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PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA

MAINTENANCE MANUAL
MANUAL PART NO. 3043512

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Description and
Operation

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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
MANUAL PART NO. 3043512

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT

PAGE

ENGINE CONTROLS - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

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1.

General

2.

Description

A.

Propeller

B.

Propeller Governor

C.

Propeller Overspeed Governor

D.

Starting Control Lever (Engines with Starting Control)

E.

Fuel Condition Lever (Engines with Flow Divider)

F.

Power Control (Engine Power) Lever

G. Reversing Linkage
3.

4.

Operation

11

A.

Propeller Governor On-Speed Cycle

11

B.

Propeller Governor Underspeed Cycle

11

C.

Propeller Governor Overspeed Cycle

11

D.

Propeller Overspeed Governor (Airframe Supplied)

11

E.

Propeller Pitch (Beta) Control Cycles

12

Fault Isolation

13

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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
MANUAL PART NO. 3043512

ENGINE CONTROLS - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION


1.

General
The engines incorporate a propeller reversing system comprising a single-acting, hydraulically
operated propeller controlled by a propeller governor, and with overspeed governor
back-up. The propeller governor combines the functions of a normal propeller governor
(CSU), a reversing (Beta) valve and a power turbine governor (Nf) into a single unit. Note
that terminology used in this section is of a general nature and may thus differ slightly from that
used in specific airframe manufacturers manuals. Likewise, the percentages stated are
generalized, and specific airframe installations may require different settings.

2.

Description (Ref. Fig. 1)


A.

Propeller
The engine is normally equipped with a three-bladed metal propeller (refer to Propeller
Manufacturers Handbook), which is dowelled and bolted to the front face of the engine
propeller shaft flange. The propeller assembly consists of a hollow steel spider hub
which supports the propeller blades and also houses an internal oil pilot tube and the
feather return springs. Movement of the propeller blades is controlled by a hydraulic piston
mounted at the front of the propeller spider hub. The servo piston is connected by a
link to the trailing edge of each blade root. Centrifugal counterweights on each blade and
springs in the servo piston tend to drive the servo piston into the feather, or high pitch
position. This tendency to movement is opposed by propeller governor oil pressure. The
governor oil pressure is applied to the servo piston via passages in the governor
body, an oil transfer tube to the oil transfer sleeve on the propeller shaft, then, via the
hollow centerbore of the propeller shaft to the propeller hub. An increase in governor oil
pressure moves the blades toward the low (fine) pitch position (increased rpm).
Conversely, a decrease in governor oil pressure allows the blades to move toward high
(coarse) pitch position (decreased rpm) under the influence of the feathering springs
and blade centrifugal counterweights.
The servo piston is also connected by three spring-loaded sliding rods to a feedback
ring mounted at the rear of the propeller. Movement of the feedback ring is transmitted by
a carbon block and propeller reversing lever to the Beta valve on the propeller
governor. This movement is utilized to control propeller blade angle from the normal
forward fine pitch stop through to the full reverse pitch position.

B.

Propeller Governor (Ref. Fig. 1)


The propeller governor (Ref. 61-20-00) performs three functions: Under normal flight
conditions, the governor acts as a constant speed unit (CSU), maintaining the propeller
speed selected by the pilot by varying the propeller blade pitch to match the load to
the engine torque in response to changing flight conditions. During low airspeed
operations, the propeller governor can be used to select the required blade angle; this
mode is called Beta control. On some installations, Beta control may be restricted to
ground operations, such as aircraft taxiing. While in the Beta control range, engine power
is adjusted by the FCU and the power turbine (Nf) section of the propeller governor to
maintain power turbine speed slightly less than the selected rpm.

