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ABSTRACT

The decision to implement solid waste collection automation is a complex one and
involves a number of factors that should be considered, including engineering, risk
management, technology assessment, costs, and public acceptance. Nowadays, as
the amount of waste increases, the need of automated bin collection and level
detection becomes more crucial. The paper presents an automatic waste bin system
which employs Infra-Red technology detection protocol as its back bone for the
automation. Here the Infra-Red will sense the presence of the user from about 4
feet and automatically opens up the waste cabinet; and so long as the user stays
within this range, the cabinet stays open but closes when the user goes below the
set range. This scheme is targeted at the solid waste materials around for its
proper disposing and also for a sound and healthy environment.

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Solid waste is any material which comes from domestic, commercial, and
industrial sources arising from human activities which has no value to people who
possess it and is discarded as useless.

In the early days, waste disposal did not

pose difficulty as habitations were sparse and land was plentiful. Waste disposal
became problematic with the rise of towns and cities where large numbers of
people started to congregate in relatively small areas in pursuit of livelihoods.
While the population densities in urbanized areas and per capita waste generation
increased, the available land for waste disposal decreased proportionately. Solid
waste management thus emerged as an essential and specialized sector for
keeping cities healthy and livable.
Solid waste management refers to source separation, storage, collection,
transportation and final disposal of waste in an environmentally sustainable
manner. In the light of this, solid waste management is an important environmental
health service, and an integral part of basic urban services. This is because, the
health implications of poor waste management can be very damaging to the people
exposed to these unsanitary conditions. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid,
dysentery and malaria are all related to the practice of poor waste management.
This can result in the loss of human resources needed in the development of the
country.

The collection, transfer and disposal of waste have been generally assumed by
metropolitan governments in both developed and developing world.

This

constitutes a basic and expected government function. The format varies in most
urban areas where solid waste is collected either by a government agency or
private contractor. Despite the fact that developing countries do spend about 20 to
40 per cent of metropolitan revenues on waste management, they are unable to
keep pace with the scope of the problem. In fact, when the governments of African
countries were required by the World Health Organization (WHO) to prioritize
their environmental health concerns, the results revealed that solid waste was
identified as the second most important problem after water quality (Senkoro,
2003 cited by Zerbock, 2003).
In this case, Nigeria is not an exception and for that matter we have come up with a
system that will limit the amount of contact with waste at the basic level of waste
disposal in other to alleviate these lapses on the part of waste management.
1.2 Problem Statement
Over the years, solid waste disposal has become a major problem in
Nigeria.

Therefore, indiscriminate dumping, irregular collection of waste

generated and inadequate resources are the key problems facing solid waste
management in this country. In the cities, it is estimated that 810 tonnes of waste is
generated a day and out of this, 216 tonnes are hauled daily. This leaves a backlog
of 594 tonnes uncollected a day, World Health Organization (WHO).
This has resulted in littering, heaping of waste and overflowing of skips with waste
most especially in the low class residential and peri-urban areas. The recent
proliferation of polythene bags for packaging has seriously aggravated the situation

in the study area. This makes the above mentioned residential areas filthy and
unattractive for living. Therefore, if the situation is left unchecked it can result in
the outbreak of communicable diseases such as cholera, typhoid and this will affect
people exposed to this unsanitary conditions. On the basis of this, we have
designed and constructed an automated waste collection unit that will go along
way to reducing the effect caused by inappropriate waste disposal which may stem
from abject laziness or otherwise.
1.3 Scope of Study
Our focus will be on an automatic waste container which helps prevent the bin lids
becoming clogged with trash. It has an ultrasonic range module that allows it to
detect human presence by means of ultrasound burst which is used to compute the
distance between man and the waste bin thus sending an enabling signal that is
used to engage the waste bins door accordingly.
1.4 Justification of Study
Solid waste management has become a major development challenge in Nigeria in
recent times. This deserves not only the attention of the Environmental Council
and or other waste management institutions but also concerns of corporate
organizations and individuals to find a lasting solution to the problem. This is
because, vital human resource could be lost through poor waste management and
this will affect productivity in the cities. The study therefore intends to explore
appropriate strategies and recommendations in clearing solid waste in all segments
in the Metropolis in a sustainable manner.
Despite the immensity of the problem, very little research on solid waste
management has been carried out in recent times. This project will serve as the

basic foundation for waste management and also stimulates further research on the
subject in Nigeria at large.
1.5 Limitations of Project
The following hindered the smooth completion of the study. These are enumerated
below.
The prevailing unstable condition in the major cities in Nigeria affected the
scope of the study.
In availability of raw materials for the unit to be constructed.
1.6 Advantages
Some of the general advantages of automated collection often touted by its
proponents include the following:
For Residents
Convenient and easy method for residents to dispose of trash.
Wheeled containers are easier, more maneuverable, and safer for residents
because there is no carrying or lifting of heavy trash cans.
The capacity of most cans provided in these programs is equal to three or
four regular trash cans.
The containers keep rodents and pets out of trash given the tight lids.
Helps to eliminate over service, as carts have a finite capacity as compared
to manual bag programs.
Containers are provided by and maintained by the community or hauler.
Cleaner, healthier neighborhoods with no litter on streets after pickup.
For the Municipality
Improved collection efficiency and reduced costs

Reduced employee injuries.


