INDEX
(p,q,r) modes ....................28 cross product .....................35 gradient mechanical radiation
2θHP half-power beamwidth curl ....................................36 thermoacoustic .............32 impedance ....................... 18
.........................................16 D(r) directivity function ...16 gradient ratio .....................32 modal density.................... 28
A absorption......................27 D(θ) directivity function..14, graphing terminology ........36 modes................................ 28
a absorption coefficient ....21 15, 16 H enthalpy........................36 modulus of elasticity ........... 9
absorption..........................27 dB decibels .............2, 12, 13 h specific enthalpy............36 momentum conservation . 6, 8
average .........................27 dBA ...................................13 half-power beamwidth ......16 monopole .......................... 13
measuring.....................27 decibel .....................2, 12, 13 harmonic wave ..................36 moving coil speaker .......... 17
absorption coefficient ..21, 28 del......................................35 heat flux ............................11 mr radiation mass ............. 18
measuring.....................21 density .................................6 Helmholtz resonator ..........25 mufflers....................... 24, 25
acoustic analogies................8 equilibrium.....................6 henry ...................................3 musical intervals ............... 12
acoustic impedance........3, 10 dependent variable.............36 Hooke's Law........................4 N fractional octave ........... 12
acoustic intensity ...............10 diffuse field .......................28 horsepower ..........................3 n number of reflections .... 28
acoustic power...................10 diffuse field mass law........22 humidity ............................28 N(f) modal density............ 28
spherical waves ............11 dipole.................................14 hyperbolic functions..........34 nabla operator ................... 35
acoustic pressure..............5, 9 direct field ...................29, 30 I acoustic intensity10, 11, 12 natural angular frequency.... 4
effective..........................5 directivity function 14, 15, 16 If spectral frequency density natural frequency ................ 4
adiabatic ........................7, 36 dispersion ..........................22 ........................................13 newton................................. 3
adiabatic bulk modulus........6 displacement IL intensity level...............12 Newton's Law ..................... 4
ambient density................2, 6 particle .........................10 impedance .....................3, 10 noise.................................. 36
amp......................................3 divergence .........................35 air 10 noise reduction .................. 30
amplitude.............................4 dot product ........................35 due to air ......................18 NR noise reduction .......... 30
analogies..............................8 double walls ......................23 mechanical ...................17 number of reflections ........ 28
anechoic room ...................36 E energy density...............26 plane wave ...................10 octave bands...................... 12
arbitrary direction plane E(t) room energy density..26 radiation .......................18 odd function ........................ 5
wave ..................................9 effective acoustic pressure...5 spherical wave .............11 p acoustic pressure ......... 5, 6
architectural absorption electrical analogies ..............8 incident power...................27 Pa ........................................ 3
coefficient........................28 electrical impedance ..........18 independent variable .........36 particle displacement... 10, 22
area electrostatic transducer ......19 inductance ...........................8 partition............................. 21
sphere ...........................36 energy density ...................26 inertance..............................8 pascal .................................. 3
average absorption.............27 direct field ....................29 instantaneous intensity ......10 paxial axial pressure ........... 19
average energy density ......26 reverberant field ...........30 instantaneous pressure.........5 Pe effective acoustic
axial pressure.....................19 enthalpy.............................36 intensity.......................10, 11 pressure ............................. 5
B bulk modulus..................6 entropy ..............................36 intensity (dB) ..............12, 13 perfect adiabatic gas............ 7
band equation of state ..............6, 7 intensity spectrum level.....13 phase ................................. 33
frequency......................12 equation overview ...............6 intervals phase angle.......................... 4
