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GRAMMAR

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NOUN 1

Countable Noun

Singular

><

Plural

Uncountable Noun
without a/an/ -s

a /an/the
Regular

Irregular

Noun s/ es

Note 1
a means/series/species means ..
a child children
a foot feet
a tooth teeth
a louse lice
a person people
a goose geese
a mouse mice
a man men
a woman women
on ox - oxen
a fish - fish
a carp carp
a cod cod
a salmon salmon
a deer deer
a sheep - sheep
a crisis crises

a thesis theses
a diagnosis - diagnoses
a hypothesis hypotheses
a parenthesis - parentheses
an axis - axes
an oasis - oases
a phenomenon phenomena
a criterion - criteria
a memorandum memoranda
a curriculum curricula
a bacterium - bacteria
a syllabus syllabi
a cactus cacti
a fungus fungi
a stimulus stimuli
a radius radii
an appendix appendices
an index indices

Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves


a calf - calves

a life lives

a shelf - shelves

a half - halves

a loaf - loaves

a thief - thieves

a knife - knives

-self - -selves

a wife - wives

a leaf - leaves

a sheaf - sheaves

a wolf wolves

a hoof hooves/hoofs

a roof roofs

a cliff cliffs

a safe safes

a handkerchief handkerchiefs

a belief- beliefs

But:

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NOUN 2: Compound Nouns


1. Normally the last word is made plural
boyfriends

city streets

college

travel agents

corner shops

libraries

shop windows

street markets

driving

hitch-hikers

spring flowers

licenses

traffic wardens

November fogs

river banks

church bells

2. But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural
men drivers

women drivers

3. The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds
composed of noun + preposition + noun
lookers-on

runners-up

sisters-in-law

NOUN 3: Quantifiers
1. Many/several/various/numerous/diverse

><

Much

2. A number of/numbers of

><

An amount of/amounts of

3. (A) few

><

(A) little

4. Fewer/ the fewest

><

Less/ the least

NOUN 4: Numbers
1. a /two/three hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun
2. hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun
3. Compound adjectives
A three-year-old boy
A 16,000-page book
4. one/two/three percent (no s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun

VERB

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(1) Subject _ Verb Agreement


(2) Tenses
(3) Active

><

Passive

Transitive V + Obj

V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with)

(4) Form
a. After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will,
would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to)
V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses)
b. After be
P. P (passive)
c. After have + P. P (perfect tenses)
d. Gerund >< Infinitive
e. Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle)

PARALLEL STRUCTURE
1. ,
2. and
3. but
4. or
5. either or
6. neither nor
7. not only but also
8. both and
9. rather than
10.

whether or

11.

as well as

PRONOUN

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1. Pronoun/Noun Agreement

they >< it/he/she/we


their >< its/his/her/our
them>< it/him/her/us
themselves><itself/himself/herself/ourselves
who/whom>< which
that (of )

>< those (of) (plural)

2. Which type?
a. Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They)
-

Subject of a Verb

After Be

b. Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them)


-

Object of a Verb

Object of a Preposition

c. Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their)


-

Before a Noun

Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh


conditions

d. Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs)


e. Reflexive Pro

(myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves)

3. Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself)


4. The >< Possessive Adjective
Ex: His snake is a reptile.
He devoted the life to science.

5. Double subject/object
Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters.

6. Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun


Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years.
The woman lives next door is too nosy.

WORD FORM

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1. Adjectives
a. Before nouns
Ex: an important meeting

b. After be and other linking verbs


- be/become
- look/seem/appear/sound
- taste/feel/smell
- stay/remain ( = continue to be)
- turn/get/grow/go (= become)
- prove/find
Ex: She looks angry.

c. Some adjectives end in ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/


lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/year
ly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/
kindly
2. Adverbs
a.

Modify verbs:

Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge.

b.

Modify adjectives

Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic.

c.

Modify participles

Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored dress.

d.

Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/
shortly before

e.

Modify adverbs:

f.

Modify the whole sentence

Ex: The accident occurred incredibly quickly.

- general

><

generally

- possible

><

possibly

- basic

><

basically

- probable

><

probably

- particular

><

particularly

- usual

><

usually

- original

><

originally

- innate

><

Ex:

Generally, I like my class

innately

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3. Note
a. fast (adj) fast (adv)
b. long (adj) long (adv)
c. hard (adj) hard >< hardly
d. high (adj) high >< highly (figurative meaning)
e. early (adj) early (adv)
f. good (adj) well (adv)

VERB
Differ
Invent
Compete
Fertilize
Decide
Prohibit
Prevent
Beautify
Originate
Emphasize
Glorify
Mystify
Socialize
Generalize
Simplify
Free
Construct
Live

NOUN
Difference
Invention
Competition
Fertilizer/fertility
Decision
Prohibition
Prevention
Beauty
Origin
Emphasis
Glory
Mystery
Society
Generalization
Simplicity
Freedom
Construction
Life

ADJECTIVE
Different
Inventive
Competitive
Fertile
Decisive
Prohibitive
Preventive
Beautiful
Original
Emphatic
Glorious
Mysterious
Social
General
Simple
Free
Constructive
Live/living

FIELD

PERSON

FIELD

Music
Poetry
Administration
Photography

Musician
Poet
Administrator
Photographer

Surgery
Architecture
Farming
Biology

VERB
Restrict
Cultivate
Empower
Analyze
Familiarize
Popularize
Classify
Categorize
Absent
Interest
Bore
Fascinate
Produce
Necessitate
Collect

PERSON
Surgeon
Architect
Farmer
Biologist

NOUN
Restriction
Culture
Agriculture
Power
Importance
Significance
Analysis
Familiarity
Popularity
Classification
category
Absence
Interest
Boredom
Fascination
Production
Necessity
Collection

FIELD
Dentistry
Engineering
Finance
Physics

ADJECTIVE
Restrictive
Cultural
Agricultural
Powerful
Important
Significant
Analytical
Familiar
Popular
Classifiable
Categorical
Absent
Interesting
Boring
Fascinating
Productive
Necessary
Collective

PERSON
Dentist
Engineer
Financier
Physicist

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Athletics
Philosophy
Creation

Athlete
Philosopher
Creator

Theory
Chemistry
Politics

Theorist
Chemist
Politician

Science
Invention
Crime/criminolog

Scientist
Inventor
Criminal

Law
History
Editing
Magic

Lawyer
Historian
Editor
Magician

Humor
Biography
Writing
Geography

Humorist
Biographer
Writer
Geographe

y
Mathematics
Manufacture
Acting
Collection

mathematician
Manufacturer
Actor/actress
Collector

Hunting
Dance
Beauty
Carpentry

r
Hunter
Dancer
Beautician
Carpenter

Employment
Competition
Labor

Employee/er
Competitor
Laborer

Forecast
Training
Contest
Discovery

NOUN

Forecaster
Trainer
Contestant
Discoverer

VERB

ADJECTIVE

Strength
Strengthen Strong
Hardness
Harden
Hard
Softness
Soften
Soft
Depth
Deepen
Deep
Ripeness
Ripen
Ripe
Solidity
Solidify
Solid
Length
Lengthen
Long
Shortness Shorten
Short
Weight
Weigh
Weighty/weightless
Blackness Blacken
Black
Fat
Fatten
Fat
Nouns: hearing/sight/smell/taste/touch

NOUN

VERB

ADJECTIVE

Heat
Light
Brightness
Thickness
Richness
Humidity
Flatness/flat
Height
Darkness/dark
White/whiteness
Largeness

Heat
Lighten
Brighten
Thicken
Enrich
Humidify
Flatten
Heighten
Darken
Whiten
Enlarge

