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Nationalism no longer really seen as dangerous (except austrai b/c of HUGE ethnic difs) Liberalism no longer really radical, more conservative Socialism no longer really radical Eve of world war one- ELEMENTS of socialism firmly established
General Characteristics of Responsive national state Loyalty to national state Nationalism_ more a conservative ideology Def had changed : more PATRIOTIC, not ethnic Universal male suffrage _ Was the NORM by WWI rather than the exception Helped gov address all social classes, elite is not sole voting class anymore Female suffrage Norway was first, England was HUGLEY radical Most countries not until AFTER WWI US too Women needed in work force Emmeline Pankhurst: mother o British women suffrage Multiparty system Harder to get majority Good for lower class Manipulation of National feelings
“blame the jews” Use war to distract people Anti-Semitism rises again GERMANY was actually first to give full legal rights to jews Imperialism Goes through stages German Empire: gov Structure Chancellor (Bismarck until 1890) King more of a figurehead Reichstag: german parliament 2 house legislature Separate STATE governments 25 states total including Prussia Federal gov controlled foereign and overall eco policy 3 major parties National liberals: 1866 Furether economic and legal reform Catholic Center Party In line w/ liberals but wanted to protect religious aims Mainly made of peeps in more SOUTHERN states (b/c of reformation) Conservative Party Junkers (Prussian aristocrats) Lost of progressJews got full emancipation Bismarck Was a count
Was conservative Realized nationalism had a place Kulturkampf Stems from Pope Pius IX’s reassertion of infallibility Was putting Church’s needs above state Was a movement against the church Conflict btw National Lib party and Cahtolic Center Party 1878 Bis had to drop Kulturkampf Prussia was MOSTLY Lutheran to begin with Also, Bis needed Cath Cent party’s support for economic stuff Dropping this got them on his side Protective Tariffs Low wheat prices--- peasant crisis!!!! Bis wanted to make sure he could give what peasants demanded Went to tariff protection Had LOTS of support from Cath center party Bis saw this as very Similar to Friedreck lists economic nationalism Was able to get ALL THREE parties on his side!!!!! Allowed Bismarck to increase taxes without complaint Saw Socialism as biggest threat because of the language they used Marxian Socialism most prominent by this point Talked about revolution and NO NEED FOR GOVERNMENT Talked about REVOLUTION Assination attempst on William I Restrictions on Socialist groups failed
Bis had to restrict ANY Sort of Possible rev by OUTLAWING SOCIAL DEMS Fairly ineffective First modern social security Laws Needed to meet needs of working class National sickness and accident insurance!!!!! During the 1870s!!!! National Pesions and Retirement benefits!! Paid for via employer and employee Allowed Bismarck to quite the working class LESSENED THE NEED for radical socialism William II (1888-1918) Intent on doing EVERYTHING by himself Didn’t want to be manipulated The “dropping of the pilot” Bismarck is canned in 1890 Bis wanted to keep Socialist party outlawed BISMARCK WAS THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR!!!!!!!! Is a long-term cause of WWI Bis is Fired, Wil II legalizes Social dems Were largest party in the Reichstadt by 1912 Were more nationalistic by this point Compulsory edu helped France: Empire to Republic Louis Napoleon FABULOUS domestic reforms Weaknesses:
AWFUL foreign policy Was sensitive to public opinion Final undoing was the Franco-Prussian war Issue was who was going to succeed the throne in Spain Could have been German_ even Will and Bis admitted it was a stretch Paris was trying to assert their power as a CITY over the country Paris commune and national Assembly conflict (just like in 1848) Most of the peeps in France got fed up w/ radicals in paris Third Republic: Adolf Thiers (1871-1873) “this is the government that divides us the LEAST” Knew it wasn’t perfect, was best compromise available As a result, voted president in 1871 Leon Gambetta Leader of who was Pres longer and gets more Don Moderates were winning out First time in FRENCH HISTORY idea of Parliament get something DONE No revs for a while (till 1914) Legalizes trade unions Workers have ANOTHER way to lobby for their demands Don’t HAVE to rely on Radical Marxian socialism Gains a colonial empire Get a DESRET in Africa Indo-china Mostly mountains and not productive land
Compulsory education MEN and WOMEN!! (yay!) Very patriotic curriculm Was SECULAR for first time Change in gender roles Teachers used to HAVE to remain single Women are allowed to marry, try to increase birth rate Lest edu system be more stable The Dreyfus affair Albert Dreyfuss Was jewish In army Accused of treason Jews had started to get civil Rights Napoleon had started to protect their rights Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) Iunfuses anti-semitism Albert insist innocent Gets Emile Zola (writer) on his side Dreyfuss found INOCENNT France Gov realizes church is trying to control france Undoes Concordat of 1801 France cuts almost all ties w/ church Introdusced separation of Church and state to france Great Britain
Suffrage Reform Bill of 1832 Slightly extended voting Gave House of Commons over the house of lords Did NOT give universal sufferage John Stewart Mill started really promoting U suffrage William Gladstone Leader of Liberal party Benjamin Disraeli Leader of conservative Party 1867- Second reform bill Prompted by Disraeli Reduced property requirements for voting Made it so that most of the middle class and above could vote Third reform bill-1884 UNIVERSAL SUFFGRAGE!! (Finally) House of Lords Start get irritated Fairly quite after 1832 1884 wanted to reassert power Ruled AGAINST labor unions Trying to prevent any type of liberal reform VERTOED PEOPLE”S BUDGET- 1906 King threatens to make more aristocrats King silences the house of lords, peeps biudget goes through Edward vII was king
Liberal Party was spearheaded by David Lloyd George (prime minister of Parliament) People’s Budget- 1906-1914 Taxing the aristocrats National health insurance Unemployment compensation Old age pensions Basically what Bismarck had done Moderated socialism Ireland and Great Britain Potato ramine—revolutionary movement Slow concessions to Ireland Some rights to peasants Abolish special priviledges for Anglicans Had the support of Gladstone (liberal party) 2 atempts to try to ggfet irish self rule bills passed Neither one passed 1886 and 1893 Had SOME irish nationalists in Parliament In order to get Peeps budget through need comp in Irish self rule Protestant irish opposed it! Worried about how they’d be treated Called Ulsterites Protestant Ulsterites vs Irish catholic 1914- compromise home rule bill defeated WWI suspended issue Saved England from Civil war
Northern Ireland remains part of Great Britain Creates issues into the 1990 Clinton had to make peace w/ N and S in ‘98 The austro-Hungarian Empire 1849- subjugation of Hungary Ruled as an occupied territory Austro-Prussian war – dual monarchy Weakend hold on Hungary Austria and Hungary basically seperat, just ruled by ONE monarch, Internal affairs were separate Common ministers for finance, defensem foreign affairs Austria Continued to see ethnic division Only 1/3 of Austria was german Rule by decree Try to promote economic nationalism FAILED Issue over what national language should be Hungary Constitution of 1848 reinstated Magyars suppressed ethnic minorities Nationalism destroyed empire
All of the above leads to the changing of the definition of socialism
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