bandwidth..........................12 equilibrium density..............6 musical.........................12 phase speed ......................... 9
bass reflex..........................19 Euler's equation .................34 Iref reference intensity.......12 phasor notation.................. 33
Bessel J function..........18, 34 even function.......................5 isentropic...........................36 piezoelectric transducer..... 19
binomial expansion............34 expansion chamber......24, 25 ISL intensity spectrum level pink noise.......................... 36
binomial theorem...............34 Eyring-Norris ....................28 ........................................13 plane wave
bulk modulus .......................6 far field..............................16 isothermal..........................36 impedance.................... 10
C compliance......................8 farad ....................................3 isotropic.............................28 velocity .......................... 9
c speed of sound .................3 fc center frequency............12 joule ....................................3 plane waves......................... 9
calculus..............................34 fl lower frequency.............12 k wave number ...................2 polar form ........................... 4
capacitance ..........................8 flexural wavelength ...........22 k wave vector .....................9 power .......................... 10, 11
center frequency ................12 flow effects........................25 kelvin ..................................3 SPL .............................. 29
characteristic impedance....10 focal plane .........................16 L inertance..........................8 power absorbed ................. 27
circular source ...................15 focused source...................16 Laplacian...........................35 Pref reference pressure ...... 13
cocktail party effect ...........30 Fourier series.......................5 line source .........................14 pressure ........................... 6, 9
coincidence effect..............22 Fourier's law for heat linearizing an equation ......34 progressive plane wave ....... 9
complex conjugate.............33 conduction .......................11 LM mean free path.............28 progressive spherical wave 11
complex numbers ..............33 frequency m architectural absorption propagation ......................... 9
compliance ..........................8 center............................12 coefficient........................28 propagation constant ........... 2
condensation................2, 6, 7 frequency band ..................12 magnitude..........................33 Q quality factor ................ 29
conjugate frequency band intensity mass quality factor ..................... 29
complex........................33 level .................................13 radiation .......................18 r gas constant ..................... 7
contiguous bands ...............12 fu upper frequency ............12 mass conservation ...........6, 7 R room constant ............... 29
coulomb...............................3 gas constant .........................7 material properties.............20 radiation impedance .......... 18
Cp dispersion ....................22 general math ......................33 mean free path...................28 radiation mass ................... 18
Cramer's rule .....................23 glossary .............................36 mechanical impedance ......17 radiation reactance ............ 18
critical gradient..................32 grad operator .....................35 rayleigh number ................ 16
Initial conditions: ω0 ω0 x0
displacement: x ( 0 ) = x0 , so A1 = x0
x0 = the initial position [m]
u
velocity x& ( 0 ) = u0 , so A2 = 0 u0 = the initial speed [m/s]
ω0 s is the natural angular frequency in rad/s.
ω0 =
u0 m
Solution: x ( t ) = x0 cos ω0 t + sin ω0t
ω0 It is seen that displacement lags 90° behind the speed and
that the acceleration is 180° out of phase with the
s = spring constant [no units] displacement.
x = the displacement [m]
m = mass [kg]
u = velocity of the mass [m/s] SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION,
t = time [s] displacement – acceleration - speed
Displacement, Acceleration
Speed, a
Acceleration
Displacement Speed
x u
0 π π 3π 2π ω0 t
2 2 Phase
Angle
MASS CONSERVATION –
three dimensions
∂ v v
ρ + ∇ ⋅ ( ρu ) = 0
∂t
v
where ∇ ∂ ∂ ∂
= ρ xˆ + ρ yˆ + ρ zˆ
∂x ∂y ∂z
and let ρ = ρ0 (1 + s )
∂ v v
s + ∇ ⋅ u = 0 (linearized)
∂t
v
A progressive plane wave is a unidirectional plane
wave—no reverse-propagating component.
k WAVE VECTOR [rad/m or m-1]
p ( x, t ) = Ae (
j ωt − kx )
v
The phase constant k is converted to a vector. For
plane waves, the vector k is in the direction of
ARBITRARY DIRECTION PLANE WAVE propagation.
v
The expression for an arbitrary direction plane wave k = k x xˆ + k y yˆ + k z zˆ where
contains wave numbers for the x, y, and z
ω
2
components.