Hot
Light
Bright/brilliant
Thick
Rich
Humid
Flat
High
Dark
White
Large

Verbs: hear/see/smell/taste/touch

WORD CHOICE
1. Wrong choice of MAKE or DO
1) MAKE

an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a

decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a


comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an
investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a
loan/an appointment
2) MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ); MAKE UP (= compose)

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3) DO

an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the

ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/


a job/ ones work/ business with/ justice to/ wrong/ a kindness/ones
duty/harm/ones best/a service/damage/ wonder

2. Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as


1) Like/Unlike A, B + Verb
2) A, like/unlike B, + Verb
3) A is like/unlike B
4) A and B are alike
5) Like + Noun

Ex: My results were much like Pauls

6) As + Subject +Verb

Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did

7) As + Noun (=in the role of)


8) serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be
referred to as
9) regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/
nominate/proclaim/announce s.o/sth (as) s.o/sth

3. Wrong choice of so, such, too

1) so + adjective/adverb + that Subject + Verb


2) so + many/few + Noun (c) that Subject + Verb
+ much/little + Noun (u) that Subject + Verb

3) so + adjective + a/an + Noun (c, singular) that Subject + Verb


4) such + (a/an) + Noun that Subject + Verb
5) too adjective + (for someone) + to do something
6) enough + noun +( for someone) to do something
7) adjective/adverb + enough + (for someone) to do something

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4. Wrong choice of because or because of; although or in spite


of /despite; when/while or during
Adverb clause markers + S+ V

Preposition + Noun/NP

because

because of/ due to/ on account of

although/though/even though

in spite of/ despite

when/while/as

during

5. Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER


Another
Adjective

another + Noun (singular)

Other
other + Noun (plural)
Determiner (the, some, any,
every, one, no) + other + Noun

another (an additional one)

Pronoun

Ex: Give me another.

(sing)
the other/the others
Ex: Of the two teachers, one is
experienced, and the other is not.

Note:

each other / one another


from one

to another

6. Other word form problems


BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PAIRS OF WORDS

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1) no + noun >< not any


2) no longer >< not any longer/any more
3) most + Noun
most of the Noun
almost all of the Noun/ almost no + Noun/almost every + Noun
the most +adj/adv (superlative)

4) almost + quantifier/adjective/adverb (Word Order)


5) twice (adjective) >< double (verb)
Note: be twice as as

6) earliest >< soonest


7) one /two/threepercent of >< a /the percentage of
8) after >< afterward (adv = after that )
9) ago >< before
10) tell so that >< say that/say to so that
Note: tell a story/a lie/lies/the truth/ a secret

11) hardly ever >< never


12) hard/hardly
13) and/but/or
14) be alive >< live + Noun
15) old > < of age
16) near (=close to) >< nearly (=almost)
17) some + Noun >< somewhat + adjective
18) affect so/sth >< effect of sth on so/sth
19) already (adv) >< be all ready ( adjective)
20) among (3 or more) >< between ( 2)
21) and (conjunction) >< also (adverb)
22) beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition)
23) costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice)
24) farther/further (distance) >< further (= more)

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25) formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously)


26) hard >< hardly
27) imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative)
28) later >< latter
29) lay

laid

laid

laying +Object (= put/place)

lie

lay

lain

lying (= be situated/located)

lie

lied

lied

lying (= not tell the truth)

30) loose (adj) >< lose (verb)


31) no>< not>< none
32) pass (verb) >< past (adj/noun/preposition)
Note: pass = go/come past

33) quiet (adj) >< quite (adv)


34) raise + object/ be raised (passive) >< rise (without an object)
35) set + object (=put/place) >< sit (without an object)
36) thorough (adj) >< through (adv)
37) out >< out of +Noun
38) away>< away from + Noun
39) out/in (preposition) >< outer/inner (adjective)
40) listen to >< hear
41) lone/live/sleeping + noun >< be alone/ alive/asleep

7. Redundancy
-

connect together

same identical

repeat again

sufficient enough

join together

separated away from

proceed forward

incorrect mistake

advance forward

progress forward

only unique

important significant

new innovations

carefully cautiously

reread again

established founded

return back

protect guard

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original first

chief main

rarely seldom

such as for example

transmit send out

necessary needed

single only

around
approximately

Inversion
a) Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs
Hardly ever

On no account

Hardly when

Only by/in/ at/once/recently

In no circumstances

Only in this way

Neither/nor

Rarely

Never

Seldom

No sooner than

Scarcely ever

Not only

Scarcely when

Nowhere

(So) + adj or participles


(Such) + be + Noun

Ex:

I havent got a ticket. Neither/Nor have I.


Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe.
Not only do they rob you, they smash everything too
On no account must this switch be touched
Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard.
Only in an emergency should you use this exit.
Rarely did this remedy fail
So suspicious did he become that
So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions.
Such is the popularity of the place that the theater is likely to be full every night.

b) The subject and verb of the second clause ( not the first clause) are inverted
when the following expressions occur at the beginning of a sentence
Not until

Only if

Only until

Only when

Only because

Only after

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Ex:

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Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost it.
Only if you study hard can you pass the final exam.

c) In written English adverb phrases introduced by preposition (down, from, in, on,
over, off, out of, round, up .etc.) can be followed by verbs indicating position
(crouch, hang, lie sit, stand, be etc.), by verbs of motion.

Ex:

From the rafters hung strings of onions.


In the door way stood a man with a gun.
On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot
Over the wall came a shower of stone.
In front of the museum is a statue.
Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands.

Note: Prepositional Phrase, S + V


Ex:

Across the United States, the general movement of air masses is from west to east.

d) If + Subject + auxiliary can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary


and subject with if omitted.

Ex:

If I were in his shoes

Were I in his shoes

If you should require anything

Should you require anything

If he had known

Had he known

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Double Comparison
The + comparative + S + (V), the +comparative + S + (V)

Note: the worse (not the worst), the less (not the least), the better (not the best)

Ex: The more he plays, the more he improves.

Incorrect Article Choice

><

Ex:

an

A eclipse of the sun may be either total or partial

a/an

><

without a/an (uncountable noun)

a/an

><

the

Ex:

Rose Bird was a first woman in the history of California to serve on the State Supreme

Court

a/an/the
Ex:

><

without a/an/the

Slag consists of waste material and impurities which rise to top of melted metals.
The most asteroids are beyond the orbit of the planet Mars.

the

><
Ex:

possessive adjectives

The Ozark Mountains of Arkansas are known for the rugged beauty

Note:
- a university/ a European/ a one-parent family/a union/a unicorn/ a unique character
- an hour/ an honest man/ an honor/ an heir/ an heiress/ an MP/ an FBI

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1.

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Clause marker (a) S+ V(f)


(b) Present P

, S+V

(c) Past P
(d) Adjective
Common clause markers:
a. Time: after , as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time, now that,
once, since, until, when, while, whenever
b. Concessions/Contrast: although, even though, though, even if,
whereas, while, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, except
that/however
c. Reason: as, because, since, in that, in case
d. Results: so that, so that, such that
e. Manner: as if, as though
f. Place: wherever
g. Conditions: if, even if, only if, provided, unless

(,) (1) Clause marker

2. S + V + (Object)
Conjunctions:

Conjunctive advs -

(2) Conjunction

(3) conjunctive adverbs

S + V + (Object)

and, but, yet, for, so, or


besides, likewise, moreover, in addition, additionally
however, nevertheless, on the other hand, in contrast, in spite
this

of

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-

therefore, as a result, accordingly, consequently

otherwise

then, meanwhile

similarly, correspondingly, likewise

for example, for instance

ARTICLES
A/AN
1. Before singular countable nouns
Ex: Australia is a continent
2. To introduce a subject that has not mentioned before
Ex: I saw a tiger.
3. With certain expressions
a dozen

a/one half

a couple

a/one third

a/one hundred/thousand/million

a/one quarter

a great many

fifty miles an/per hour

a great deal

ten kilometers an/per hour

a lot of

$10 a/per day

4. With names of professions


Ex: He is an engineer.