Lower turnover rate and increased productivity due to less time missed by

injured employees.
Reduced Workers Compensation claims and insurance premiums.
Reduced rodent problems.
Cleaner, healthier neighborhoods with no litter on streets after pickup.
Volume based containerized system helps limit overages.

IMPROVING SAFETY AND REDUCING WORK INJURIES


Solid waste collection workers are highly exposed to health and environmental
safety risks due to exposure to heavy workloads, volatile compounds, potentially
hazardous or even infectious materials. Typical rearload operations require
manually lifting materials into the collection vehicles. Statistics from such
programs

CHAPTER TWO
LITERAURE REVIEW

PREAMBLE
Automatic waste bin unit is a set of solid state technologies which allows the
handling of our waste in a more fashionable and subtle way whist taking
cognizance of health related issues.
It is an intermediate form of our conventional trash cans at home, market,
industries etc. first deployed commercially in the United States during the early
1990s as part of their development for sound and friendly environment.
With the introduction of relatively low cost, high capacity infra-red technology
services in the late 1990s, coupled with powerful computing processors automatic
waste bin disposal unit has made significant inroads in business, education,
domestic, medicine and media. Like all technologies (such as phone and Internet),
by reducing the emissions associated with in appropriate waste disposal thereby
helping to reduce global diseases.
History
Wagons and other means had been used for centuries to haul away solid waste.
Trucks were first used for this purpose soon after their invention. The 1920s saw
the first open-topped trucks being used, but due to foul odors and waste falling
from the back, covered vehicles soon became more common. These covered trucks
were first introduced in more densely populated Europe and then in North
America, but were soon used worldwide.
The main difficulty was that the waste collectors needed to lift the waste to
shoulder height. The first technique developed in the late 20s to solve this problem
was to build round compartments with massive corkscrews that would lift the load

and bring it away from the rear. A more efficient model was the development of the
hopper in 1929. It used a cable system that could pull waste into the truck.
In 1937 George Dempster invented the Dempster-Dumpster system in which
wheeled waste containers were mechanically tipped into the truck. His containers
were known as Dumpsters, which led to the word dumpster entering the language.
In 1938 the Garwood Load Packer revolutionized the industry when the notion of
including a compactor in the truck was implemented. The first primitive compactor
could double a truck's capacity. This was made possible by use of a hydraulic press
which compacted the contents of the truck periodically.

Fig 2.0: Volvo pneumatic collector used for "waste suction"


1955 saw the Dempster Dumpmaster the first front loader introduced. They do not
become common until the 1970s, however. The 1970s also saw the introduction of
smaller dumpsters, often known as wheelie bins which were also emptied
mechanically. Since that time there has been little dramatic change, although there
have been various improvements to the compaction mechanisms in order to

improve payload. In the mid-1970s Petersen Industries introduced the first grapple
truck for municipal waste collection.
In 1997 Lee Rathbun introduced the Lightning Rear Steer System. This system
includes an elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the
loader. This configuration allows the operator to follow behind haul trucks and
load continuously.

Fig 2.1: Rear steer truck


The wheelie bin is a waste container on wheels designed to make it easier for users
to transport heavy loads of refuse to the curb or other pick-up point. More recently
it has application for transporting stolen goods on bin day in residential suburbs.
George Dempster invented the Dempster-Dumpster system in the 1930s for
automatically loading the contents of standardized mobile steel containers onto the
dustcart. This led to the classic Dempster Dumpmaster waste collection vehicle of
the 1950s, but wheelie bins did not become commonplace until the 1970s. The
term dumpster is frequently used as a generic term for a large MGB or the non-

mobile variety (known as a skip in the UK or Australia) in the United States. In the
US residential wheelie bins are also generically called "Herbie Curbies."[citation
needed] The modern bin is a German invention of the 1970s in a patent held by
Schneider, and licensed to other companies outside Germany.