k +k +k =
2 2 2
( )
x y z
p ( x, t ) = Ae
j ωt − k x x −k y y −k z z c
ω
2
where k + k +k =
2
x
2
y
2
z THIN ROD PROPAGATION
c A thin rod is defined as λ ? a .
a
a = rod radius
dx
c= dt is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]
ϒ = Young's modulus, or modulus of elasticity, a
characteristic property of the material [Pa]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
n
= 2N
N fc
fu = the upper frequency in the band [Hz]
fl = the lowest frequency in the band [Hz] Octave bands are the most common contiguous bands:
N = the bandwidth in terms of the (inverse) fractional portion
of an octave, e.g. N=2 describes a ½-octave band f cn +1 fc fc
=2 fl = fu = f c 2 w=
f cn 2 2
fc CENTER FREQUENCY [Hz]
e.g. for fc = 1000 Hz, fl = 707 Hz, fu = 1414 Hz
The center frequency is the geometric mean of a
frequency band.
STANDARD CENTER FREQUENCIES [Hz]
fl fc fu
log f Octave bands:
16, 31.5, 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000
300 1k 10k
1/3-Octave bands:
fc = fu fl 10, 12.5, 16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50, 63, 80, 100, 125, 160, 200,
250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000, 2500,
fu = the upper frequency in the band [Hz] 3150, 4000, 5000, 6300, 8000
fl = the lowest frequency in the band [Hz]
MUSICAL INTERVALS [Hz]
1/12
w BANDWIDTH [Hz] Each half-step is 2 times higher than the previous
The width of a frequency band. note.
Harmonious frequency ratios:
fl fu 2:1 octave 212/12 = 2.000 2/1 = 2.000
w log f 3:2 perfect fifth 27/12 = 1.489 3/2 = 1.500
300 1k 10k 4:3 perfect fourth 25/16 = 1.335 4/3 = 1.333
( )f
1 − 21N
5:4 major third 24/12 = 1.260 5/4 = 1.200
w = fu − fl = 2 2 N − 2 c
I
Intensity Level: IL = 10 log
I ref
I = acoustic intensity [W/m2]
Iref = the reference intensity 1×10-12 in air [W/m2]
r2
r2 r r1
r r1 dx A j( ωt − kR )
Let Pdx ( R, θ, t ) = e
θ L R
d
2 sin θ θ
where Pdx is the pressure at a remote point due to
− + x one tiny segment of the line source,
d
d 2
and A = jka 2ρ0cu0 .
A j( ωt − kr1 ) A j( ωt − kr2 )
p ( r, θ) = e − e
r1 r2 for r ? L , R ≈ r − x sin θ ,
A = jka ρ0 cu0 p ( r , θ ) = ∫ Pdx ( r , θ, t ) dx (abbreviated form)
2
where
L
Far from the source, the wave looks spherical:
dx A j( ωt − kr + kx sin θ)
A j ωt − kr ) Pdx ( r , θ, t ) ≈ e
p ( r , θ ) = j2 e ( sin ( 12 kd sin θ ) L r
1424
r 3 144244 3
1 A j( ωt − kr ) L / 2 jkx sin θ
p ( r , θ, t ) = ∫− L / 2 e dx
directivity function
spherical wave
e
L r
p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
A j ωt − kr )
p ( r , θ, t ) = e ( D ( θ ) where
r = radial distance from the center of the source [m]
ω = frequency [rad/s]
r
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3] sin ( 12 kL sin θ )
dx D ( θ) = Directivity Function
c= dt is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s] 1
2 kL sin θ
u = particle velocity (due to oscillation, not flow) [m/s]
see also Half Power Beamwidth p16.
