Photochemical reaction

Absorption of radiant energy by reactant molecules brings in photophysical as well as
photochemical changes. According to Einstein's law of photochemical equivalence, the basic
principle of photo processes, each reactant molecule is capable of absorbing only one photon of
radiant energy. The absorption of photon by a reactant molecule may lead to any of the photo

The chemical reactions, which are initiated as a result of absorption of light, are known as
photochemical reactions. In such cases, the absorbed energy is sufficient to activate the reactant
molecules to cross the energy barrier existing between the reactants and products or in other
words, energy associated with each photon supplies activation energy to reactant molecule
required for the change.
(1) Characteristics of photochemical reactions
(i) Each molecule taking part in a photo process absorbs only one photon of radiant energy
thereby increasing its energy level by hv or hc/λ
(ii) Photochemical reactions do not occur in dark.
(iii) Each photochemical reaction requires a definite amount of energy which is characteristic of a
particular wavelength of photon. For example, reactions needing more energy are carried out in
presence of UV light (lower λ , more E/Photon). A reaction-taking place in UV light may not occur
on exposure to yellow light (lower λ and lesser E/Photon)
(iv) The rate of photochemical reactions depend upon the intensity of radiation’s absorbed.
(v) The G values for light initiated reactions may or may not be negative.
(vi) The temperature does not have marked effect on the rate of light initiated reactions.
(2) Mechanism of some photochemical reactions
(i) Photochemical combination of H2 and Cl2 : A mixture of H2 and Cl2 on exposure to light give
rise to the formation of HCl, showing a chain reaction and thereby producing 106 to 108 molecules
of HCl per photon absorbed.
The mechanism leading to very high yield of HCl as a result of chemical change can be as
follows. Chlorine molecules absorb radiant energy to form an excited molecule which
decomposes to chlorine free radicals (Cl) to give chain initiation step.
Light absorption step :


Chain initiation step :
The chlorine free radical then combines with H2 molecule to form HCl and H* free radical. The H*
free radical so formed again combines with another Cl2 molecule to give HCl and Cl* free radical
back resulting into chain propagation step.
Chain propagation step : Cl* + H2 –> HCl + H* ........(iii)
H* + Cl2 –> HCl + Cl*
The combination of two Cl* free radicals leads to chain terminating step.
Chain terminating step : CL* + Cl* –> Cl2 ........(iv)

.... GCSE. You can also interact directly with our chemistry tutors for a one to one session and get answers to all your problems in your school.... You can submit your school. college or university level chemical kinetics homework. steps regenerating free radicals. however.(ii) Photochemical combination of H2 and Br2: The combination of H2 and Br2 to form HBr in presence of light is also an example of chain reaction like photochemical combination of H 2 and Cl2 . Our tutors will make sure that you achieve the highest grades for your chemistry assignments.. (vi) Modern printing technology (vii) Free radical combinations to obtain many compounds..... (i) Photosynthesis in plants (ii) Photography (iii) The formation and destruction of ozone layer (iv) Photoetching in electronic industry (v) Many polymerization reactions.. Also the decomposition of HBr increases with increase in temperature. IB.. Mechanism Light absorption step : Br2 + Hv –> Br2* . Round Square etc. of photon absorbed. inspite of chain reaction only one molecule of HBr is formed for each 100 photon absorbed by 100 molecules of Br 2. characteristics & mechanism of the photochemical reaction with examples. of molecules reacted or product formed/No. Email Based Homework Assignment Help in Photochemical Reaction Transtutors is the best place to get answers to all your doubts regarding photochemical reaction.(v) The lower values of HBr formation per photon of light absorbed has been attributed to the fact that step (III) is highly endothermic and thus before step (III) can take place most of the bromine free radicals recombine as per step (V) to give Br2 molecule and thus providing less feasibility for step (IV) i.... Some of the photochemical reactions commonly known as cited below... Live Online Tutor Help for Photochemical Reaction Transtutors has a vast panel of experienced chemistry tutors who specialize in mechanism of the reaction and can explain the different concepts to you effectively. college or university level homework or assignment to us and we will make sure that you get the answers you need which are timely and also cost effective... IGCSE.. (3) Quantum yield (or quantum efficiency) : The quantum efficiency or yield ( ) of a photochemical reaction may be expressed as.e.. ... AS... = No. Here two Br2 molecules absorb photon..(iv) Chain termination step : Br* + Br* –> Br2 ... A level.. Our tutors are available round the clock to help you out in any way with chemistry..(i) Chain initiation step : Br2* –> Br* + Br* .(iii) H* + Br2 –> HBr + Br* . (4) Application of photochemistry: Photochemistry has significant role in our daily life. We will make sure that you get the best help possible for exams such as the AP..(ii) Chain propagation step : Br* + H2 –> HBr + H* ...