Fig 2.3: A wheelie bin in Berkshire, England


The smaller wheelie bins, for domestic or light commercial use, typically hold 120
to 360 litres (26 to 79 imp gal; 32 to 95 US gal), with 240 litres (53 imp gal; 63 US
gal) being the most common. They have a hinged flap lid and two wheels on the
bottom on the same side as the lid hinge. There is a bar behind the hinge on the top

of the bin which is used to move it, or to hoist it up onto a garbage truck for
emptying. The 240 litre bin is usually considered to have the same capacity as
three traditional waste containers. In the UK, "wheelie bins" for non-recyclable
domestic waste are currently collected either weekly or once a fortnight, depending
on the local Council's waste management policies.
Design
The design objectives behind the bin were efficient use of space and safety: to
provide at least as much space as the older round bins, whilst reducing the risk of
injury caused by moving it. This is important for both the householder and the
waste collector, who risked injury through lifting the traditional bin or from sharp,
or possibly contaminated objects in garbage bags. Standardisation of dimensions is
important because the bins must be lifted by a standard sized hoist on the dustcart.
The bins are lifted by the lip at the front which must be designed for maximum
stiffness and mechanical strength. The underside of the lip is therefore reinforced
by numerous ribs in the case of the thermoplastic bins. Steel bins have a much
simpler lip owing to the properties of steel.
The early standard for these bins was the German DIN Standard 30740 and DIN
30700 parts 1 + 2 and later RAL-RG 723/2, but in the European Union the
specification of wheelie bins is now governed by the European Standard EN840,
Part 1 of which covers the construction and dimensions of two wheeled bins with a
range of capacities.

Many local authorities have made this type of bin compulsory, and usually require
that bins are presented at the curb (or kerb) for collection.wheelie bins are used for
different purposes including water butts, composter and for storing waste
Certain public areas such as parks have litter bins which are placed alongside paths
frequently walked by visitors. This encourages people to avoid littering, as littering
creates an unhealthy and aesthetically unpleasant social environment.
Bins in outdoor locations or other busy public areas are usually mounted to the
ground or floor. This discourages theft, and also reduces vandalism by making it
harder for the bins to be physically moved, maneuvered, or tipped over.
In the past terrorists have left bombs in bins. The bomb is much less likely to be
spotted than an unattended bag and the metal bins provide extra shrapnel that
injures people nearby when it detonates. For this reason there are no bins in most
railway stations, most airports and many shopping centres in the United Kingdom,
or if they are provided they are just a see through bin bag hanging from a metal
hoop. An alternative 'bomb-resistant' design, features a plastic inner barrel
surrounded by a thick steel outer barrel and a heavy hinged steel lid with a small
hole for waste, intended to direct any explosion upwards and contain shrapnel.
Apartment buildings often have dust flumes in which residents can dispose of their
waste in stainless steel waste containers. These chutes usually lead to some large
receptacle or waste-disposal complex in the basement.
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

BASIC COMPONENTS
Resistors
Resistor is a component, which aims to determine current in a certain branch in
electric circuit according to Ohm's Law depending on the resistor value and the
voltage upon it.

Every conductor has its own resistance. The resistance depends

on the material resistivity, its length and its cross-section area, the most commonly
used resistors come in cylindrical packages with 4 colored rings three are close to
each other and one is slightly away. Three close rings indicate value of the resistor
and the forth its tolerance. All resistors used in this circuit are the 1/4watt carbon
film type unless otherwise stated. This is because the current flowing in all nodes
via the resistors is limited to about 20mA at most thus making the design power
conservative.
The following table shows connection between specific color and a digit from
which a value can be determined.

Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Gold
Silver

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
5%
10%

To determine resistor's value we must write down its colors in the way that gold or
silver will be the last one. Then we will translate the colors to digits. The first two
digits indicate first two digits in the resistor's value and the third tells us the
number of zeros we should add after the former two.
In the following example, resistor's colors are: brown, black and red.

That means that the resistor's value is 1 0 and two zeros, we get 1000 ohm or 1K.
Tolerance indicates how precise the resistor's value is. For example, if you will
measure the 1Kresistor with 5% tolerance, we may expect its resistance to be in the
range from 950 to 1050
Capacitors
Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in timing circuits
because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge. They are used to smooth
varying DC supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge. They are also used in filter
circuits because capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC
(constant) signals. There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two
groups, polarized and unpolarised. Each group has its own circuit symbol.
Electrolytic Capacitors

Electrolytic capacitors are polarized and they must be connected the correct way
round, at least one of their leads will be marked + or -. They are not damaged by
heat when soldering.
There are two designs of electrolytic capacitors; axial where the leads are attached
to each end (220F in picture) and radial where both leads are at the same end
(10F in picture). Radial capacitors tend to be a little smaller and they stand
upright on the circuit board. It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors
because they are clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. The
voltage rating can be quite low (6V for example) and it should always be checked
when selecting an electrolytic capacitor.

Nonpolarized Capacitors
Small value capacitors are nonpolarized and may be connected either way round.
They are not damaged by heat when soldering, except for one unusual type
(polystyrene). They have high voltage ratings of at least 50V, usually 250V or so. It
can be difficult to find the values of these small capacitors because there are many
types of them and several different labeling systems!