She is a doctor.

THE
1. Only one example of the thing/person or the identity of the person or thing is clear
Ex:

The moon is full today.


Please open the door.

2. With certain expressions


the morning/afternoon/evening
the past/present/future
the front/back/center/top/bottom
the beginning/middle/end
the north/south/east/west

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3. Before a singular noun representative of a class of things ( usually names of animals, plants,
inventions, musical instruments, and parts of the body)
Ex:

The tiger is the largest cat


The heart pumps blood
The Wright brothers invented the airplane.
She plays the guitar.

4. Before ordinal number (Note: No article is used before expressions with cardinal
numbers.)
Ex:

The First World War (But: World War One)


The second chapter (But: Chapter Two)
The third gate

(But: Gate Three)

The seventh volume (But: Volume Seven)


5. Before decades and centuries
Ex:

the 1930s

the fifties

the sixties

the twenty-first century

the 1800s

the twentieth century

6. Before superlative adjectives


Ex:

The biggest island on earth is Greenland.

7. Quantifier + of + the + noun


Many/ some/all/much/most/a few/all/... of the + Noun
Note: These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the
Ex:

Many books

not much paper

Some water

a few pictures

8. Before a group of people or a nationality


Ex:

The Vietnamese are very hardworking


The Swedish are proud of their ancestors, the Vikings.

Note: No article is used before the name of a language


Ex:

She learned to speak Vietnamese when she lived in Hanoi.

9. The + adjective (= people who are...)


Ex:

The rich should help the poor.

10. Before a specific noun


Ex:

The coffee I had this morning was Brazilian (specific)


Coffee originated in Ethiopia. (general)

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The rice that I bought today is in the bag. (specific)
Rice is a staple in many countries.(general)
The trees in this park are mostly evergreens. (specific)
Trees provide shade. (general)

11. The + subject + of NP


Subject (used alone) --> no article
Adjective + Subject --> no article
Ex:

The literature of the twentieth century


The history of The United States.

But:

I major in literature
I study American history.

12. Before names of countries, states, cities, universities, colleges, and schools that
contain the word "of" or before countries that have a plural name or an adjective in the
name, except for Great Britain
Ex:

The United States of America


The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (but: Vietnam)
The State of Florida (But: Florida)
The city of Boston ( But: Boston)
The University of Texas ( But: Boston University)
The Netherlands/ The Philippines

13. Before
a. oceans:

Ex:

The pacific Ocean

b. seas

Ex:

The Black Sea

c. gulfs

Ex:

The Gulf of Mexico

d. rivers

Ex:

The Nile

e. plural names of mountains

Ex:

The Appalachian Mountains (But: Mount Everest)

f. plural names of islands

Ex:

The Hawaiian Islands (But: Manhattan Island)

g. plural names of lakes

Ex:

The Great Lakes (But: Lake Michigan)

14. Before the names of ships, planes, trains and people's family names
Ex:

The Titanic

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The Orient Express


The Browns

GERUND AND INFINITIVE


I. VERB + TO INF
afford
agree
appear
arrange
ask
attempt

Ex:

beg
care
consent
decide
desire
deserve

expect
fail
forget
hesitate
hope
learn

manage
mean
need
offer
plan
prepare

pretend
promise
refuse
seem
struggle
swear

threaten
want
wish
try
intend

Tom wants to become a doctor.


Susan pretended to sleep.
David promised not to be late again.

II. VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE


advise
allow
ask
beg
cause

challenge
convince
dare
encourage
expect

forbid
force
hire
instruct
invite

order
permit
persuade
remind
require

teach
tell
urge
want
warn

invite
recommend
enable
lead
motivate
use

Ex: They begged us to come.


I warn you not to drive so fast.

Note: advise/allow/encourage/permit/recommend (1) + object + to inf


(2) + V-ing
Ex: He doesnt allow smoking in his house
He doesnt allow anyone to smoke in his house
Nobody is allowed to smoke in his house

III. VERB + V-ING


admit
appreciate
avoid
complete
consider

delay
deny
discuss
dislike
enjoy

finish
cant help
keep
mention
mind

postpone
practice
quit
recall
recollect

resent
resist
risk
stop
suggest

miss
tolerate
involve
understand
include

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Ex:

I dislike driving long distances


I cant help worrying about it.
Would you mind not smoking in this class?

IV. VERB + V-ING/ TO INFINITIVE


begin
start

continue
cant stand

hate
love

prefer
like

Ex: It began to rain/ raining

Note: would like/love/prefer + to infinitive


Ex: I would like to play tennis today.

V. ADJECTIVE / PARTICIPLE+ TO INFINITIVE


anxious
eager
usual
easy

difficult
hard
dangerous
ready

willing
able
pleased
prepared

boring
interesting

Ex: Tom is anxious to see his family.


It is very dangerous to drive in this weather.
We are ready to leave now.

Note: be busy/worth + V-ing.


Ex: He is busy doing his homework.
The book is worth reading.

VI.

PREPOSITION + V-ING
1. VERB + PREPOSITION + V-ING

approve of
give up
rely on
insist on

succeed in
count on
keep on
think about

think of
depend on
put off
dream about

look forward to
object to
confess to
devote to

dedicate to
commit to

Ex: John gave up smoking three years ago.


I am looking forward to going back to school.

2. ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + V-ING


afraid of
interested in

capable of
successful in

tired of be/get accustomed to


fond of be/get used to

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Ex: She is afraid of getting married now.


To gets used to getting up early.

VII.

SPECIAL CASES
1. STOP
He stopped smoking (He gave up smoking; he is not going to smoke any more.)
He stopped to smoke (He stopped doing something in order to smoke)

2. TRY
TRY + TO INF: make an effort to do something
Ex: I was very tire. I tried to keep my eyes open, but I couldnt.

TRY + V-ING: do something as an experiment or test


Ex: Ive got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin, but it did not help.

3. REMEMBER
REMEMBER + TO INF: You remember to do something before you do it
Ex: Please remember to post the letter. (= Dont forget to post the letter)

REMEMBER + V-ING: You remember doing something after you do it


Ex: I clearly remember locking the door before I left.

4. NEED
NEED + TO INF (ACTIVE)
Ex: John needs to paint the door.
My friend needed to learn Spanish

NEED + V-ING = NEED + TO BE DONE (PASSIVE)


Ex: The grass needs cutting/ to be cut.
The television needs fixing/to be fixed.

5. MAKE/LET/HAVE + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE


Ex: Sad movies always make me cry.
I had the mechanic repair my car. (I had my car repaired by the mechanic
My parents do not let me go out late at night.

6. VERBS OF PERCEPTION + V-ING/ BARE INFINITIVE


see
notice
watch

look at
observe
hear

listen to
smell
feel

Ex: I saw my friend running/run down the street.

7. GO + V-ING
GO

boating
bowling
camping
canoeing

dancing
fishing
hiking
hunting

jogging
climbing
running
sailing

shopping
sightseeing
skating
skiing

swimming

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Ex: My sister went sailing yesterday

8. TO INFINITIVE can be used after the first, the second, the last, the only and
sometimes after superlatives.
Ex: She loves parties. She is always the first to come and the last to leave.
He is the second man to be killed in this way.

9. TO INFINITIVE can be used after certain nouns


ability
ambition
anxiety
attempt
decision

demand
desire
determination
eagerness
effort

failure
offer
plan
promise
refusal

request
scheme
willingness
wish
readiness

Ex: His ability to get on with people is his chief asset.


