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Chemistry Definitions

1. Relative atomic mass


The weighted average mass of atoms of an element measured on a scale
on which carbon-12 isotope has exactly 12 units.
2. Relative molecular mass
Relative mass of one molecule of a compound on a scale where carbon12 has exactly 12 units.
3. Mole
One mole of a substance is the amount of that substance which has the
same number of specific particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g od
carbon-12.
4. Empirical formula
The simplest whole number ratio of the elements present in one molecule
of a compound.
5. Molecular formula
The total number of atoms of each element present in a molecule.
6. Proton number
Atomic number
7. Nucleon number
Mass number
8. Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different nucleon number.
9. Electronic configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.

10.Ionisation energy
The energy needed to remove one electron from one each atom in one
mole of atoms of the element in the gaseous state.
11.Coordinate bond (dative covalent bond)
One atom provides the electron needed for a covalent bond.
12.Bond energy
The energy needed to break 1 mole of a particular bond in one mole of
gaseous molecules.
13.Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond.
14.Polar (covalent bond)
A covalent bond in which the two bonding electrons are not equally
shared by the atoms in the bond.
15.Van de Waals (temporary dipole-dipole)
Weak forced of attraction between molecules caused by temporary dipole
between molecules.
16.Hydrogen bond
Formed between molecules having hydrogen bonded with one of the most
electronegative elements(F, O, N)
17.Kinetic theory of gas
a) Gas molecules move rapidly and randomly
b) Volume of molecules is negligible
c) No forces of attraction of repulsion between molecules.
d) All collision of molecules are elastic
e) Temperature of gas is related to average kinetic energy of the
molecules.
18.Ideal gas
A gas whose volume is proportional to temperature and inversely
proportional to pressure.

19.Absolute zero

lowest temperature that is theoretically possible, at which the motion of


particles is minimal. It is zero on the Kelvin scale, equivalent to 273C.
20.Enthalpy change
The energy transferred in a chemical reaction.
21.Standard enthalpy change
An enthalpy change that takes place under standard conditions of
pressure(101kPa) and temperature (298K)
22.Standard enthalpy change of reaction
The enthalpy change when the amounts of reactants shown in the
equation react to give products UNDER STANDARD CONDITION.
23.Standard enthalpy change of formation
The enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its
elements UNDER STANDARD CONDITIONS.
24.Standard enthalpy change of combustion
The enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is burnt in excess
oxygen UNDER STANDARD CONDITIONs.
25.Standard enthalpy change of neutralisation
The enthalpy change when one mole of water is formed by the reaction of
an acid with an alkali UNDER STANDARD CONDITIONs.
26.Hesss law
The total enthalpy change in a chemical reaction is independent of the
route by which the reaction occurred as long as the conditions are
maintained.
27.Average bond energy
the average amount of energy needed to break a specific type of bond, measured over a
wide variety of different molecules

28.Oxidation
Increases in oxidation number./Gain of oxygen/loss of electron
29.Reduction
Decrease in oxidation number./Loss of oxygen/gain of electron

30.Redox reaction
Reactions where oxidation and reduction occur.
31.Half equations
Separate equations showing reduction and oxidation.
32.Oxidising agent
A reactant that increases the oxidation number of another reactant.
33.Reducing agent
A reactant that decreases the oxidation number of another reactant.