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The idea that one should abandon classical concepts to understand atomic phenomena was almost clear to Bohr by the time of his

doctorate thesis. By the end of 1911, he wrote a letter to McLaren expressing his conviction that very little was known from the

movement of electrons in metals. In his dissertation it was already evident for him that Lorentz electron theory was not enough to

surmount some unexplained phenomena. He guessed there was something wrong about how electrons interact with ions. In a couple of

years, Bohr moved his attention from free electrons (as in metals) to bound electrons.

Following Leon Rosenfelds testimony, by July 1912, in a memorandum addressed to Rutherford, Bohr already expresses the kinetic

energy of an electron inside the atom as proportional to its revolution frequency, but without fixing the proportionality constant neither

relating it to Plancks constant. In this memorandum nothing else is said about this energy. Rosenfeld seems to accept that in 1912 Bohr

already considered the argument he used in the 1913 first paper, namely: that the bound energy of the electron is equal in magnitude to

half the mean energy in the revolution period. Let us briefly review the steps. Starting from Rutherfords hydrogen model, in which the

atom is made of a nucleus with very tiny dimensions of positive electric charge (+e), and of an electron with negative charge (e), Bohr

admitted the electron to describe elliptical stationary orbits with velocity (v) much less than that of light in the vacuum (c), and that there

is no radiation loss. In addition, the interaction between the electron and the nucleus could be described by an electrostatic Coulombian

force (F) given by

In a first moment of the 1913 famous paper [Niels Bohr, On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules. Philosophical Magazine S. 6, 26

(151), 1-25 (1913).], Bohr focused his attention on how an electron can be bound to a nucleus. In the second section of his paper, we

read:

(...) let us assume that the electron at the beginning of the interaction with the nucleus was at a great distance apart from the nucleus, and

had no sensible velocity relative to the latter. Let us further assume that the electron after the interaction has taken place has settled down in

a stationary orbit around the nucleus. And he goes on saying that let us now assume that, during the binding of the electron, a

homogeneous radiation is emitted of a frequency , equal to half the frequency of revolution of the electron in its final orbit . In our notation,

this means to admit the frequency postulate, namely that

Indeed, he assumed that electron`s wave energy is equal to the kinetic energy of electron - particle.

Where h is Planck`s constant , m is mass of electron and V is velocity of revolution of the electron in its first orbit. In fact, electron`s

wave energy is equal to the potential energy of electron-particle

Where r is radius of electron in its first orbit, c is speed of light and R is Rydberg constant.

As circumference of the Bohr`s circle is equal to the electron`s wavelength

The frequency of revolution of the electron in its first orbit is :

Copyright Radoslav Rasko Jovanovic 2011. | Webmaster: Marija Jovanovic

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