Ex: He made an effort to stand up.
10.
catch/find/leave
+
Object
spend/ waste
+
Time
have fun/ a good time
have trouble/difficulty
have a hard time/ difficult time

+
+
+
+
+

V-ing
V-ing
V-ing
V-ing
V-ing

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WORD ENDINGS
A. COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS
1. ism
: baptism, criticism, organism, heroism, patriotism, alcoholism,
barbarism, dwarfism, parallelism

2. nce

: importance, significance, dependence, arrogance, resistance,


subsistence

3. ness
4. ion

: bitterness, conceitedness, darkness, hardness, kindheartedness


: excision, damnation, pollution, suggestion, a notion, an action,
vexation, concoction, completion.

5. ment

: abridgement, accomplishment, banishment, commencement,


embodiment, enhancement, excitement, fragment, garment, ornament,
treatment

6. (i)ty

: purity, authority, dubiety, majority, superiority, humidity, cruelty,


faculty, honesty, plenty, safety, subtlety

7. age

: baggage, carriage, cartage, damage, dotage, hermitage, homage


language, luggage, marriage, passage, tillage, tonnage, vicarage,
village.

8. ship

: ambassadorship, citizenship, headship, professorship, chairmanship,


fellowship, scholarship, companionship, friendship, hardship,
relationship, craftsmanship, entrepreneurship, horsemanship,
membership, courtship

9. th

: bath, birth, death, oath, growth, stealth, filth, health, length, strength,
truth, depth, breadth, wealth.

10. dom
11. hood

: earldom, freedom, kingdom, officialdom, wisdom


: childhood, falsehood, sisterhood, brotherhood, neighborhood,
likelihood, livelihood

12. ure

: closure, picture, scripture, legislature, nature, failure, pleasure,


treasure

13. cy

: bankruptcy, captaincy, democracy, privacy, delicacy, advocacy,

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confederacy, accuracy, obstinacy, piracy, , aristocracy, expectancy,
efficiency, presidency, sufficiency, deficiency

14. (t)ry

rivalry, ancestry, carpentry, industry, greenery, machinery, scenery,


bakery, brewery, bravery, slavery, archery

15. logy
: archaeology, geology, sociology, theology, zoology
16. graphy : bibliography, biography

B. COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS


1. or
: actor, creator, doctor, monitor, sculptor, successor, guarantor,
conqueror, donor, governor, solicitor, tailor, visitor. bachelor

2. er

: hatter, geographer, astrologer, cottager, foreigner, Londoner,


New Yorker, northerner, villager, airliner, old-timer, sorcerer

3. ee
4. ist

: employee, payee, devotee, escapee, conferee, absentee, refugee.


: chemist, dramatist, economist, geologist; dentist, pianist, tobacconist;
Buddhist, Darwinist, idealist, Marxist, racist, optimist, pessimist

5. ician

: magician, physician, musician, electrician, beautician,


politician, statistician, mathematician, mortician,

6. ant (10%) : assistant, accountant, consultant, contestant, inhabitant


C. ADJECTIVE ENDINGS
1. ent
: independent, sufficient, absent, ambivalent, ancient, apparent,
ardent

2. ant

: arrogant, expectant, important, significant , abundant, ignorant,


brilliant,

3. ful

: beautiful, graceful, powerful, grateful, forgetful, mournful,


Exceptions: handful, mouthful, spoonful are nouns

4. ic
5. less

: civic, classic, historic, artistic, economic,


: doubtless, fearless, hatless, powerless, countless, tireless, faceless,
legless, careless, helpless

6. ive

: authoritative, demonstrative, figurative, imitative, qualitative,


talkative, active, passive, comparative, possessive

7. ous
8. able
9. ible
10. al

: dangerous, glorious, murderous, viscous, ferocious, hilarious,


: charitable, separable, bearable, reliable, comfortable, suitable.
: audible, compressible, edible, horrible, terrible
: central, general, oral, colossal, tropical, tidal

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Exceptions : rival, arrival, proposal, withdrawal, survival are nouns

11. ory
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

: mandatory, compulsory, predatory, satisfactory


Exceptions : dormitory, promontory, territory are nouns
ary
: arbitrary, budgetary, contrary, primary, temporary, necessary
y
: angry, happy, icy, messy, milky, tidy, chilly, haughty, slippery,
ly
: beastly, cowardly, queenly, rascally
(r)ate (10%): temperate, accurate, considerate, immediate, literate
ish
: boorish, boyish, foolish, womanish, bookish, feverish, bluish, reddish

D. COMMON VERB ENDINGS


1. en/ en : listen, happen, strengthen, lengthen, shorten, soften, ripen, deepen,
widen, entrust, enslave, enlighten, entangle, enlarge, encourage,
enable, enrich

2. ate

: assassinate, associate, fascinate, felicitate, hydrate, separate,


vaccinate, evacuate

3. ize

: characterize, idolize, agonize, apologize, sympathize, theorize,


authorize, extemporize, fertilize, fossilize, jeopardize, moralize,
Americanize, carbonize, oxidize

4. ify

: pacify, satisfy, petrify, solidify, horrify

E. COMMON ADVERB ENDING


1. ly
: amusingly, deservedly, firstly, fully, greatly, happily, hourly, truly,
firstly, secondly

2. wise
3. ways
4. ward

: crosswise, lengthwise, otherwise, clockwise


: edgeways, endways, lengthways, sideways
: backward, homeward, inward, onward, skyward, eastward

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SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT


A. BASIC SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT
1. Singular Subject + Singular Verb
2. Plural Subject + Plural Verb
Ex:

My friend lives in Boston.


Growing flowers is her hobby.
My friends live in Boston.

B. SPECIAL CASES
1.

Sing Subject 1 and Sing Subject 2 + Plural Verb

Ex:

The actor and the singer are coming.


Jean and David are coming back to Australia.

Note: However, phrases connected by and can be followed by singular verbs if we think of them as
making up a single item.
Ex:

Meat pie and peas is Toms favorite at the moment


Fish and chips is my favorite food

2.

Subject 1 +

of
in addition to
with
together with + Subject 2 + Verb
along with
as well as
no less than
like/ unlike

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Ex:

One of my friends is here.


You together with Tom are responsible for this failure.

Either

3.

Neither

Ex:

4.

or
+ Subject 1 +

+ Subject 2 + Verb
nor

Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach

There + be +

Ex:

Noun

There is a book on the shelf


There are three books on the shelf

5.
There/ Here

Ex:

+ Verb

Noun

Here comes the Queen.


Here lie many unknown soldiers.

6.

Every
Each
Either
Neither
Ex:

Noun (singular)
+

+ Singular Verb
of the Noun (plural)

Each boy/ each of the boys has a gift.

Note: Each boy and each girl is to do this exercise.

7.

Everyone
Everybody
Everything
Someone
Somebody

Something
Anyone
Anybody
Anything
No one

Nobody
Nothing

Ex: Everyone has his or her own idea.

Singular Verb

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8.

a.

A/the majority of
A number of
A lot of
+
Plenty of
Some of
None of
Half of
No
Ex:

Plural Noun +

Plural Verb

A number of refugees have been turned back at the border.


Plenty of potatoes are grown here.
None of the answers are correct.

b.

The number of +

Ex:

c.

9.

council
association
audience
class
club
college
committee
community

+ Singular Verb

The number of books in the library has risen to over five million.