sin ( 12 kL sin θ ) 2r
D ( θ) = 1
2 kL sin θ 2 J1 ( ka sin θ )
where D ( θ) = Directivity function
ka sin θ
z= 0 z= d
r
ka 2
where G=
For a circular source: 2d
2 J ( ka sin θ )
from the Directivity function: D ( θHP ) =
1
= 1 J1 ( 2Gr / a )
2 ka sin θ and D ( r ) = (Directivity function)
Gr / a
1.61634
ka sin θHP = 1.61634 ⇒ 2θHP = 2sin −1
J1(x) = first order Bessel J function
ka r = radial distance from the central axis [m]
G = constant [radians]
3.2327 185.22
2θHP ≈ radians or degrees, for ka ? 1 a = radius of the source [m]
ka ka d = focal length [m]
J1(x) = first order Bessel J function ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls] (415 for air)
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
For a line source:
sin ( 12 kL sin θ )
from the Directivity function: D ( θ ) = 1 =
HP
2 1
2 kL sin θ z0 RAYLEIGH NUMBER [rad.·m]
The Rayleigh number or Rayleigh length is the
1.391558
1
2 kL sin θHP = 1.391558 ⇒ 2θHP = 2sin −1 1 distance along the central axis from a circular piston
2 kL element to the beginning of the far field. Beyond this
point, complicated pressure patterns of the near field
can be ignored.
πa 2 1 2
z0 = = 2 ka
λ
a = radius of the source [m]
d = focal length [m]
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls] (415 for air)
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
inertia [H]
finally
F% F%
V = voltage applied to the voice coil [V]
−ω2 m + jωRm + s
ZE = electrical impedance due to electrical components [Ω] Z mo = = =
ZA = effective electrical impedance due to mechanical air U% jωF% / ( −ω2 m + jωRm + s ) jω
loading [Ω]
ZM = effective electrical impedance due to the mechanical s
Z mo = Rm + { jωm − j
effects of spring stiffness, mass, and (mechanical) { ω
resistance [Ω] damping inertia {
due to spring
F = force on the voice coil [V] mass effect
φ = Bl coupling coefficient [N/A] m = mass of the speaker cone and voice coil [kg]
B = magnetic field [Tesla (an SI unit)] x = distance in the direction of motion [m]
l = length of wire in the voice coil [m] s = spring stiffness due to flexible cone suspension material
[N/m]
Rm = mechanical resistance, a small frictional force [(N·s)/m
or kg/s]
F = force on the speaker mass [N]
ω = frequency in radians
RM =
φ2 m
, CM = 2 , LM =
φ2 Z r = ρ0 cS R1 ( 2ka ) + j X 1 ( 2ka )
Rmo φ s
j 8 ρ a 3ω, ka = 1
Zr ≈ 3 2 0
φ2 πa ρ0 c, ka ? 1
ZM = = RM P CM P LM
Z mo The functions R1 and X1 are defined as:
2 J1 ( x ) x2 x4 x6 x8
R1 ( x ) = 1 − ; − + −
s φ 2
x 8 192 9216 737280
Z mo = Rm + jωm − j → ZM =
ω Rm + jωm − j
s 4 x x3 x5 x7 x9
− + − 5+ 7 , x ≤ 4.32
ω 2H1 ( x ) π 3 45 1600 10 10
X1 ( x ) = ;
RM = effective electrical resistance due to the mechanical x 4 8 3π
πx + πx 3 sin x − 4 , x > 4.32
resistance of the system [Ω]
CM = effective electrical capacitance due to the mechanical
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls] (415 for air)
stiffness [F]
S = surface area of the piston [m2]
LM = effective electrical inductance due to the mechanical
J1 = first order Bessel J function
inertia [H]
R1 = a function describing the real part of Zr
Rm = mechanical resistance, a small frictional force [(N·s)/m
X1 = a function describing the imaginary part of Zr
or kg/s]
x = just a placeholder here for 2ka
m = mass of the speaker cone and voice coil [kg] k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
s = spring stiffness due to flexible cone suspension material a = radius of the source [m]
[N/m]
H1 = first order Struve function
φ = Bl coupling coefficient [N/A] ω = frequency in radians
Zmo = mechanical impedance, open-circuit condition
[(N·s)/m or kg/s]
mr RADIATION MASS [kg] (7.5)
ZA ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE DUE TO The effective increase in mass due to the loading of
the fluid (radiation impedance).