Production. These in turn produce more neutrons. one nucleus of the isotope uranium–235 can disintegrate with the production of two or three neutrons. If the total amount of material exceeds a critical mass.jrank. Combustion and explosion reactions involve similar free-radical chain reactions.A reaction that is self-sustaining as a result of the products of one step initiating a subsequent step. Thus.Reactions. Cl·. which cause similar fission of adjacent nuclei. In nuclear chain reactions the succession depends on production and capture of neutrons. the chain reaction may cause an explosion. A chlorine molecule is first split into atoms: Cl2 → Cl· + Cl· These react with hydrogen as follows Cl· + H2 → HCl + H· H· + Cl2 → HCl + Cl· etc. Rarr. Read more: chain reaction . An example is the reaction of chlorine with hydrogen initiated by ultraviolet radiation.html#ixzz1HIJYRB8x . and Free http://science. Chemical chain reactions usually involve free radicals as intermediates.

In a homogeneous reaction. In a heterogeneous reaction. those substances are in different phases. Note: This page doesn't deal with the effect of catalysts on rates of reaction. It can also apply to two liquids (oil and water. You could see the boundary between the two liquids. but is actually a bit more general. You might wonder why phase differs from the term physical state (solid.heterogeneous and homogeneous. It includes solids. because you can't see any boundary between them. A mixture of various chemicals in a single solution consists of only one phase.a reaction which is catalysed by one of its products. Types of catalytic reactions Catalysts can be divided into two main types . liquid or gas). and explanations of how they work. Return to this page via the BACK button on your browser. You will also find a description of one example of autocatalysis .TYPES OF CATALYSIS This page looks at the the different types of catalyst (heterogeneous and homogeneous) with examples of each kind. for example) which don't dissolve in each other. A mixture containing a solid and a liquid consists of two phases. What is a phase? If you look at a mixture and can see a boundary between two of the components. . you might like to follow this link first. liquids and gases. the catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants. If you don't already know about that. the catalyst is in a different phase from the reactants.

or some weakening of the bonds in the attached molecules. Metals like platinum and nickel make good catalysts because they adsorb strongly enough to hold and activate the reactants. isn't a good catalyst because it doesn't form strong enough attachments with reactant molecules. We don't count these extra phases because they aren't a part of the reaction. How the heterogeneous catalyst works (in general terms) Most examples of heterogeneous catalysis go through the same stages: One or more of the reactants are adsorbed on to the surface of the catalyst at active sites. but not so strongly that the products can't break away. In practice. the same reaction will happen with any compound containing a carboncarbon double bond. for example. A good catalyst needs to adsorb the reactant molecules strongly enough for them to react. Be careful! An active site is a part of the surface which is particularly good at adsorbing things and helping them to react. Heterogeneous catalysis This involves the use of a catalyst in a different phase from the reactants. Typical examples involve a solid catalyst with the reactants as either liquids or gases. Desorption simply means that the product molecules break away. Note: It is important that you remember the difference between the two terms heterogeneous and homogeneous. which also involves reacting a carbon-carbon double bond in the vegetable oil with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst. One important industrial use is in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils to make margarine. Homogeneous catalysis has the catalyst in the same phase as the reactants. isn't a good catalyst because it adsorbs too strongly. The product molecules are desorbed. This might involve an actual reaction with the surface. the diagrams actually show more phases than are labelled. because you are converting the extremely useful ethene into the relatively useless ethane. for example. There is some sort of interaction between the surface of the catalyst and the reactant molecules which makes them more reactive. Ethene molecules are adsorbed on the surface of the nickel. or one might be attached and hit by the other one moving freely in the gas or liquid. .that's another phase. Each. both of the reactant molecules might be attached to the surface. homo implies the same (as in homosexual). It isn't the same as absorption where one substance is taken up within the structure of another. Silver. At this stage.If you want to be fussy about things. also has the glass beaker as a solid phase. Tungsten. on the other hand. Adsorption is where something sticks to a surface. this is a pointless reaction. but not so strongly that the product molecules stick more or less permanently to the surface. This leaves the active site available for a new set of molecules to attach to and react. Heterogeneous catalysis has the catalyst in a different phase from the reactants. All probably have a gas above the liquid . Examples of heterogeneous catalysis The hydrogenation of a carbon-carbon double bond The simplest example of this is the reaction between ethene and hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The double bond between the carbon atoms breaks and the electrons are used to bond it to the nickel surface. However. The reaction happens. hetero implies different (as in heterosexual).