Many small value capacitors have their value printed but without a multiplier, so
you need to use experience to work out what the multiplier should be. For
example: 0.1 means 0.1F. In this system capacitors will be used I general as a
filter and part of a resonant circuit for the transceiver.
Transistors
Transistors are made from semiconductors. These are materials, such as silicon or
germanium, that are doped (have minute amounts of foreign elements added) so
that either an abundance or a lack of free electrons exists. In the former case, the
semiconductor is called n-type, and in the latter case, p-type. By combining n-type
and p-type materials, a diode can be produced. When this diode is connected to a
battery so that the p-type material is positive and the n-type negative, electrons are
repelled from the negative battery terminal and pass unimpeded to the p-region,
which lacks electrons. With battery reversed, the electrons arriving in the pmaterial can pass only with difficulty to the n-material, which is already filled with
free electrons, and the current is almost zero.
The bipolar transistor was invented in 1948 as a replacement for the triode vacuum
tube. It consists of three layers of doped material, forming two p-n (bipolar)
junctions with configurations of p-n-p or n-p-n. One junction is connected to a
battery so as to allow current flow (forward bias), and the other junction has a
battery connected in the opposite direction (reverse bias).

Transistors function majorly as switch or amplifiers. To function as a switch, the


transistor has to be biased into saturation i.e. the base voltage exceeds 0.7v for
silicon type and 0.3v for germanium type. The transistors in this circuit are all
Field Effect Transistors (FET) and they function as high speed switches.
The bipolar transistor can be viewed as two P-N junctions connected back to back.
There are two types of bipolar transistors

The transistor has three terminals:


C

Collector

Base

Emitter

Transistors as used here serve as the basic active component for the preamplification of signal and runs at no more than 200mA.
The transmitter and receiver will be built around this active device.
Diode
This is an electronic device that allows the passage of current in only one direction.
The first such devices were vacuum-tube diodes, consisting of an evacuated glass
or steel envelope containing two electrodesa cathode and an anode. Because
electrons can flow in only one direction, from cathode to anode, the vacuum-tube
diode could be used as a rectifier. The diodes most commonly used in electronic
circuits today are semiconductor diodes. The simplest of these, the germanium
point-contact diode, dates from the early days of radio, when the received radio
signal was detected by means of a germanium crystal and a fine, pointed wire that
rested on it. In modern germanium (or silicon) point-contact diodes, the wire and a
tiny crystal plate are mounted inside a small glass tube and connected to two wires
that are fused into the ends of the tube.
This is called a bridge or bridge rectifier. Examples of a bridge are shown in the
diagram below:

You must be able to identify each of the 4 leads on a bridge so that it can be
inserted into a circuit around the correct way. The surface-mount device above is
identified by a cut @ 45 along one side. The leaded bridge has one leg longer

than the others and the top is marked with AC marks and "+." The high-current
bridge has a corner cut off and the other surface-mount device has a cut or notch at
one end.
These devices are added to a circuit as shown in the next diagram:

The 4 diodes face the same direction and this means a single diode can be shown
on the circuit diagram:

Light-Emitting Diode (LED)


Light-emitting diodes are elements for light signalization in electronics. They are
manufactured in different shapes, colors and sizes. For their low price, low
consumption and simple use, they have almost completely pushed aside
other light sources- bulbs at first place. They perform similar to common
diodes with the difference that they emit light when current flows through
them.

It is important to know that each diode will be immediately destroyed unless its
current is limited. This means that a conductor must be connected in parallel to a
diode. In order to correctly determine value of this conductor, it is necessary to
know diodes voltage drop in forward direction, which depends on what material a
diode is made of and what colour it is. Values typical for the most frequently used
diodes are shown in table below: As seen, there are three main types of LEDs.
Standard ones get full brightness at current of 20mA. Low Current diodes get full
brightness at ten times lower current while Super Bright diodes produce more
intensive light than Standard ones.
It is important to know that each diode will be immediately destroyed unless its
current is limited. This means that a conductor must be connected in parallel to a

diode. In order to correctly determine value of this conductor, it is necessary to


know diodes voltage drop in forward direction, which depends on what material a
diode is made of and what colour it is. Values typical for the most frequently used
diodes are shown in table below: As seen, there are three main types of LEDs.
Standard ones get full brightness at current of 20mA. Low Current diodes get full
brightness at ten times lower current while Super Bright diodes produce more
intensive light than Standard ones.