AIR [Ω]
Xr
The factor of two in the denominator is due to loading mr =
on both sides of the speaker cone. ω
φ2 The effect of radiation mass is small for light fluids
ZA = such as air but in a more dense fluid such as water, it
2Z r can significantly decrease the resonant frequency.
s s
ω0 = →
m m + mr
The functions R1 and X1 are defined as:
Xr = radiation reactance, the imaginary part of the radiation
impedance [(N·s)/m]
ω = frequency in radians
s = spring stiffness due to flexible cone suspension material
[N/m]
m = mass of the speaker cone and voice coil [kg]
Co F
V φ
- +
Port
1
Acoustic voltage: V = ( I + φu ) ,
Choose ωc somewhat less than s / m to add a response jωC0
peak just below the existing damping-controlled peak.
Rolloff below that point will increase from 12 dB/octave to 18 F 1 Z
dB/octave. Mechanical voltage: = I + ms2 φu ,
φ jωCo φ
1 φ2 mv
ωc = , Lc = , Cc = For this circuit model, there is no
Lc Cc sc φ2 inverting of mechanical impedances
as in the loudspeaker circuit.
ZE ZC C0V0
R0 L0
ZM
RC
Coupling coefficient: φ= ,
x0
RM LM CM φu
LC
εA
V
I CC Equilibrium capacitance: C0 =
x0
Lc = effective electrical inductance due to the cabinet [H] V0 = bias voltage [V]
sc = cabinet stiffness [N/m] C0 = equilibrium capacitance due to diaphragm, back plate,
Cc = effective electrical capacitance due to the cabinet [F] and dielectric [F]
mv = mass of the air inside the port or vent [kg] F = force on the diaphragm [N]
φ = Bl coupling coefficient [N/A] I = electrical current [A]
φu = electrical current due to mechanical force [A]
φ = coupling coefficient [N/V]
PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER (14.12b) u = acoustic velocity [m/s]
Uses a crystal (usually quartz) or a ceramic; voltage is Zms = short-circuit mechanical impedance [(N· s)/m]
proportional to strain. High efficiency (30% is high for x0 = equilibrium position of the diaphragm [m]
acoustics.) Highly resonant. Used for microphones A = area of the diaphragm [m2]
and speakers.
x=0 x
Pi ± Pr r −r
Boundary Conditions: SPL difference = 20 log and =R= 2 1
1) Pressure is equal across the boundary at x=0.
± Pr Pi r2 + r1
pi + pr = pt → Pi + Pr = Pt Pi = peak acoustic pressure, incident [Pa]
2) Continuity of the normal component of velocity. Pr = peak acoustic pressure, reflected [Pa]
r1 = characteristic acoustic impedances of the known
ui + ur = ut material (ρ0c)1 [rayls or (Pa·s)/m]
r2 = characteristic acoustic impedance of the unknown
material (ρ0c)2 [rayls or (Pa·s)/m]
R, T, RI, TI REFLECTION AND ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS (6.2) c = the phase speed (speed of sound, 343 m/s in air) [m/s]
The ratio of reflected and transmitted magnitudes to
incident magnitudes. The stiffness of the medium has
the most effect on reflection and transmission.
i) r2 >> r1 Medium 2 is very hard compared to medium 1
and we have total reflection. R ≈ 1, T ≈ 2
Note that T=2 means that the amplitude doubles, but
there is practically no energy transmitted due to high
impedance.