have the ability to absorb hydrogen into their structure as well as adsorb it on to the surface. There is now space on the surface of the nickel for new reactant molecules to go through the whole process again. the hydrogen molecules are also converted into atoms which can diffuse through the metal structure. That end of the original ethene now breaks free of the surface. As before. When this happens. the hydrogen molecules are broken into atoms. These can move around on the surface of the nickel.Hydrogen molecules are also adsorbed on to the surface of the nickel. I have therefore stuck with the usual . If a hydrogen atom diffuses close to one of the bonded carbons. and that end also breaks free. but I haven't been able to find any information about whether it is also absorbed under the lower pressures usually used for these hydrogenation reactions. one of the hydrogen atoms forms a bond with the carbon. This happens with nickel if the hydrogen is under high pressures. and eventually the same thing will happen at the other end. including nickel. Note: Several metals. the bond between the carbon and the nickel is replaced by one between the carbon and hydrogen. In these cases.

It is a good example of the ability of transition metals and their compounds to act as catalysts because of their ability to change their oxidation state. Catalytic converters Catalytic converters change poisonous molecules like carbon monoxide and various nitrogen oxides in car exhausts into more harmless molecules like carbon dioxide and nitrogen. the carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide will be adsorbed on the surface of the catalyst. temporarily changing it. You may well be familiar with the equation written as twice that shown. The carbon dioxide and nitrogen are then desorbed. This maximises the surface area and keeps the amount of metal used to a minimum. palladium and rhodium as the heterogeneous catalyst. This is done by passing sulphur dioxide and oxygen over a solid vanadium(V) oxide catalyst. This example is slightly different from the previous ones because the gases actually react with the surface of the catalyst. The metals are deposited as thin layers onto a ceramic honeycomb. could they contact me via the address on the about this site page. Use the BACK button on your browser to return to this page. though. where they react. you will . If anyone has any firm information about this. It is also shown as a one-way rather than a reversible reaction to avoid complicating things. it will be chemically the same as it started. At the end of the reaction. The sulphur dioxide is oxidised to sulphur trioxide by the vanadium(V) oxide. but the present version is perfectly acceptable. The vanadium(IV) oxide is then re-oxidised by the oxygen. Taking the reaction between carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide as typical: In the same sort of way as the previous example. Note: If you want more detail about the Contact Process. This is a good example of the way that a catalyst can be changed during the course of a reaction. the vanadium(V) oxide is reduced to vanadium(IV) oxide. Note: The equation is written with the half in it to make the explanation below tidier. The use of vanadium(V) oxide in the Contact Process During the Contact Process for manufacturing sulphuric acid. sulphur dioxide has to be converted into sulphur trioxide. In the process. it might be useful to follow this link before you go on. They use expensive metals like platinum.explanation in terms of adsorption. Note: If you aren't sure about oxidation states.