Since the 8051 microcontrollers can provide only low input current and since their
pins are configured as outputs when voltage level on them is equal to 0, direct
connecting to LEDs is carried out as it is shown on figure (Low current LED,
cathode is connected to output pin).
DC MOTOR UNIT
In general, DC motors are similar to DC generators in construction. They may, in
fact, be described as generators run backwards. When current is passed through
the armature of a DC motor, a torque is generated by magnetic reaction, and the
armature revolves. The action of the commutator and the connections of the field
coils of motors are precisely the same as those used for generators. The revolution
of the armature induces a voltage in the armature windings. This induced voltage is
opposite in direction to the outside voltage applied to the armature, and hence is
called back voltage or counter electromotive force (emf). As the motor rotates

more rapidly, the back voltage rises until it is almost equal to the applied voltage.
The current is then small, and the speed of the motor will remain constant as long
as the motor is not under load and is performing no mechanical work except that
required to turn the armature. Under load the armature turns more slowly, reducing
the back voltage and permitting a larger current to flow in the armature. The motor
is thus able to receive more electric power from the source supplying it and to do
more mechanical work.
Because the speed of rotation controls the flow of current in the armature, special
devices must be used for starting DC motors. When the armature is at rest, it has
virtually no resistance, and if the normal working voltage is applied, a large current
will flow, which may damage the commutator or the armature windings. The usual
means of preventing such damage is the use of a starting resistance in series with
the armature to lower the current until the motor begins to develop an adequate
back voltage. As the motor picks up speed, the resistance is gradually reduced,
either manually or automatically.
The speed at which a DC motor operates depends on the strength of the magnetic
field acting on the armature, as well as on the armature current. The stronger the
field, the slower is the rate of rotation needed to generate a back voltage large
enough to counteract the applied voltage. For this reason the speed of DC motors
can be controlled by varying the field current. In this project, the motor is used to
control the lifting of the cabinets door so that it can be controlled via the
microcontroller and is powered of from a 12Volts source via the power relays
onboard.

MICROCONTROLLER UNIT
A microprocessor is not a complete computer. It does not contain large amounts of
memory or have the ability to communicate with input devicessuch as
keyboards, joysticks, and miceor with output devices, such as monitors and
printers. A different kind of integrated circuit, a microcontroller, is a complete
computer on a chip, containing all of the elements of the basic microprocessor
along with other specialized functions. Microcontrollers are used in video games,
videocassette recorders (VCRs), automobiles, and other machines.
In this design the microcontroller unit forms the core of the system meaning that
all necessary mathematical and logical operation of the system is executed here.
Its function spans from; checking the range in order to ascertain if there is a
valid data, outputs the current state of the internal database via the relay, checks
for error, checks for multiple entry, verify nearness authenticity and functions
that panders to the function of the system.
How does microcontroller operate?
Even though there is a great number of various microcontrollers and even greater
number of programs designed for the microcontrollers use only, all of them have
many things in common. That means that if you learn to handle one of them you
will be able to handle them all. Our choice focuses on the I/O lines which must
be a minimum of 8, availability and cost.
A typical scenario on whose basis it all functions is as follows:
1. Power supply is turned off and everything is so stillchip is programmed,
everything is in place, and nothing indicates what is to come

2. Power supply connectors are connected to the power supply source and
everything starts to happen at high speed! The control logic registers what is
going on first. It enables only quartz oscillator to operate. While the first
preparations are in progress and parasite capacities are being charged, the
first milliseconds go by.
3. Voltage level has reached its full value and frequency of oscillator has
become stable. The bits are being written to the SFRs, showing the state of
all peripherals and all pins are configured as outputs. Everything occurs in
harmony to the pulses rhythm and the overall electronic starts operating.
Since this moment the time is measured in micro and nanoseconds.
4. Program Counter is reset to zero address of the program memory. Instruction
from that address is sent to instruction decoder where its meaning is
recognized and it is executed with immediate effect.
5. The value of the Program Counter is being incremented by 1 and the whole
process is being repeated...several million times per second.

THE TRANSMITTER
To keeps things as simple and as inexpensive as possible, we decided to leverage
the HR-SR04 ultrasonic module. So, rather than have a dedicated pulse generation
and drive circuit for the sending transducer, we simply connected it to two of the
microcontroller digital I/O pins. Connecting to two pins let us use differential
drive by swinging one side high, with the other low for one half cycle, then
reversing this for the other half cycle. We were concerned that this might not
provide a strong enough ping pulse to give much range but the transmit pulse is
easily able to reflect off the ceiling which is 5 feet and 6 inches away, as measured
from the transducers.

The supporting circuits fabricated on the module makes it almost stand alone and
what the programmer need to do is to send a trigger signal to it for initiating
transmission and receive the echo signal from it for distance calculation. The HRSR04 has four pins namely Vcc, Trigger, Echo, GND and they are explained in
detail below.
1)

VCC: 5V DC supply voltage is connected to this pin.

2)

Trigger: The trigger signal for starting the transmission is given to this pin.
The trigger signal must be a pulse with 10uS high time. When the module
receives a valid trigger signal it issues 8 pulses of 40 KHz ultrasonic sound
from the transmitter. The echo of this sound is picked by the receiver.

3)

Echo: At this pin, the module outputs a waveform with high time
proportional to the distance.

4)

GND: Ground is connected to this pin.