ii) r2 = r1 The mediums are similar and we have total
transmission. R = 0, T = 1
iii) r2 << r1 Medium 2 is very soft and we have total
reflection with the waveform inverted. R ≈ −1, T ≈0
2
P r −r r −r
R= r = 2 1 RI = 2 1
Pi r2 + r1 r2 + r1
Pt 2r2 4r2 r1
T= = TI =
Pi r2 + r1 ( r2 + r1 )
2
pt π
pr Dispersion: Cp ( f ) = hcbar f [m/s]
3
θ θ
θ λ
Trace wavelength: λ tr = [m]
sin θ
pi
Cp
Flexural wavelength: λ p = [m]
1
TI ( θ ) = 2
f
ωρS c2
1+ cos θ Coincidence frequency: f c = [Hz]
2ρ0 c 1.8hcbar
TI = transmission intensity coefficient [no units] TL Mass law
6 dB/octave
θ = angle of incidence [radians] (dB) slope
fc log f
DIFFUSE FIELD MASS LAW [dB]
Design considerations: If f < fc, use the diffuse field mass
In a diffuse field, sound is incident by definition at all law to find the transmission loss. If f > fc, redesign to avoid.
angles with equal probability. Averaging yields an Note that fc is proportional to the inverse of the thickness.
increase in sound transmission of 5 dB over waves of
normal incidence. ξ = transverse particle displacement [m]
h = panel thickness [m]
TLdiffuse = TL0 − 5 cbar = bar speed for the panel material [m/s]
t = time [s]
Loss through a thin partition in air (ρ0c = 415): θ = angle of incidence [radians]
TLdiffuse = 20 log ( f ρ S ) − 47
γP0 ρ0c ω ( ρ s1 ρ s 2 )
s= = stiffness per unit area of air TL ; 20log ; 6dB/octave
d d 2ρ0c
f1 = pi + pr force per unit area on wall 1 At high frequencies f > f0
ρs1 Double walls are most effective.
s ρ s1 ρ s 2 d
f1 m1 m2 ρs2 Z w ; − jω3
ρ0 c 2
x1 x2 ω3 (ρ s1 ρ s 2 )
d TL ; 20log ; 18dB/octave
2ρ02c 3
From Newton's Law F=ma:
At very high frequencies f << f0
Mass 1: f1 − s ( x1 − x2 ) = m1 &&
x1 The walls decouple. The transmission loss is the sum of
the losses of the two walls; there is no interaction.
Mass 2: s ( x1 − x2 ) = m2 &&
x2 TL ; TL1 + TL2 ; 12dB/octave
Let f1 = F1e jωt
, xi = X i ( ω) e jωt
644474448 A
} x } b
s − m1ω2
− s X 1 F1
=
−s s − m2 ω2 X 2 0
∆i
Apply Cramer's rule, Xi =
∆
where ∆ = det A and
∆ i = det A, with b in the i th column
The wall impedance is
F1 ∆ ∆ mm
ZW = = = j ( m1 + m2 ) ω − 1 2 ω3
jω ∆ 2 jωs s
ρ S 1ρ S 2 d 3
→ ZW =j ( ρ S 1 + ρS 2 ) ω − ω
ρ 0 c 2
Resonance occurs at ZW=0:
1 ρ0 c 2 1 1
f0 = +
2π d ρ S 1 ρ S 2
S p ( ui + ur ) = S c ( u+ + u− ) → S p ( Pi − Pr ) = S c ( P+ − P− )
pipe
0 l x Pi Pr Sc P+ P−
→ − = − → 1 − R = m (α − β)
(ii)
j( ωt − kx ) p
Let pi = Pe ui = i Pi Pi S p Pi Pi
ρ0 c
i
p Boundary condition 4: at x = l,
p− = P− e (
j ωt + kx )
u− = − −
ρ0 c Sc ( u+ + u− ) = S p ut → ( P+ + P− ) =
Sp
Pt
Sc
( j ωt − kx ) p
pt = Pe ut = t
t
ρ0 c αe− jkl − β e jkl = m1 Te− jkl [Eqn. 3]
e− jk l −e + jk l − m1 e− jk l T 0 S l A= area
M
∆T e jk l V = volume
Cramer's Rule: T= =
∆ cos kl + j 12 ( m + m1 ) sin kl
1 1 ρ 0 c 2 A2
TL = 10 log = 10 log 2 Stiffness due to a gas volume: s= [N/m]
TI T V
Mass of the gas in neck: m = ρ0 l ′ A [kg]
Transmission loss in an expansion chamber:
Some gas spills out of the neck, so the
TL = 10 log 1 + 14 ( m − m1 ) sin 2 kl
2 neck
mass plug is actually slightly longer than
the neck. In practice, the effective length
is:
l ′ ≈ l + 0.8 A
Design point
TL
S 1 S c A
Resonance: ω0 = , f0 = =
0 π 2π kl m 2π m 2π l ′V
FLOW EFFECTS
Muffler performance is affected by flow rate, but the
preceding calculations are valid for flows up to 35 m/s.