Any of
None of
The majority of
A lot of
Plenty of
All (of)
Some (of)

Ex:

Plural Noun

+ Uncountable Noun +

Singular Verb

All the furniture was destroyed in the fire.


company
crowd
department
electorate
enemy
family
firm
generation

government
group
jury
orchestra
population
press
public
school

staff
team
university
faculty
choir
gang
couple
cabinet

Singular Verb ( if they


are referred to as a group)

Plural Verb ( if they are seen


as a collection of individual)

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Ex:

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The team is winning. (the team as a group)


The team are going back to their homes. (meaning individual members of the
team)

belongings
clothes
congratulations
earnings
goods
outskirts
particulars
premises

10.

Ex:

riches
glasses
savings
pliers
stairs
pants
surroundings
+ Plural Verb
thanks
scissors
shorts
jeans

The pants are in the drawer.


(A pair of pants is in the drawer)

11.

police
people
cattle
poultry
Ex:

Ex:

Plural Verb

The police are looking for the missing child.


news
physics
politics
mumps
economics

12.

measles
statistics
mathematics
physics
phonetics

rabies
diabetes
gymnastics
athletics
linguistics

Singular Verb

Physics is difficult.
The news is alarming.

13.

The titles of books, plays, movies, etc., always take a singular verb
Ex:

The Los Angeles Times is on the desk.


Gullivers Travels is a well-known childrens book.

14.

Nouns stating an amount of time, money or measurement always take a singular verb

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Ex:

31

Five minutes is not enough to do this exercise.


Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt.
Four -hundred miles is too much to drive in one day.

15.

The +
Ex:

16.

Fluids
Solids

Adjective

Plural Verb

The poor need help.

Uncountable Noun +

Singular Verb

baggage
garbage
mail

clothing
hardware
makeup

equipment
jewelry
money

food
junk
cash

fruit
luggage
change

furniture
machinery
postage

water
gasoline

coffee
blood

tea

milk

oil

soup

ice
iron

bread
silver

butter
glass

cheese
paper

meat
wood

gold
wool

steam

air

oxygen

nitrogen

smoke

pollution

rice
pepper

chalk
dirt

corn
salt

dust
sand

grass
flour

hair
wheat

beauty
happiness
intelligence
patience
truth

confidence
health
justice
peace
violence

courage
help
knowledge
pride
wealth

education
honesty
laughter
progress

enjoyment
hospitality
music
recreation

fun
importance
luck
sleep

advice
space
vocabulary

information
energy

news
homework

evidence
work

proof
grammar

time
slang

driving

swimming

traveling

working

baseball

soccer

tennis

chess

weather
lightning
darkness

dew
rain
light

fog
sleet
sunshine

hail
snow
electricity

heat
thunder
fire

humidity
wind
gravity

Gases
Particles
Abstraction

Activities

Natural
phenomena

Ex:

Smoking is harmful to your health.

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PREPOSITIONS
1. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
A. In

century ( in the twenty-first century)

decade ( in the 1970s; in the nineties)

year (in 2007)

season ( in the summer)

month ( in July)

parts of the day ( in the morning; in the afternoon; in the evening)

the past/ future

amounts of time ( in/within an hour)

B. On

date (on September 11)

day (on Monday; on Sunday morning)

C. At

time of day (at 9:20)

night/ midnight/ noon /dawn/dusk/sunrise/sunset/the moment/the same


time/present/ first/last

D. During
During is used with periods of time

It snows a lot in Montreal during the winter

His company grew rapidly during the 1980s

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During is NOT used with dates or days of the week.

E. Until
Until is used with points of time to indicate that an action continues up to that point

Helen practiced the piano until noon

They wont arrive until tomorrow

F. From . To/until and between and


These phrases are used with starting points and ending points

From 1990 to/until 1993, Mr. Nolan was in charge of the sales division.

Between 1990 and 1993, Mr. Nolan was in charge of the sales division.

G. Since/ For
Since and for are generally used with a perfect tense

We've been waiting here since two o'clock.

The factory has been here since the 1970s.

We had been talking for a good half hour.

2. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE
A. In

the world

continent (in Asia)

country ( in China)

state/province (in California; in Ontario)

in city ( in Munich)

building (in the Empire State Building)

room (in the living room)

B. On

earth (the origin of life on Earth)

street ( on Wall Street)

coast ( on the East Coast)

floor ( on the second floor)

C. At

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address (at 634 Sutter Street)

building (at the museum)

home/school/college/work

D. From to and between and

They're building a new road between Manchester and Sheffield.

They're building a new road from Manchester to Sheffield.

3. OTHER COMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS


A. In

clothes ( in a gray suit)

language ( written in Vietnamese)

book ( in the Complete Guide to TOEIC)

newspaper ( in the International Herald-Tribune)

magazine ( in Times)

department ( in the sales department)

field ( in computer science)

ones opinion (in her opinion)

a car / a taxi (I've left my bag in the car.)

trouble (I think I'm in trouble with Dad.)

danger of (The bridge was in danger of collapsing.)

part (The failure of the project was due in part to his lack of leadership.

front of (He walked along in front of me, holding the lantern.)

the middle of (Jo was standing in the middle of the room.)

the back of (Two men were sitting in the back of the car.)

the rear (a passenger traveling in the rear of a car)

line (The kids were standing in line waiting for their teacher.)

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the process of (The company is in the process of moving to new offices.)

B. On

a vehicle ( on a bus; on a train; on a plane)

foot (It takes about 30 minutes on foot, or 10 minutes by car.)

a trip (We were all going on a trip.)

business (She's in New York this week on business)

holiday (I'm away on holiday until the 1st of June.)

sale (These gloves were on sale for only $9.)

the market (Handguns are freely available on the open market)

schedule (The majority of holiday flights depart and arrive on schedule.)

time (Jack was worried about whether he'd be able to get there on time.)

(the) television/radio (Later that evening we watched it all on television again.)

the phone (Bridget's on the phone all day long.)

a farm (Joe had worked on the farm all his life.)

the other hand (I'd like to eat out, but on the other hand I want to save money.)

purpose (Fire investigators believe the fire was set on purpose.)

C. BY
By is used before a point of time to indicate the latest time. By, in this case, means no
later than.

I will be home by noon.

By can mean next to

She is standing by her friend.

By is used after passive verbs to identify the agent of the action.

This report was written by Peter.

By is used with means of transportation and communication

by car/plane/e-mail

Note: in a/my car; on a plane


Other

By chance/ hand/ far/check/credit card/ means of

D. With

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With is used to express the idea of accompaniment or ownership

I went to the restaurant with Andrea.

The man with the briefcase is the vice-president.

With is also used to indicate the tool or instrument used to complete something

He opened the door with his key.

He paid for the bill with a credit car

E. Without
Without means not having, experiencing or showing something; not in the company
of someone or not doing the action mentioned

They had gone two days without food.

He found the place without difficulty.

She spoke without much enthusiasm.

Don't go without me.

I don't know what I'd do without you.

The rest of the group set off without him.

Don't go out without your coat.

He left without saying goodbye.

You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs.

Suddenly and without any warning, the army opened fire.

He had gone out without his parents' permission.

F. Within
Within can mean during a particular period of time

We should have the test results back within 24 hours.

He fell sick and died within a matter of weeks.

Within an hour of our arrival, Caroline was starting to complain.

Within the space of a year, three of the town's factories have closed down.

Within can mean less than a certain distance from a particular place

The invading troops came within 50 miles of Paris.

We live within easy reach of (=close to) the shops.

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Adjust the driver's seat so that all the controls are within reach (=close enough to
touch)

Within can also mean inside the range or limits of something

We have to operate within a very tight budget.

Private security firms have to work strictly within the law.

You can go anywhere you want within reason (=within reasonable limits)

He finds it hard to live within his income.

G. Beyond
Beyond can mean more or greater than a particular amount, level, or limit

More people are choosing to work beyond retirement age.