The Receive Side


Since the transducers are very frequency selective, the receiver circuit merely
needs to provide sufficient amplification of the signal from the reflected pulse and
then run the amplified signal through a simple detector circuit. Borrowing liberally
from an app note I found here, I came up with the following circuit

As suggested in the app note, the first op amp stage (1C1A) provides about 100x
gain. The second stage (IC1B) adds another 10x of gain and then drives the diode-

based detector circuit to rectify the amplified AC signal. This builds a charge
across C5 which, when the signal strength is great enough, will provide enough
base-emitter current in T1 to cause it to pull the output signal low. The two R5 and
R6 resistors serve as a voltage divider to provide a synthetic ground signal to the
op amps so that the whole circuit can work off a single 5V supply from the main
board. The choice of the Op Amp is important because of the high, 100x gain used
in the first stage. In particular, the circuit needs an Op Amp with a gain bandwidth
product of least 2.5 MHz on order to function as designed. It should be noted that
the output from this stage goes to the microcontroller for further processing.

To analyze this circuit proceeds by making the following (usually valid)


assumptions:

When an op-amp operates in linear (i.e., not saturated) mode, the difference
in voltage between the non-inverting (+) pin and the inverting () pin is
negligibly small.
The input impedance between (+) and () pins is much larger than other
resistances in the circuit.
The input signal Vin appears at both (+) and () pins, resulting in a current i
through Rg equal to Vin/Rg.

Since Kirchhoff's current law states that the same current must leave a node as
enter it, and since the impedance into the () pin is near infinity, we can assume
practically all of the same current i flows through Rf, creating an output voltage

By combining terms, we determine the closed-loop gain ACL:

Relays

Relays are elements connected to output pins of the microcontroller and used to
turn on/off all that being out of board which has sensitive components: motors,

transformators, heaters, bulbs, high-voltage components, antenna systems etc.


There are various types of relays but all have the same operating principle: when a
current flows through the coil, it makes or breaks mechanical connection between
one or more pairs of contacts. As it is case with optocouplers, there is no
galvanically connection (electrical contact) between input and output circuits.
Relays usually demand both higher voltage and current to start operating but there
are also miniature versions which can be activated with a low current directly
obtained from the microcontrollers pin.
Below figure presents one solution specific to the 8051 microcontrollers. In this
very case, Darlington transistor is used to activate relays because of its high current
gain. This is not in accordance with rules, but it is necessary in case of logic one
activation since the current is then very low (pin acts as input)!

In order to be prevented from appearance of high voltage of self-induction caused


by a sudden stop of current flow through the coil, an inverted polarized diode is
connected in parallel to the coil. The purpose of this diode is to cut off the
voltage peak.

Power Supplies:
The Mains voltage is an AC (Alternate Current) voltage and very High. The
effective voltage is 220V or 110V (depends on the country) and the frequency is
50Hz or 60Hz accordingly.
The Mains voltage is AC because it changes polarity with time and its magnitude
can easily be changed (increased or decreased) by a transformer. The electricity
companies prefer that the current in the conductive lines between cities will be as
low as possible, in order to reduce the power loss on the lines. The voltage on these
lines is raised to thousands of volts by a step-up transformer. The voltage is
transformed to 220V (or 110V), by using a step-down transformer in every street
or in every block of buildings.

In electronic systems we need a DC (Direct Current) low voltage power supply.


The voltage should be stable and does not change because of changes in the load
current or in the AC input voltage.

The power supply comprises four components:

Mains
Volta
ge

Transfor
mer

Rectif
er

Filter

Regulat
or

Vo

VEROBOARD
This work completed by using a Veroboard to assemble the above explained
electronic components. The process described below was taken, to prepare the
Veroboard.
Grab a very sharp craft knife and a ruler. On the track side of the board, count 40
complete holes along a track, then place the ruler perpendicular to the tracks on the
next hole.

Now turn the board over, and repeat the operation in exactly the same place on the
component side. Pick up the board and snap it with both hands, keeping your
fingers close to the score mark on either side - it should break evenly, leaving you
with two rectangular pieces. Now (if the board is too wide) do the same thing
again, but along the tracks. Count 39 tracks from the edge then lay your ruler along
the 40th track and score through the holes on that track. Do the same on the other
side, then snap. If all went well, you should now have a piece of Veroboard of the
correct size - 39 tracks by 40 holes.
Inspect the tracks.
Very occasionally, a piece of Veroboard will have defects such as small splashes of
copper bridging adjacent tracks. Inspect the board carefully to make sure there are
no such bridges. If you do find one, run your knife between the tracks in order to
cut it.

CHAPTER FOUR
METHODOLOGY
In any given design, there must be set rules and regulations guiding it; in view of
this our project automatic waste bin disposal unit is not a left. Our designed
was triggered off by first, trying to figure out how the project can be actualized,
getting the desired clue, surfing online to gather more Intel, and behold the ideal
was achieved. Below are some of the steps we took in the design phase of the
hardware development.
Block Diagram Design
A rough sketch on how the project would look like was first drawn, detailing all
the components blocks that would make-up the complete system.