In the process. The destruction of atmospheric ozone This is a good example of homogeneous catalysis where everything is present as a gas. The oxygen radicals can then combine with ordinary oxygen molecules to make ozone. S2O82-. If you look at the equation. These catalyse the destruction of the ozone. it doesn't actually matter whether you use iron(II) or iron(III) ions. As you will see shortly. In the process the persulphate ions are reduced to sulphate ions. What happens if you use iron(III) ions as the catalyst instead of iron(II) ions? The reactions simply happen in a different order. these reactions stop a lot of harmful ultraviolet radiation penetrating the atmosphere to reach the surface of the Earth. Typically everything will be present as a gas or contained in a single liquid phase. The examples contain one of each of these . This formation and breaking up of ozone is going on all the time. but it is a lovely example! Persulphate ions (peroxodisulphate ions). Both of these individual stages in the overall reaction involve collision between positive and negative ions. Taken together. were used extensively in aerosols and as refrigerants. They are very reactive. for example.chlorine free radicals. This will be much more likely to be successful than collision between two negative ions in the uncatalysed reaction. it is easy to see why that is: The reaction needs a collision between two negative ions. Ordinary oxygen molecules absorb ultraviolet light and break into individual oxygen atoms. is constantly being formed and broken up again in the high atmosphere by the action of ultraviolet light. The iron(III) ions are strong enough oxidising agents to oxidise iodide ions to iodine. Examples of homogeneous catalysis The reaction between persulphate ions and iodide ions This is a solution reaction that you may well only meet in the context of catalysis. Repulsion is going to get seriously in the way of that! The catalysed reaction avoids that problem completely. This is another good example of the use of transition metal compounds as catalysts because of their ability to change oxidation state. Ozone can also be split up again into ordinary oxygen and an oxygen radical by absorbing ultraviolet light. O3. The catalytic reaction we are interested in destroys the ozone and so stops it absorbing UV in this way. For the sake of argument. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) like CF2Cl2. Their slow breakdown in the atmosphere produces chlorine atoms . These have unpaired electrons. and are known as free radicals. The persulphate ions oxidise the iron(II) ions to iron(III) ions. they are reduced back to iron(II) ions again. are very powerful oxidising agents. . Homogeneous catalysis This has the catalyst in the same phase as the reactants. Ozone.find a full description of the conditions used and the reasons for them by following this link. Iodide ions are very easily oxidised to iodine. we'll take the catalyst to be iron(II) ions. . The catalyst can be either iron(II) or iron(III) ions which are added to the same solution. . And yet the reaction between them in solution in water is very slow.

Autocatalysis The oxidation of ethanedioic acid by manganate(VII) ions In autocatalysis. There obviously aren't any of those present before the reaction starts. You can measure this effect by plotting the concentration of one of the reactants as time goes on. You get a graph quite unlike the normal rate curve for a reaction. the reaction is catalysed by one of its products. Note: If you are a UK A level student it is probable that you will only want one of these last two equations depending on what your syllabus says. different A level syllabuses were quoting different final equations. the ozone is broken up and a new free radical is produced. it is quite slow to start with. Most reactions give a rate curve which looks like this: . The reaction is catalysed by manganese(II) ions. and so it starts off extremely slowly at room temperature. It is used as a titration to find the concentration of potassium manganate(VII) solution and is usually carried out at a temperature of about 60°C. The reaction is very slow at room temperature. follow this link to find out how to get one. However. In the first.This happens in two stages. at the time of writing. This can happen in two ways depending on whether the ClO radical hits an ozone molecule or an oxygen radical. More and more catalyst is produced as the reaction proceeds and so the reaction speeds up. If you don't have a copy of your syllabus. The chlorine radical catalyst is regenerated by a second reaction. you will find manganese(II) ions amongst the products. If it hits an oxygen radical (produced from one of the reactions we've looked at previously): Or if it hits an ozone molecule: Because the chlorine radical keeps on being regenerated. if you look at the equation. One of the simplest examples of this is in the oxidation of a solution of ethanedioic acid (oxalic acid) by an acidified solution of potassium manganate(VII) (potassium permanganate). You need to check your current syllabus. Unfortunately. each one can destroy thousands of ozone molecules. Even so.

There are other effects which might produce a similar graph.getting faster and faster as more and more catalyst is formed. there might be some sort of surface coating on the solid which the liquid has to penetrate before the expected reaction can happen. To Main Menu . . the reaction slows down and eventually stops as one or more of the reactants are completely used up. . For example. An example of autocatalysis gives a curve like this: You can see the slow (uncatalysed) reaction at the beginning. . . . A more common possibility is that you have a strongly exothermic reaction and aren't controlling the temperature properly. . Where would you like to go now? To the catalysis menu . Warning! Don't assume that a rate curve which looks like this necessarily shows an example of autocatalysis.Concentrations are high at the beginning and so the reaction is fast . The heat evolved during the reaction speeds the reaction up. of course. if the reaction involved a solid reacting with a liquid. Eventually. . As catalyst begins to be formed in the mixture. the reaction speeds up . To the Physical Chemistry menu . As things get used up. the rate falls again as things get used up.shown by a rapid fall in the reactant concentration.