Inflation has risen beyond the 5% level.

Such tasks are far beyond the scope of the average school kid.

Expensive luxuries that are beyond the reach of ordinary people

Beyond can be used to say that something is impossible to do

Scott's equipment was damaged beyond repair.

The town centre had changed beyond all recognition.

Due to circumstances beyond our control the performance has had to be cancelled.

Why Joan ever married such an idiot in the first place is beyond me.

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38

READING COMPREHENSION
STRATEGIES

READING STRATEGIES
1.

OVERVIEW QUESTIONS

The most common overview question asks about the purpose or main topic of the passage. Other
overview questions ask about the writer of the passage or the reader of the passage.
What does this article/the memo mainly discuss?
What is this form?
What is the purpose of this letter/announcement/notice?
Why was this notice/letter written?
In what business is the writer of the passage?
What kind of business is Mr. ________ probably in?
Who issued/wrote this notice?

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What is the authors opinion of ______?


Who were these instructions written for?
Who would be most interested in the information in this announcement?
For whom is this advertisement/notice intended?
-

Dont answer the initial overview questions until you have answered the other
questions

Usually focus on the title and the first sentence(s) of each paragraph for the
topic and main idea; also focus on the last sentence for the conclusion and a
possible restatement of the topic and main idea.

Skim (read very quickly) the rest of the passage for the key words that will
confirm the topic and main idea.

Read the answer choices and eliminate the distractors which may have one of
these characteristics:
a. too general
b. too specific (detailed)
c.

incorrect

d. irrelevant (not mentioned)

II.

DETAIL QUESTIONS
1. Information/Factual Questions often begin with the phrases According to the
passage/the author, wh- questions...
2. Negative Questions contain the words NOT, EXCEPT, or LEAST
-

Focus on one or two key words in the question

Scan the passage looking for the key words or related words (synonyms, word
family)

Carefully read the sentence in which the key words occur. (You may have to read
the sentence preceding or following that sentence as well.)

Choose the correct answer

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III. REFERENCE QUESTIONS


1. --------------------------------- . A -------------------------------------

Initial position ---> usually read the previous sentence and find the noun that the
referent replaces

2. ---------------------------------------------------------- A----------------------.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A.
-

Middle/Final Position ---> usually read the whole sentence in which the referent
occurs

3. This/ That usually refer to the whole previous sentence or phrase. So, read the previous
sentence or phrase and summarize it.
4. Another ---> Look for One + Noun
5. Others ----> Look for Some/Many + Noun
6. The former/the later/ respectively

IV. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT


1.

Look for synonyms

in the passage because the author may avoid repeating the

same word.
2.

Look for examples


-

3.

for example, for instance, such as

Look for contrast


-

but, yet, still


however, nevertheless, on the other hand,
in contrast, in spite of this

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4.

41

although, even though, though, even if,


whereas, while, despite the fact that, in
spite of the fact that, except that
not
rather than, instead of

Focus on the general context and see if context clues in the sentence or in the
sentences before or after can help you guess the meaning
-

Literal Meaning >< Figurative meaning

Example: * He grasped my hand firmly


* I dont think you have quite grasped the seriousness of the situation.

V.

INFERENCE QUESTIONS

Inference Questions usually include such words as infer, imply, suggest, guess, probably, or
likely or such phrases as Why mention? What . to do next? Which of these .. is
probably true? and What ..probably do?
Answer choices to inference questions require students to
1. understand what the question is asking and know where to find the answer

in the

passage
2. relate the information in the answer choice to a synonym or paraphrase of information in
the passage; and
3. determine what is true and not true in the answer choices

Note: Answer choices that contain such words as always, never,


all, and only are usually NOT correct.

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LISTENING STRATEGIES

PART 1: Strategies for sentences about photographs


1. Always complete each item as quickly as possible so that you can preview the photograph
for the next item. Dont wait for the statement that says, Now look at photograph number
______
2. If you are previewing a photograph that involves a person or people, ask yourself these
questions
What are the people doing?
Where are they?

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Who are they? (Is there a uniform or a piece of equipment or anything else that indicates
their profession or role?)
What distinguishes them? (Is there a hat, a mustache, a purse, a pair of glasses, a tie or
anything else that differentiates the people?)
What do the peoples expressions tell you? (Do they look happy? Unhappy? Excited?
Bored? Upset?)
3. If you are previewing a photograph of an object, ask yourself these questions
What is it?
What is it made of?
What is it used for?
Where is it?
4. I If you are previewing a photograph of a scene, ask yourself these questions
Where is it?
What is in the foreground (the front of the picture)?
What if anything is happening?
What is in the background (the distant part of the picture)?
5. Dont mark an answer until you have heard all four choices. When you hear a choice that
you think is correct, rest your pencil on that oval on your answer sheet. If you change
your mind and hear a sentence that you think is better, move your pencil to that choice. Once
you have heard all four sentences, mark the oval that your pencil is resting on. (This technique
helps you remember which choice you think is best.)
6. Try to eliminate choices with problems in
Sound
Meaning
Sound & Meaning
7. Never leave any blanks. Always guess before going on to the next item.
8. As soon as you have finished marking the answer, stop looking at and thinking about the
photograph and move on to the next item.

PART II: Strategies for Questions/Responses


1. Identifying time
Words you might hear in the questions

Words you might hear in the answers

When did .

When will/ is/ is expected, due / be

yesterday/ last/ ago/ in (month, year)/ this


morning
at + time/ tomorrow/next/ in / this afternoon/

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V-ing/ can
How long
What time
When did Christopher arrive?
When will the advertising seminar
begin?
When is Marias birthday?
When was Mr. Chen born?
When will my laundry be ready?
When does Mr. Gustavson predict the
construction of the building will be
finished?
How long will this session last?
How long has the photocopying
machine been out of order?
What time does your flight leave?
What time is the news on television?

on (date)
for/since/ over .
at
Last Wednesday.
At two oclock sharp.

On March 3.
In 1953.
In about two hours.
In about a month.

For another hour, perhaps.


Since 10:00 this morning.

At 7:30.
Its on at 11.

2. Identifying people
Words you might hear in the questions

Words you might hear in the answers

Who

Name/ Occupation title


A man/woman who .

Whose
Who will go with you on the business
trip?
Whos the new chef at the Fontaines
bakery?
Who did Mrs. Martelli pick to fill the
position?
Who can deliver this memo to Mr.
Wantanabe for me?
Whos going to pick him up at the
station?
Whose coffee cup is this on my desk?
Whose scarf is this?

Possessive case (Its + names)


Ms. Preston

A man who worked at the Central Pastry


Shop.
A young intern from the marketing
department was chosen.
I can do it when Ive finished typing this
letter.
I was planning to.

I was wondering where I left it!


Its Frans.

3. Identifying a thing, an action or idea


Words you might hear in the questions

Words you might hear in the answers

What ?
What kind/type of

Something ()
I dont know

What do you think I should wear to the party


What is the fine for overdue books?

A suit and a tie.


Its ten cents a day.

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-

What was that loud noise I just heard?


What kind of work does Ms. Garcia do?
What kind of novel do you like?
Whats the name of the travel agency this
company uses?
What are your total production figures for this
factory?
What do you plan to do when school is
finished?
What do you estimate your firms profit will
be in December?

I dont know.
Shes a computer programmer.
I prefer adventure stories.
I think its called All Points Travel.

Over 1000 units a week.

Work for my father.

Optimistically speaking, about 20


percent.

4. Identifying an opinion
Words you might hear in the questions

Words you might hear in the answers

How
Whats your opinion of ?
Do you think Tom will .?
What do you think of .?