Once drawn

and checked for consistency we proceeded to the second phase.


Schematic Design
Schematic design poses one of the most difficult constraints in the design of this
project because here for sure, we are dealing with discrete components that have
one common goal speak the language of electronics effectively this simply
means that all sections of the system should work in harmony with little deviation
from the target.
Soldering
Soldering is the process of a making a sound electrical and mechanical joint
between certain metals by joining them with a soft solder. This is a low
temperature melting point alloy of lead and tin. The joint is heated to the correct
temperature by soldering iron. For most electronic work miniature mains powered

soldering irons are used. These consist of a handle onto which is mounted the
heating element. On the end of the heating element is what is known as the "bit",
so called because it is the bit that heats the joint up. Solder melts at around 190
degrees Centigrade, and the bit reaches a temperature of over 250 degrees
Centigrade. This temperature is pretty hot enough to inflict a nasty burn,
consequently care should be taken.
Good soldering is a skill that is learnt by practice. The most important point in
soldering is that both parts of the joint to be made must be at the same temperature.
The solder will flow evenly and make a good electrical and mechanical joint only
if both parts of the joint are at an equal temperature. Even though it appears that
there is a metal to metal contact in a joint to be made, very often there exists a film
of oxide on the surface that insulates the two parts. For this reason it is no good
applying the soldering iron tip to one half of the joint only and expecting this to
heat the other half of the joint as well.
TESTING THE CIRCUIT
After the construction, the circuit was properly analyzed and short circuit and open
circuits were all corrected, the circuit is then powered.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
All microcontroller embedded system runs on an internal firmware burnt into the
chip or outside the chip in a ROM. Our design uses the ever familiar MCU
Microcontroller unit from Atmel semiconductors owing to the fact that its brand
of MCU has a wider data I/O lines for the job.

The firmware program was written in assembly language and compiled using the
ASEMW brand of macro cross assembler to finally get the machine executable
file. Once the exec file is gotten, we downloaded it into the MCU internal flash
memory from where it is to be executed using a gadget called a programmer.
Programmers are device used to get the executable file that resides in the computer
down to the microcontroller for final execution of the program.
Below are the modes of operation of the system outlined in a special manner in
order to aid quick understanding of how the project works:
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
All microcontroller embedded system runs on an internal firmware burnt into the
chip or outside the chip in a ROM. Our design uses the ever familiar MCU
microcontroller unit from Atmel semiconductors owing to the fact that its brand
of MCU has a wider data I/O lines for the job.
The firmware program was written in assembly language and compiled using the
AVRBASIC brand of macro cross-assembler to finally get the machine executable
file. Once the exec file is gotten, we downloaded it into the MCU internal flash
memory from where it is to be executed using a gadget called a Programmer.
Programmers are device used to get the executable file that resides in the
computer down to the microcontroller for final execution of the program.
Below are the modes of operation of the system outlined in a sequential manner in
order to aid quick understanding of how the project works;

1. At power ON, the microcontroller immediately initializes the state of the


I/O unit to a known state, and also resets its self to a defined status that
conforms to the pre-loaded program.
2. The first instruction is called upon, to gate out command that will initialize
the ultrasonic controller and the ram unit to a value of zero, also all status
indicators is also refreshed to a known state, and finally the ultrasonic
sensing controller unit is enabled.
3. At this point the microcontroller queries the status of the receiver module in
other to ascertain if it is in order, if not it is forced to reset while the
controller jumps to the next check.
4. Here a dummy read - write operation is performed on the ultrasonic module,
this is done in other to properly initialize it. Once this has been done, the
controller immediately places the system to standby mode thus waiting for
the necessary instruction to execute. The standby mode takes the controller
to step 5
5. The MCU constantly sends trigger command the ultrasonic module while
monitoring the wireless receiver module for any validity of data, if there is
any it is loaded directly into the MCU memory for comparison, else the
system is placed on hold at step five until data has been granted available by
the ultrasonic module, else if data is available the MCU is forced to jump to
step six.
6. Here the valid data is compared with the internal minimum range which is
about 8feet for consistency, and if the range is greater than this, the data is
skipped thus the MCU jumps back to step 5, else if the value entered is
greater than this, the MCU jumps to step 7 for further processing
7. This stage controls the unit. Here, the MCU immediately turns on the motor
in the clockwise direction thus lifting the waste bins cabinet as long as the

detected humans range is not higher than the minimum permissible range
which is about 8feet.