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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
MANUAL PART NO. 3043512

PUSHPULL CONTROL

TYPICAL PROPELLER
REVERSING CAM

SPEED ADJUSTING LEVER


SPEED BIASING COIL
RESET POST

SPEEDER
SPRING
PILOT
VALVE

SHUTOFF (LOCK PITCH) SOLENOID VALVE

Py
F.C.U. ARM
AIRBLEED LINK
(RESET LEVER)
BETA VALVE
MINIMUM
GOVERNING
ADJUSTMENT

TO SUMP

TO PUMP
OIL IN

TEST SOLENOID

TEST SWITCH

PROPELLER OVERSPEED GOVERNOR

SHUTOFF
VALVE SWITCH

BETA ROD
HYDRAULIC LOW
PITCH ADJUSTMENT
COUNTERWEIGHT

TO SUMP
PRESSURE OIL
SCAVENGE OIL

C1468B
Propeller Reversing System - Schematic
Figure 1

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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
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The propeller governor consists of a single-acting centrifugal governor. In forward thrust


operation, the function of the governor is to boost the engine pressure oil to decrease
propeller blade pitch, while the centrifugal force of the blade counterweights, assisted by
the feathering springs, tends to increase the pitch angle.
The propeller governor incorporates an integral gear-type oil pump with pressure relief
valve, two pivoted flyweights mounted on a rotating flyweight head, a spring-loaded pilot
valve and necessary cored oil passages contained in an aluminum housing. The
flyweight head is attached to a hollow driveshaft which protrudes below the housing
flange. The shaft is externally splined to mate with the corresponding coupling shaft in
the reduction gearbox. The spring-loaded pilot valve is installed in the driveshaft
centerbore. Ports in the driveshaft and the position of the pilot valve in the shaft, control
the direction of oil flow within the housing. The rotating shaft, and hence rotating
flyweights, determine the position of the pilot valve while the opposing spring load on
the valve is varied by the speed adjusting lever at the head of the governor. The speed
adjusting lever is connected through airframe linkage to the propeller control lever in
the cockpit.
A speed adjusting lever maximum stop prevents the lever from moving beyond the 100
percent position and enables the propeller to be operated at, or near to, full rated
speed and the engine to develop maximum power. Moving the speed adjusting lever
towards a preset feathering stop raises the pilot valve and decreases the oil pressure to
the propeller servo piston. This decrease in pressure allows the piston to move,
under the influence of the feathering and return springs, to rotate the propeller blades to
a positive coarse pitch or feathering position regardless of governor flyweight force
acting on the pilot valve.
In the event of a propeller control (speed) lever linkage failure, a spring attached to the
propeller speed adjusting lever holds the lever in its last selected position or moves
it against the maximum stop.
To provide the propeller governor with a sensing element, the rotating pivoted flyweights
are mechanically coupled to the engine by the hollow driveshaft and accessory
driveshaft in the reduction gearbox. The rotating flyweights, actuated by centrifugal
force, position the pilot valve so as to cover or uncover ports in the drive gearshaft and
regulate the oil flow to and from the propeller servo piston. The centrifugal force
exerted by the flyweights is opposed by the force of the speeder spring. This determines
the engine rpm required to develop sufficient centrifugal force on the flyweights to
center the pilot valve, thereby preventing oil flow to the servo piston.
The Beta valve incorporated in the propeller governor pump output line to the pilot valve
and mechanically connected to the propeller reversing lever, is designed so that
forward movement of the valve will initially block off high pressure oil to the propeller
servo piston, then, as forward movement continues, will dump pressure oil in the servo
back into the reduction gearbox. Axial movement in the reverse direction has no
effect on normal propeller control. When the propeller is rotating at a speed lower than
selected by the speed adjusting lever, the governor oil pump provides pressure oil to the
propeller servo, lessening the propeller pitch until the feedback ring movement pulls
back the Beta valve to block off the pressure oil to the servo, thus preventing further pitch
change. The pitch angle will coarsen automatically to maintain selected propeller
speed as higher engine power (Ng) is selected by the pilot. The Beta control does not