you will find links below. and in the conversion of ammonia into nitric acid. The reaction is very exothermic. you will find it by following this link.CATALYSTS IN INORGANIC INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES This page takes a brief look at the catalysts used in the Contact Process to manufacture sulphuric acid. The sheets of gauze are held at a temperature of about 900°C. The Contact Process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid At the heart of the Contact Process is a reaction which converts sulphur dioxide into sulphur trioxide. and another example of heterogeneous catalysis. Full details of the manufacture of nitric acid are given on this page because they don't appear elsewhere on this site. and once it . It speeds up both the forward reaction and the back reaction by the same amount. If you want full details of the Contact Process or the Haber Process. Although in principle the sheets would last for ever because the metals are acting as a catalyst. in the Haber Process to manufacture ammonia. If you want full details of the Contact Process. This is therefore an example of heterogeneous catalysis. This process involves oxidation of the ammonia from the Haber Process by oxygen in the air in the presence of a platinum-rhodium catalyst. Large sheets of metal gauze are used in order to reduce expense and to maximise the surface area of the catalyst. The Haber Process for the manufacture of ammonia The Haber Process combines hydrogen and nitrogen to make ammonia using an iron catalyst. including the reasons for all the conditions. including the reasons for all the conditions. follow this link to the introductory page on catalysis. you will find it by following this link. Sulphur dioxide gas is passed together with air (as a source of oxygen) over a solid vanadium(V) oxide catalyst. Note: If you want full details of the Haber Process. or want the mechanism for this reaction. The fact that this is a reversible reaction makes no difference to the operation of the catalyst. The manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia This is yet another example of heterogeneous catalysis. This is another reversible reaction. Note: If you don't understand the term heterogeneous catalysis. in practice they do deteriorate over time and have to be replaced.

The nitrogen dioxide (still in the presence of excess air) is absorbed in water where it reacts to give a concentrated solution of nitric acid. substituted onto the ring. and the reactions both to produce esters and to hydrolyse them under acidic conditions. -NO2. The temperature used is 300°C and the pressure is about 60 to 70 atmospheres. ACID CATALYSIS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY This page looks at the use of acid catalysts in some organic reactions. This is a reversible reaction and only about 5% of the ethene reacts on each pass over the catalyst. Because the catalyst is in a different phase from the reactants. This is cooled. this is an example of heterogeneous catalysis. It covers the nitration of benzene.starts the temperature is maintained by the heat evolved. If you want the mechanism for the nitration of benzene. The nitration of benzene Benzene is treated with a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid at a temperature not exceeding 50°C. The ammonia is oxidised to nitrogen monoxide gas. this is a good example of homogeneous catalysis. follow this link to the introductory page on catalysis. Use the BACK button on your browser if you wish to return to this page. the hydration of ethene to manufacture ethanol. it is oxidised further to nitrogen dioxide. Because everything is present in the same liquid phase. As the temperature increases there is a greater chance of getting more than one nitro group. or: The concentrated sulphuric acid is acting as a catalyst. The hydration of ethene to make ethanol Ethene is mixed with steam and passed over a catalyst consisting of solid silicon dioxide coated with phosphoric(V) acid. You will find links to the full mechanisms for each of these reactions if you want them. Nitrobenzene is formed. When . you will find it on another part of this site. Note: If you don't understand the term homogeneous catalysis. At ordinary temperatures and in the presence of excess air.

Use the BACK button on your browser if you wish to return to this page. Everything is present in a single liquid phase. and so this is an example of homogeneous catalysis. this is the reverse of the esterification reaction but. ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol to produce ethyl ethanoate. This helps to reduce the reverse reaction. The ethyl ethanoate has the lowest boiling point of anything in the mixture. Note: If you are interested in the reasons for the conditions used in this reaction. and the gaseous ethene can be recycled through the process. A conversion rate of about 95% is achieved by continual recycling in this way. you will find them in the equilibrium section of this site by following this link.the esterification reaction Esters are what is formed when an organic acid reacts with an alcohol in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as the catalyst. and so is distilled off as soon as it is formed. The ester is heated under reflux with a dilute acid such as dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute sulphuric acid. you will find them discussed if you follow this link. the ethanol and any excess steam condense. follow this link. Note: If you aren't happy about the names of esters. in practice. For example. If you are interested in the mechanism for the hydration of ethene. Use the BACK button on your browser if you wish to return to this page. . The acid catalysed hydrolysis of esters In principle. Any escaping vapours condense and run back into the flask. it has to be done slightly differently. follow this link. Heating under reflux: This involves heating the mixture in a flask with a condenser placed vertically in the neck. Making esters . Note: If you are interested in the mechanism for the esterification reaction.the reaction mixture is cooled. Use the BACK button on your browser to return to this page afterwards.