Upon activation of the cabinet, the MCU is

constantly monitors the limit switch placed at the back of waste bins cabinet
for its auto-stop condition; this is reached when the lever depresses the limit
switch thus this deactivates the motor from further action, by now the door is
fully opened. This process is held at the auto-stop state so long as the user is
standing within the range of the unit else the door is automatically closed.
The sampling algorithm is in this format.
Get the range of the prospective user
Load this data to the MCU
Compare the data with the preset value if it is equal then start the
motor the monitor the auto-stop condition: else compare again.
The process of sampling and comparison is very rapid about 40 samples per
second are taken by the MCU/ultrasonic module unit. When the exact range
is exactly the specified value, the motor will be automatically engaged.
MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE PROGRAMMABLE HEATER
After finalizing the construction of the circuit, what remains now is the mechanical
outlook of the enclosed system. In our design we have considered price and usage
in real time application, since the aim of this project is to show that a prototype
design can be achieved hence we opted for a thinner metallic sheet with angle irons
for the skeleton finishing to give it slick and wonderful look, and as well as given it
the desired ruggedness.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


In this project we have shown and demonstrated that a prototype automated waste
bin disposal unit can easily be constructed without unnecessary spending of money
in other to purchase state of the art electronic gadgets. While keeping components
count at minimum, this design has made use of the versatile microcontroller chip
from Atmel semiconductors so as to be able to compete with products out there in
the market with just a small modification in the finishing.
Finally, there is no man made perfect design and as such this piece of gadget is
subject to any stress related effect in its operation.
RECOMMENDATION
There is no man made perfect design on this planet earth hence the need for daily
upgrade of our intellect. This design features a static user range that has been
coded internally during the cause of the firm ware development and this makes it
awkward when upgrading the dynamism.

Since we have limited our sample to

about 8feet, any call for upgrade will certainly mean recoding the MCU.
In subsequent design there should be an upgrade in the dynamism of the range so
that it could be dynamically changed without the need to recode the MCU.

With

this upgrade, the system can be applied in any environment that requires strict
disposal compliance without the need for unnecessary modifications.

APPENDIX

ALLDIGITAL
'DEFINE SIMULATION_WAITMS_VALUE = 1
DIM ON_FLAG AS BIT
DIM OFF_FLAG AS BIT
DIM BUSY_FLAG AS BIT
DIM TIME_REG AS WORD
DIM SEARCH AS WORD
DIM DOOR_STATE AS BYTE
CONFIG PORTA.1 = INPUT
CONFIG PORTA.0 = OUTPUT
CONFIG PORTA.2 = OUTPUT
CONFIG PORTA.3 = OUTPUT
CONFIG PORTA.7 = OUTPUT
CONFIG PORTB.2 = INPUT
CONFIG PORTB.3 = INPUT
SYMBOL SEARCH_LOW = SEARCH.LB
SYMBOL SEARCH_HIGH = SEARCH.HB
SYMBOL TRIGGER = PORTA.0
SYMBOL ECHO = PORTA.1
SYMBOL BLINK = PORTA.2

SYMBOL MOTOR_1 = PORTA.3


SYMBOL MOTOR_2 = PORTA.7
SYMBOL SENSOR_1 = PORTB.2
SYMBOL SENSOR_2 = PORTB.3
'==========================================
T1CON.T1CKPS1 = 1
T1CON.T1CKPS0 = 1
T1CON.T1OSCEN = 0
T1CON.TMR1ON = 0
'==========================================
MOTOR_1 = FALSE
MOTOR_2 = FALSE
ON_FLAG = FALSE
OFF_FLAG = FALSE
TRIGGER = FALSE
BUSY_FLAG = FALSE
BLINK = FALSE
SEARCH = 0
TIME_REG = 0
DOOR_STATE = 0
WAITMS 500

MAIN:
WAITMS 200
IF BUSY_FLAG = TRUE THEN
IF SENSOR_1 = FALSE THEN GOTO DISABLE_MOTOR
IF SENSOR_2 = FALSE THEN GOTO DISABLE_MOTOR
ENDIF
ULTRASONIC:
TRIGGER = TRUE
WAITUS 10
TRIGGER = FALSE
ITERATE:
IF ECHO = FALSE THEN GOTO ITERATE
T1CON.TMR1ON = 1
ITERATE_1:
IF ECHO = TRUE THEN GOTO ITERATE_1
T1CON.TMR1ON = 0
SEARCH_LOW = TMR1L
SEARCH_HIGH = TMR1H
TMR1L = 0
TMR1H = 0

IF SEARCH < 20000 THEN


'IF ON_FLAG = TRUE THEN GOTO MAIN
BLINK = TRUE

MOTOR_2 = TRUE
ON_FLAG = TRUE
OFF_FLAG = FALSE
BUSY_FLAG = TRUE
GOTO MAIN
ENDIF
'IF OFF_FLAG = TRUE THEN GOTO MAIN
MOTOR_1 = TRUE
BLINK = FALSE
ON_FLAG = FALSE
OFF_FLAG = TRUE
BUSY_FLAG = TRUE
GOTO MAIN
DISABLE_MOTOR:
MOTOR_1 = FALSE
MOTOR_2 = FALSE
ON_FLAG = FALSE
OFF_FLAG = FALSE
BUSY_FLAG = FALSE
BLINK = FALSE
GOTO MAIN
END