Adjectives: great/ good/ terrific/


excellent / wonderful/ happy/ busy/
terrible/ boring
Verbs: love/like/enjoy/prefer/believe/
Expressions: Its a good/great idea

How did you like that new movie?


What do you think of Scott Grahams latest
novel?
What do you think of your new supervisor?

I enjoyed it, but my husband didnt.


Its terrific.

I dont know her well enough to say.

5. Identifying a choice
Words you might hear in the questions
-

. A or B?
. prefer?
like better?

Words you might hear in the answers


A/B will be repeated in the answer
choice
Neither one/Both, please
Either one

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Note: The speaker can offer a third option
-

Which does that artist produce more of


paintings or sculptures?
Will you arrive in the morning or the
evening?
Do you want milk or sugar in your coffee?
Should I wait here at the counter or follow
you back to the warehouse?
What do you think, plain or patterned carpet
in the waiting room?
Will the conference be held here or at the
headquarters?
Should they move the file cabinet to the right
or over by the copy machine?
Shall I put this file on your desk or back in the
filing cabinet?
Can you locate the files on the merger, or
should I ask Mr. Chan to do it?

Lately, she has been doing a lot of


paintings.
In the morning, I think.

Neither one.
Oh, come with me please.

Either one is fine with me.

Its scheduled for this building.

I think it looks good where it is.

Ill take it.

Ill have them ready for you in a minute.

6. Identifying an invitation, offer, request


Words you might hear in the questions
-

Why dont we ?
Why dont you?
Dont you want to..?
I was wondering if youd like to .
Lets .
What/How about .?
Shouldnt we/ Shall we ?
Would/Wouldnt you like me to .?
Can I?
Couldnt you ?

Would you like to join us for a game of


tennis?
Would you like to order a calendar for
next year?

Shall we send you a reminder for your


next dental appointment?
Why dont we go out this evening?
Why dont we take the earlier train
home?
How about a movie when we finish up
here?
Would you mind opening you bag so I
can inspect it, sir?
Dont you want to go to the reception

Words you might hear in the answers

OK
Id love to!
Of course
Sure
That sounds like fun/ Thats a good idea/
Great,
Yes, please (accept the offer)
No, thanks . (turn down the offer)
Thank you, but ( turn down the offer)
Sorry, Ive already made plans/ I have other
plans. ( turn down the offer)
Sorry, but ( turn down the offer)
Wed love to thanks!

- Thanks, but I already have one


- Yes, that would be helpful.
- Sorry, Ive already made plans
- Great, Im exhausted.
- Thats a good idea.
- Not at all
- Sorry, but Im not feeling well.

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for Miss Gunther?


I was wondering if youd like to join us
for dinner this evening?
Couldnt you stop at the post office
today?
What about visiting the flower show over
the weekend?

- Sorry, I have other plans.


- I might have time after lunch.
- Wednesday afternoon would be better for me.

7. Identifying a reason
Words you might hear in the questions
-

Why

Why is this train running late?


Why didnt you let us know youd be
late?
Why did the board of directors change its
policy?
Why did the meeting begin so early?
Why didnt Mr. Danforth bring the
situation to the attention of his
supervisor?
Why didnt you get to work on time?
Why does Ms. Ortiz want to see the
invoices?

Words you might hear in the answers


To do sth
Because/ Because of
Note: An implied reason ( usually a certain
problem) can be given
- I think there are mechanical problems.
- I couldnt find a phone.
- There had been too many complaints.
- Everyone was in a hurry.
- He though he could handle it himself
- The traffic was terrible.
- Theres a problem with the shipment.

8. Identifying a description
Words you might hear in the questions
-

What is like?
What does .look like?

Words you might hear in the answers


-

an adjective or adjectives

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-

What are your new co-workers like?


Whats the weather like here in the winter?

They seem very pleasant


Its cool and often rainy

9. Identifying manner or a method


Words you might hear in the questions

Words you might hear in the answers

How will/can..?

By ( a means of transport )
With

How will you get to work tomorrow?


How can we be sure that the order will arrive
on time?
How can I get more letterhead and
envelopes?
How do you handle inquiries?

Ill get my car back from the mechanic.


Express service is very reliable.

Contact Ms. McKay in the stockroom.

I send out this pamphlet.

10. Identifying a location


Words you might hear in the questions
-

Where?

How far ?
Where should we meet so we can all go to
the game together?
Where are you staying ion Paris?
Where did Maria leave the Oceanview
contract?
How far would you say Conrad Park is from
here?

11.

Words you might hear in the answers


-

Names of the places


Prepositions of places (in/ next to/ near/
beside/ under/ over/ on/ on top of/ at/ from/
behind/ right/ left/ downtown / at the end of
minutes away/ walk/drive
km
Lets meet at the stadium entrance.

At the Grand Hotel.


She put it in Ms. Garcias mailbox.

Its about 10-minute walk.

Yes/No Questions & Tag Questions

Words you might hear in the questions

Words you might hear in the answers

Do/Does/Did/ Have.?

Yes /No/ Not

Dont/ Doesnt/ Didnt ?


Have they delivered our lunch yet?

Yes, its here.

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-

Has the director already left?

Didnt anyone train the new employee to use -

49

Yes, he had an appointment.


Mike showed him everything works.

the copier?
-

Did you ask them what time their flight would

No, I didnt think of it.

arrive?
-

Your managing director resigned yesterday, -

Yes, it was quite a surprise.

didnt he?
-

Wilma gets reimbursed for the cost of driving

Yes, but she has to submit a claim form.

Yes, it is priced fairly.

I would appreciate it

I still have time

her car to the meting, doesnt she?


-

This new product should sell well, shouldnt


it?

You want me to retype this document, dont


you?

You dont want to start a new project this late


in the day, do you?

Part 3: Short Conversations


I. Strategies
1. Between each question is an eight-second pause. That means there are twenty-four seconds
between each conversation. You can accomplish quite a bit during this time. You need to mark

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50

your answers for the three questions and then preview the next three questions and answer
choices. They tell you what to listen for.
2. While listening to each conversation, keep your eyes on the corresponding set of three questions
and answer choices. Don't close your eyes or look away. Try to evaluate the four choices as you
are listening.
3. Remember that distractors are sometimes mentioned in the conversations but are not answers to
the question. Don't choose an answer just because you hear a word or two from the answer in
the conversation.
4. If the correct answer is not obvious, try to eliminate answer choices that seem to be incorrect. If
more than one answer choice is left, take a guess.
5. Mark your answers as quickly as possible so that you can preview the next item.
6. Never leave any answers blank. If you are not sure, always guess.

II. Question types


A. Overview questions
B. Detail questions
C. Inference question
A. Overview Questions
Types of over view questions
1. Questions about locations
2. Questions about occupations
3. Questions about activities
4. Questions about topic

Question Words
Where..?
Who?
What doing?
Whattalking about?

1. Questions about locations


Questions
Where are they?

Tactics
Listen for vocabulary that is associated

M: We dont have any

Where are the speakers?

with a certain location

reservations. Is it still

Where is the man/woman?

- Terminal /carousel/check-in/departure

possible for us to get a

Where is the conversation


taking place?

Examples

lounge/ gate/ hangar /run-way

table for two?