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MANUAL PART NO. 3043512

forcibly select reverse blade angles; very fine pitch and reverse can only occur when
conditions are such that the propeller is in underspeed relative to that selected, and
subject to control limitations set by individual airframe manufacturers.
The lock pitch solenoid valve (when fitted) is mounted at the front of the propeller
governor and is connected by cored passages to the governor pump oil pressure line to
the propeller servo piston. The solenoid is energized automatically by airframe-supplied
switches at a predetermined propeller blade angle below the normal low pitch setting, and
acts as a back-up system. When the solenoid is energized, the valve poppet moves to
block the oil pressure line to the servo piston; this action effectively prevents oil flow to the
piston chamber and prevents any further movement of the blades. However, if the
engine power lever is moved to the reverse position, the lock pitch solenoid valve is
de-energized by a microswitch installed in the power lever quadrant enabling the propeller
governor to operate in the Beta mode. A test switch is incorporated to functionally test
valve operation at maintenance activities.
The function of the Nf governor section of the propeller governor, during normal forward
thrust operation, is to protect the engine against a possible power turbine overspeed
in the event of a propeller governor failure. During reverse thrust operation, the Nf
governor is set below the propeller governor selected speed. This acts to control propeller
speed via the FCU servo system (Ref. 73-20-00), and thus reduce the power generated
by the gas generator to below required setting to maintain approximately five percent
less than the selected propeller speed. A yoked bell-crank, operating off the governor
flyweight head, opens the Py orifice (Ref. 73-00-00, Fig. 1) as speed is increased
to reduce metered fuel flow from the FCU. The speed at which the Nf governor operates
is dependent on the speed selected on the governor and the position of the airbleed
link reset lever. The airbleed link is normally set so that the Nf governor will control Nf at
approximately six percent higher than the selected speed in its maximum position and
approximately four percent lower in its minimum position. The Nf governor droop is
approximately four percent; thus in maximum position the governor will commence
governing at 102 percent and will fully govern at 106 percent. It should be noted that to
re-set the airbleed link to its minimum position brings the yoked bell-crank into
contact with the pilot valve and brings in a spring load in addition to the speeder spring
which the governor flyweights must overcome to control propeller speed. This function
causes propeller governed speed to increase approximately one percent more than that
nominally selected.
C.

Propeller Overspeed Governor (Ref. Fig. 1)


The propeller overspeed governor (Ref. Aircraft Manufacturers Manual) is installed in
parallel with the propeller governor and mounted at the approximate 10 oclock position on
the front case of the reduction gearbox. The governor is incorporated to control any
propeller overspeed condition by immediately bypassing pressure oil from the propeller
servo to the reduction gearbox sump. The governor consists of conventional type
flyweights mounted on a hollow, splined shaft and driven by the accessory drive gearshaft.
The hollow shaft embodies ports which are normally closed by a pilot valve installed in
the shaft centerbore and held in position by the governor speeder spring. The spring
tension acts in opposition to the centrifugal force of the rotating flyweights.
When an engine overspeed condition occurs, the increased centrifugal force sensed by
the flyweights overcomes the spring tension, lifts the pilot valve and bypasses the
propeller pitch change mechanism oil back to the reduction gearbox through the hollow,

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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
MANUAL PART NO. 3043512

splined shaft. This permits the combined forces of the counterweights and return springs
to move the blades toward a coarse pitch position, absorbing the engine power and
preventing further engine overspeed. A solenoid valve, which resets the governor to a
value below its normal overspeed setting, is provided to permit ground testing of the unit.
D.

Starting Control Lever (Engines with Starting Control)


The starting control lever in the cockpit is connected through airframe linkages to a lever
on the starting control unit; this is connected to the FCU.

E.

Fuel Condition Lever (Engines with Flow Divider)


The fuel condition lever in the cockpit is connected through airframe linkage to a
combined lever and stop mechanism at the top of the fuel control unit; this is connected
by the FCU linkage to the cut-off lever on the side of the unit. The lever and stop
also function as a hi-idle stop. The fuel condition lever performs the function of CUTOFF,
IDLE and, where applicable, FLIGHT-IDLE.

F.

