 mA;
Q3)

VCE = 2.64 Volts.

For the JFET shown in the circuit with the voltage divides bias as shown below.
Calculate VG, VS, VD and VDS if VGS = -2V.
(Sep. 2006)

Solution:

VDD .R2
15 4k
15

3.75V
R1 R2 12 4 k 4
Since gate circuit is negligible, Voltage drop across RG = 0
VG

VGS = VG IdRs.- 2 V = 3.75 - IdRS


IdRS = 3.75 + 2 = 5.75V = Vs.
Id = 5.75/1k = 5.75mA.
Voltage drop across RL=IDRL= 5.75 x 10-3 x 500 = 2.875V
VDS = VDD IDR2 IDRS. = 15 2.875 8.75 = 6.375 volts
VD = VDD IDRL = 15 2.875 = 12.125V.
4Q) For the circuit shown, calculate VE, IE, Ic and Vc.
Assume VBE = 0.7V.
(Sep. 2006)
Solution:

VB = VBE + VE or VE = VB VBE = 4 0.7 = 3.3V


V
3.3
IE E
1mA
RE 3.3k
Since is not given, assume Ic IE = 1mA.
VC = VCC ICRL = 10 1 x 10-3 x 4.7 x 103 = 5.3 volts
5 Q)

In the circuit shown, if IC = 2mA and VCE = 3V, calculate R1 & R3

Solution:
Ic 2mA
IB
0.02mA
100
I E I C I B 2 0.02 2.02mA
VE I E RE 2.02mA 500 1.01volts
VR 2 VE VBE 1.01 0.6 1.61volts
VR 2 1.61

0.161mA
R2 10k
VR1 = VCC VR2 = 15 1.61 = 13.39 volts
V
13.39
R1 R1
73.97k
I I B 0.161 0.02 mA
VR3 = VCC VE VCE;
VCE = 3V
VR3 = 15 1.01 3 = 10.99 volts
V
1099
R3 R 3
5.49k
IC
2mA
I

(Sep. 2006)