Airport

F: Youre in luck a party

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51

- Rolls/cake/bread Bakery

of two just canceled their

- Stage/cast/scene/box office/ Theater

reservations. We can

- Chain/ring/necklace/bracelet Jewelry

seat you in about fifteen or

store
- Menu/terminal/keyboard Computer
store
- Bulldozer/hard hat/crane
Construction site
- Dryer/hangars/detergent
Laundromat
- Pen/envelopes/letterhead/postcard
Post office
- Account/balance/statement /checkbook /

twenty minutes.
M: Great! I was worried,
but I guess this is our
lucky night!
Where are they?
A. At a theater
B. At a party
C. At an airport
D. At a restaurant

deposit/credit/loan/ interest rates


Bank
- Surf/towel/umbrella/wave/sunbathe
Beach
- Lawyer/judge/witness/defendant/plaintiff/
jury Courtroom
- Spectators/ cheer/ clap/ match/ player
Stadium
- Lane/driver/exit Freeway
- Suite/front desk/reservation/ room/
receptionist/room service/ housekeeper
Hotel
- Waiter/waitress/bill/menu/order/table/
seat/ reservation Restaurant

2.

Questions about occupations

Who is the man/woman?

Tactics
Listen for vocabulary that is associated

M1: Theres something

Who are they?

with a certain occupation

wrong with this switch.

What is he/she?

- Kitchen/pot/knife Cook

Can you fix it?

Questions

Examples

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What are they?
What is the man/womans
profession / occupation/jon?

- Parking tickets/law/illegal/fine
Police officer

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M2: Its not just the switch,


Im afraid. This whole

- Class/exam/student Teacher

building needs rewiring.

- Software/keyboard/monitor

M1: But that will cost a

Computer programmer
- Money/deposit/withdrawal Bank
teller
- Order/tip/guests Waiter
- Runner/training/game Athlete
- Medicine/nurse/hospital/patient
Doctor
- Instrument/orchestra/note Musician
- Stage/drama/theater Actor
- Passenger/Fare/Tip Taxi driver
- Cash register/change/receipt Sales
clerk
- Newspaper/write/report/article
Journalist
- Switch/rewiring/ fix Electrician

fortune!
Who is the second
speaker?
A. An electrician
B. A banker
C. An engineer
D. A jeweler
F: I want to put a new
deck on the back of my
house. Do you know
anyone who does that kind
of work?
M: Why dont you ask
Thomas? He did a great
job repairing the wooden

- Pipe/sink/faucet/leak/drip/fix Plumber

stairway in my house.

- Wood/furniture/ saw/ plane/ chisels/

F: I asked him, but hes

hammer/nail Carpenter

working on a new
construction job.
Who is Tomas?
A. A sailor
B. A mechanic
C. A plumber
D. A carpenter

3. Questions about activities


Questions
What are they doing?

Tactics
Listen for vocabulary that is associated

Examples
M: Ive been waiting here

What is happening now?

with a certain activity

15 minutes. How often do

What is the man doing?

- Drinking coffee: cup, spoon, sugar,

the buses come?

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What is going to happen?

cream, coffee break

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W: One stops here every

- Watching a movie: film, screen,

twenty minutes

theater, popcorn

M: Good, we only have

- Going to the post office: mail, stamps,

five minutes to wait, then.

postal clerk, letter, package


- Reading a book: novel, pages, cover,
character

What are the speakers


doing?

- Making a telephone call: number,


receiver, dial, answer, hang up

A. Getting on a bus
B. Waiting for a bus

- Using a computer: keyboard, monitor,


screen, software, crash

C. Taking a taxi
D. Paying a fare

- Ordering food at a restaurant: menu,


waiter, waitress, table, drink
- Buying clothes: suit, pants, dress, skirt,
jeans, dressing room
- Eating dinner:
- Waiting for a bus:
- Moving furniture:
- Buying a plane ticket:
- Parking a car:
- Driving a car:

4. Questions about topics


Questions
What/ whom are they discussing?

associated

What are they referring to?


What

is

the

conversation?

topic

Tactics
Listen for vocabulary that is

of

the

with

certain

topic.
-

The answer choices will be

Examples
W: Is there a dress code
at your company?
M: No, but most of the
men wear coats and

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54

What are they talking about?

four plausible topics. Incorrect

ties, and the women

What is the conversation about?

answers may include details

wear dresses or suits.

that are mentioned in the

W: Oh, its pretty formal

What

is

the

subject

conversation

of

the

conversation but that are not


the

main

subject

conversation

of

then.

the
What are they discussing
A. A new outfit that the
woman is wearing
B. How people dress at
the mans company
C. Where to buy
clothes for work
D. A social event that
the man attended

B. Detail Questions
Types of over view

Question Words

Examples

questions
1. Questions about time

When.?

When does Claudia want to go


to the play?

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55

How often?

A. Monday

At what time?

B. Wednesday

How long?

C. Thursday
D. Saturday
W1: I need to call the theater to
order tickets for Wednesday.
W2: Why dont you see the play
over the weekend Claudia?
W1: It runs only Monday through

2. Questions about

Why did happen?

Thursday.
Why is Mrs. Sompong leaving?

reasons

Why is the man/woman going

A. To join another company


B. To start her own business

to?
Why does the man/woman
want to?
Why

is

the

man/woman

upset/ happy/ puzzled?


Why did not happen?
Why does the man/woman
not want to?

C. To enter a race
D. To

have

break

from

working
M: Do you hear about Mrs.
Sompongs resignation?
W: Yes. Our competitors made
her an offer she couldnt resist.
M: Ill wonder if theyll appoint
her as their new marketing

3. Questions about plans

manager?
man/woman What is the woman going to do?
A. Sell the camera
planning/going to do?

What

is

the

What does the man/woman

C. Fill out a form

plan to do next?
What

plan

B. Pay by check

has

been

suggested?
What does the man/woman
plan to do?

D. Write her name on the


card
M: And how would you like to
pay for the camera?
W: Could I write you a check?
M: Certainly. Ill need some form
of identification or a major credit
card.

4. Questions about

What is the matter with ?

What is Ms. Kim worried about?

problems

What is the problem here?

A. Whether she has enough

Whats wrong with


What is the man/woman

money for her vacation.


B. Whether she returned
the book on labor

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concerned/ worried about?
What is the man/womans

56

dispute.
C. Whether the airline will
be operating or not.

problem?
What is bothering the

D. Whether her union will


get higher wages.

man/woman?

M: Are you all set for your


vacation on Friday, Ms. Kim?
W: Yes, but now Im waiting to
see if the airline weve booked
our return flight on will go out
on strike that day.
M: Oh yes. I head thats a
possibility. The company claims
it has no money to meet the
unions demands.
5. Questions about

What does the man/ woman

opinions

think of/ about ?


What is the man/womans
opinion of ?
How does the man/woman

6. Questions about advice

feel about ?
What is the man/womans What does Martha advise Dan
to do?
suggestion?
What does the man/woman
is

the

man/woman

suggesting?
What is the man/womans
advice?

better

work

schedule

advise to do?
What

A. make

B. Walk to the office


C. Turn on the lights
D. Give a shorter report
M: Ill never get this report
finished before the weekend.
W: Youve got to allocate your
time more carefully, Dan.
M: I guess youre right. Ill
probably wind up working at the
office all night again.

(See the strategies for part 2)

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57

C. Inference Questions
Questions
What does the man/woman imply?

What is the man/woman saying


about ?
What can be said about?
What is known about ?
What can be inferred from the
conversation?
What does the man/woman mean?
What is probably true about?
What are they likely to?

Tactics
The answers for inference

Examples
What are they likely to eat

questions are not directly stated

out for lunch?

in the conversations. Instead you

A. Soup

have to draw a conclusion based

B. Salad

on the information that is

C. Sandwiches

presented by the speakers.

D. Hamburgers

Read the question carefully and


focus on one or two key words

M: Ive heard nothing but

Listen for key words that help

praise for that new health

you make a logical conclusion

food restaurant.
W: Same here. And Ive
got a coupon for the salad
bar buy one, get one
free.
M: Im always looking to
save some money. Lets
check it out for lunch

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