Power Control (Engine Power) Lever


The power control lever in the cockpit is connected through airframe linkage to the cam
assembly which is mounted in front of the FCU at the rear of the engine. The power
control lever controls engine power through the full range; from maximum takeoff power
through to full reverse. It also selects the propeller pitch (Beta control) from reverse
selection up to the constant speed rpm as selected by the cockpit propeller control
(propeller speed) lever.

G. Reversing Linkage (Ref. Fig. 2)


The cam assembly, mounted at the 2 oclock position on Flange G of the accessory
gearbox, provides scheduled control movements to the FCU and starting control, the Nf
governor section of the propeller governor and the propeller system. The cam
assembly consists of a cam follower lever, which is connected directly to the power
control lever linkage by a grooved pin, and three cam-type levers. The FCU reversing
actuating lever is free mounted on the grooved pin while the propeller control cam and
FCU actuating levers are free mounted on a second flat head pin. The three levers
and pins are mounted on the control lever mounting bracket which is bolted to flange G.
The FCU actuating lever is spring-loaded toward idle and is connected through an
adjustable interconnecting rod to the FCU control arm. In operation, movement of the
power control lever moves the cam follower lever through the lever linkage. Movement of
the cam follower lever causes the associated lever pin to contact the rear face of the
FCU actuating lever and also slide in the slot of the propeller control cam. During normal
propeller operation, from IDLE to TAKEOFF, the cam follower lever pin moves in the
circumferential section of the cam slot, but imparts no motion to the propeller control cam.
However, on selection of reverse power the lever pin moves into the radial section of
the cam slot, rotating the propeller control cam and transmitting this motion forward
through the push-pull wire rope to the propeller reversing lever.

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REAR ROD END CLEVIS


LOCKNUT
REAR WIRE
ROPE
TERMINAL

IDLE POSITION

EXTENSION
SPRING

CAM FOLLOWER
LEVER

PROPELLER TYPICAL
(IN FEATHERED POSITION)

TELESCOPIC UNIT

PROPELLER GOVERNOR UNIT

FRONT LIFTING
BRACKET

SWIVEL JOINT
AND REAR WIRE
ROPE TERMINAL
WIREROPE
CASING

PROPELLER GOVERNOR
AIR PRESSURE TUBE (Py)

PUSHPULL CONTROL
WIREROPE

GROOVED
CONTROL LEVER PIN
MOUNTING
BRACKET

FRONT LIFTING
BRACKET

FCU ARM

TO COCKPIT
POWER CONTROL
LEVER

REAR
FIRESEAL

FCU CONTROL
ROD
FCU ARM
EXTENSION

RETAINING PLATE

A
SPRING RETAINER CUP
LOWPITCH
STOP ADJUSTER

LOW PITCH AND REVERSE


HIGH PITCH AND FEATHER
LOW STOP ROD
SPRING, REVERSE RETURN

FCU ACTUATING
LEVER
PROPELLER
CONTROL
CAM

FUEL CONTROL
ACTUATING
LEVER
FCU ARM SERRATED
SPACER

RING, ROD END


SERVO POSITION
FEATHER RETURN SPRINGS

PROPELLER SPEED
ADJUSTING LEVER
MAX. STOP

REVERSE POSITION

TAKEOFF POSITION

DETAIL A
POSTSB1185

COUNTERWEIGHT

TO COCKPIY PROPELLER
CONTROL LEVER

REAR CLAMPING BOLT


ADJUSTING BOLT
(IDLE DEADBAND
INSTALLATION
DEPENDENT ON
CAM PROFILE)
90 1

PROPELLER CUTAWAY (REF. ONLY)

PROPELLER SPEED ADJUSTING LEVER

PROPELLER
FEEDBACK
RING
PROPELLER GOVERNOR
INTERCONNECTING ROD

LOCKNUT
LOWPITCH
STOP ADJUSTER

LOWPITCH
ADJUSTER STOP
WIRE ROPE
TERMINAL

CLAMP
LOCKNUT

CENTER FIRESEAL

MAX. STOP

FRONT SWIVEL
JOINT
LOCKBOLT

STARTING CONTROL ROD


(INCORPORATED ON MOST
ENGINE INSTALLATIONS)

GOVERNOR AIR
BLEED LINK

STARTING CONTROL
LEVER
TO COCKPIT STARTING
CONTROL LEVER

C444G
Engine Controls and Propeller Reversing System
Figure 2

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PROPELLER
REVERSING
LEVER
BETA VALVE CLEVIS
CARBON BLOCK
(REF.)