It includes the formation of epoxyethane from ethene. and several reactions from benzene chemistry . There is a link to that menu at the bottom of the page if you have come direct to this page via a search engine. The ester can be completely hydrolysed rather than only partially if the reaction is reversible. . MORE EXAMPLES OF CATALYSIS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY This page looks a few odds and ends of examples of catalysts used in organic chemistry. The dilute acid used as the catalyst also provides the water for the reaction. If anyone reading this knows of an interesting reason for this discrepancy (other than the fact that it just happens to work in this case!). This isn't an example of a catalytic reaction because the hydroxide ions are used up during the reaction. You would normally hydrolyse esters quite differently by heating them with sodium hydroxide solution (alkaline hydrolysis). Use the BACK button on your browser if you wish to return to this page. The main advantage of doing it like this is that it is a one-way reaction.The equation for the reaction is simply the esterification equation written backwards. Note: If you have read the introductory page on catalysis. The manufacture of epoxyethane from ethene Epoxyethane is manufactured by reacting ethene with a limited amount of oxygen in the presence of a silver catalyst at a temperature of about 250 . could you please let me know via the address on the about this site page. The reaction is exothermic and the temperature has to be carefully controlled to prevent further oxidation of the ethene to carbon dioxide and water. and yet here it is being used as a catalyst. this is an example of heterogeneous catalysis.300°C and a pressure of less than 15 atmospheres. You need a large excess of water in order to increase the chances of the forward reaction happening and the ester hydrolysing. you might remember that silver is quoted as a metal which isn't a good catalyst because it doesn't adsorb reactant molecules strongly enough. Other examples of catalysts in organic chemistry can be found from the catalysis menu. Because the solid silver is catalysing a gas reaction. follow this link. Note: If you are interested in the mechanism for the acid catalysed hydrolyis. You will find links to other parts of the site for the mechanisms of the benzene reactions.Friedel-Crafts reactions and halogenation.

or: Note: If you have want the mechanism for the halogenation reaction. This is another example of the use of aluminium chloride as a catalyst. chloromethane or chloroethane) in the presence of aluminium chloride as a catalyst. or iron(III) bromide. The equation shows the reaction using a methyl group. or: The reaction with bromine The reaction between benzene and bromine in the presence of either aluminium bromide or iron gives bromobenzene. It reacts with some of the chlorine or bromine to form iron(III) chloride. FeCl 3. The reaction with chlorine The reaction between benzene and chlorine in the presence of either aluminium chloride or iron gives chlorobenzene.once known as toluene. The catalyst is either aluminium chloride (or aluminium bromide if you are reacting benzene with bromine) or iron. These compounds act as the catalyst and behave exactly like aluminium chloride in these reactions. Iron is usually used because it is cheaper and more readily available. The Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene Alkylation involves replacing a hydrogen atom on a benzene ring by an alkyl group like methyl or ethyl. Substituting a methyl group gives methylbenzene .The halogenation of benzene Benzene reacts with chlorine or bromine in the presence of a catalyst. because it gets permanently changed during the reaction. Strictly speaking iron isn't a catalyst. FeBr3. but any other alkyl group could be used in the same way. Use the BACK button on your browser to return quickly to this page if you want to. Benzene is treated with a chloroalkane (for example. or: Note: If you have want the mechanism for the alkylation . you should follow this link.

in this case. Use the BACK button on your browser to return quickly to this page if you want to. The most reactive substance containing an acyl group is an acyl chloride (also known as an acid chloride). In the example which follows we are substituting a CH3CO. Note: Ketones: A family of compounds containing a carbonoxygen double bond with a hydrocarbon group either side of it.reaction. or: Note: If you have want the mechanism for the acylation reaction. Don't worry too much about the name "phenylethanone" . but you could equally well use any other alkyl group instead of the CH3.all that matters is that you can draw the structure. Use the BACK button on your browser to return quickly to this page if you want to. Benzene is treated with a mixture of ethanoyl chloride. The Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene An acyl group is an alkyl group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond. . Acylation means substituting an acyl group into something . you should follow this link. The most commonly used acyl group is CH 3CO-. CH 3COCl. you should follow this link. This is called the ethanoyl into the ring. into a benzene ring. A ketone called phenylethanone is formed. and aluminium chloride as the catalyst. In this case there is a methyl group on one side and a benzene ring on the other.

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