FUEL CONTROL
UNIT (FCU)
STARTING
CONTROL UNIT

FRONT ROD
END CLEVIS

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PROPELLER GOVERNOR
INTERCONNECTING ROD

PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA


MAINTENANCE MANUAL
MANUAL PART NO. 3043512

An interconnecting rod bolted to the front end of the push-pull wire rope assembly
connects the propeller reversing lever to the airbleed link on the propeller governor. A
carbon block attached to the inner end of the propeller reversing lever provides the
mechanical link between the engine reversing linkage and propeller feedback ring
(Ref. Para. A.).
3.

Operation
A.

Propeller Governor On-Speed Cycle


During an on-speed condition in forward thrust the forces acting on the engine, propeller
governor and propeller are in state of balance. With the propeller control (speed)
lever set to desired rpm and the propeller blades at the correct pitch angle to absorb the
power developed by the engine, the centrifugal force of the rotating flyweights balances
the force of the governor speeder spring with the flyweights in the vertical position. This
condition positions the pilot valve so that the valve oil ports are closed and no oil flow
occurs between the governor oil pump and propeller servo piston. Oil pressure developed
by the pump is then circulated back to pump inlet via the relief valve in the governor.

B.

Propeller Governor Underspeed Cycle


With the propeller control (speed) lever set to the desired rpm, an underspeed condition
will occur when the propeller rpm drops below the predetermined setting. The governor
speeder spring tension then overcomes the reduced centrifugal force on the flyweights and
pivots them inward, forcing the pilot valve downward and opening the oil ports. This
allows a flow of pressure oil from the governor pump to the propeller servo piston which,
in turn, overcomes the combined forces of the propeller counterweights and return
springs to decrease the propeller blade pitch angle. This reduces the load and allows
propeller rpm to increase; the increased rpm is sensed by the governor flyweights which
force the pilot valve upward until an equilibrium between speeder spring tension and
centrifugal force of flyweights is achieved, and causes the oil ports to close.

C.

Propeller Governor Overspeed Cycle


In overspeed condition, the governor flyweights pivot outward to overcome the governor
speeder spring tension and raise the pilot valve. This uncovers ports in the drive
gearshaft and allows pressure oil in the propeller servo to flow into the reduction gearbox
sump. As the propeller blade angle increases, the load on the engine increases and
propeller rpm decreases. This in turn causes the centrifugal force on the flyweights to
decrease, allowing the speeder spring tension to return the flyweights to the vertical
position, causing the pilot valve to cover the oil ports and block the oil supply from
the servo piston.

D.

Propeller Overspeed Governor (Airframe Supplied)


When a propeller overspeed condition occurs, the increased centrifugal force sensed by
the governor flyweights overcomes the speeder spring tension and lifts the pilot valve
to bypass propeller servo oil back to the reduction gearbox sump via the governor hollow
driveshaft. This allows the combined forces of the blade counterweights and the
retention springs to move the propeller blades toward a coarse pitch position, thereby

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absorbing engine power and reducing propeller rpm. A solenoid-operated valve is


incorporated to facilitate functional testing of the overspeed governor. When operated,
the valve resets the governor below its normal overspeed setting.
E.

Propeller Pitch (Beta) Control Cycles


(1)

Low Pitch Control Cycle


The cockpit power control lever is norm ally placed in the IDLE position prior to
engine starting. At this point, the cam follower lever pin is at the intersection of the
circumferential and radial sections of the propeller reversing cam slot, the
propeller reversing lever, and, hence, the propeller feedback ring is at its maximum
rearmost position and the Beta control valve allows oil to flow to the propeller.
As the engine starts and propeller rpm increases the propeller governor senses an
underspeed and directs pressure oil to the propeller servo piston to effect a
decrease in pitch. At an angle somewhat above the low pitch setting the propeller
servo piston picks up low pitch adjustment stops on the propeller guide rods; this
causes the feedback ring to move axially forward. As the ring moves forward the
propeller reversing lever pivots on the fork end of the reversing linkage, which, in this
condition, is static, and moves the Beta control valve forward. When this occurs
oil from the propeller servo is returned to the engine reduction gearbox. This process
continues until the amount of oil leaking back to the reduction gearbox equals the
amount being supplied by the propeller governor. When the two are equal there will
be no further change in pitch and the propeller blades will be in low pitch.

(2)

High Pitch Control Cycle


With the engine operating and the pro peller in low pitch (high rpm), the power
control lever is advanced from IDLE to TAKEOFF. The movement is transmitted to
the cam fol lower lever pin which moves from its idle position in the cam slot
along the circumferential section to the take-off position. This movement causes no
change in the relative position of the propeller reversing cam and therefore no
movement of the reversing lever. Movement is, however, transmitted via the fuel
control actuating lever and interconnecting rod to the FCU arm, which moves to its
full power position. As propeller governing speed is reached the propeller
governor commences to dump pressure oil from the propel ler servo to increase
pitch and maintain speed. The feedback ring moves back to its rearward position,
shutting off the Beta control valve and allowing the propeller to operate in a
conventional manner.

(3)

Reverse Pitch Control Cycle


To go into the reverse pitch config uration from the low pitch configuration, the
cockpit power control lever is pulled back through a gate on the quadrant into the
RE VERSE position. This action moves the cam follower lever pin from the
circumferential section and up the radial section of the cam slot, rotating the propeller
reversing cam and transmitting a pul ling force on the push-pull wire rope.
Movement of the wire rope to the rear causes the propeller reversing lever to pivot
on the carbon block and partially open the Beta control valve. This in creases
pressure oil being supplied by the propeller governor and since this condition is
representative of an underspeed, the pro peller blades will move through low pitch

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and into the negative pitch range as long as the propeller reversing lever continues
to move. As the propeller moves into low pitch, the feedback ring moves forward
in an attempt to close the Beta control valve and prevent any further change in blade
pitch. This cannot occur while the propeller reversing lever continues to move
toward full reverse.
As the propeller reaches the full reverse pitch position, movement at the fork end of
the propeller reversing lever ceases. The re versing lever will then have travelled
only far enough to move the Beta control valve to a null position where oil flow into the
pro peller servo is equal to the return flow. The power turbine gover nor (Nf)
section of the propeller governor is simultaneously resetfrom 97 percent to 86 percent
by the reset lever and associated in terconnect rod.
This final setting leads the propeller and is attained before the propeller blades
reach full reverse pitch. Selection of reverse pitch also repositions the FCU arm to
increase fuel flow and con sequently power output.
The chosen relationship of engine power to propeller pitch depends on operating
requirements. Should the relationship selected be such as to require 86 percent Nf,
the power turbine governor section of the propeller governor will limit the engine
power accord ing to the ability of the propeller to absorb the power at that speed.
(4)

Reverse to Low Pitch Control Cycle


The process of returning to low pitch from full reverse is exactly opposite to going
into full reverse. That is, as the cockpit power control lever is moved from its full
REVERSE position toward the low pitch or IDLE position, the Beta reversing
valve is closed past its null position, dumping more oil from the propeller servo than
is being supplied by the propeller governor. As propeller pitch moves out of the
reverse pitch range, fuel flow is progressively reduced as the cam follower lever pin
moves down the radial section of the cam slot until it reaches the radial and
circumferential intersection, and the power turbine governor is reset to the 97 percent
Nf setting through theairbleed link, inter-connecting rod and reversing linkage.
Low pitch is obtained when the amount of oil returned to the reduction gearbox is
equal to the amount being delivered by the propeller governor.

4.

Fault Isolation
For detailed fault isolation of the engine controls refer to Chapter 72-00-00, FAULT
ISOLATION.

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