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
The effect of having high temperature gases in a
muffler causes the speed of sound to increase, so λ
becomes larger.
343 T + 273
λ=
f 293
λ = wavelength [m]
f = frequency [Hz]
T = temperature [°C]
TL ≈ 10 log 1 +
the rate at which of the
sc the rate at which
energy increases energy is absorbed input
f f0 in the volume by the surfaces source
f − f
0 This can be rewritten to include the time constant.
dE 4W0 4V
For a duct of impedance ρ0c with a Helmholtz resonator τ +E = , where τ=
having stiffness s and neck mass m, the arrangement can be dt Ac Ac
modeled as follows.
Sound decay: The following expression describes
uH ut the effect of sound dissipation as a source is turned
jωm off at t=0.
pi + pr ρ0 c pt
s
E ( t ) = E0 e− t / τ
jω
W0 = power of the sound source [W]
Ø ω→ 0, z → ρ0c
Ø ω→ ∞, z → ρ0c z=
(s − ω m)ρ c
2
0
A = sound absorption, in units of metric sabin or English
2 2
sabin [m or ft ]
s − ω m + jωρ0c
2 t = time [s]
Ø ω→ s/m , z → 0 τ = time constant [s]
E0 = initial energy density [J/m3]
TL = transmission loss [dB]
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
f = frequency [Hz]
f0 = resonant frequency of Helmholtz resonator [Hz]
V = resonator volume [m3]
s = stiffness [m3] E AVERAGE ENERGY DENSITY [J/m3]
(12.2)
ROOM ACOUSTICS 1
V∫
E = E dV
E ENERGY DENSITY [J/m3] (5.8)
E = energy density [J/m3]
The amount of sound energy (potential and kinetic) V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
per unit volume. In a perfectly diffuse field, E does not
depend on location.
2
prms P2
E= =
ρ0 c 2ρ0 c
prms = acoustic pressure, rms [Pa]
P = peak acoustic pressure or pressure magnitude [Pa]
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls or (Pa·s)/m] (415 for
air)
T 4V
−60 = 10 log e ⇒ T = 13.816τ , τ = m AIR ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT,
τ ac
ARCHITECTURAL [no units] (12.3)
Sabin formula:
0.161V 0.049V I = I 0e − mx = I 0e − mct m = 2α
T= (metric), T= (English)
For most architectural applications, the air absorption
A A
coefficient can be approximated as:
a ≤ 0.2 ):
m = 5.5 × 10 −4 ( 50 / h )( f /1000 )
Including air absorption (for 1.7
0.161V
T= (metric) I = acoustic intensity [W/m2]
A + 4mV I0 = initial acoustic intensity [W/m2]
More accurate, Eyring-Norris reverberation formula: h = relative humidity (limited to the range 20 to 70%) [%]
f = frequency (limited to the range 1.5 to 10 kHz) [Hz]
0.161V
T= (metric) c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
4mV − S ln (1 − a ) α = air absorption coefficient due to combined factors [no
units]
τ = time constant [s]
V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
A = sound absorption, in units of metric sabin or English LM MEAN FREE PATH [m]
2 2
sabin [m or ft ]
a = average absorption coefficient [no units] The average distance between reflections in a
rectangular room. This works out to 2L/3 for a cubic
m = air absorption coefficient [no units]
S = total surface area [m2 or ft2] room and 2d/3 for a sphere.
4V
LM =
(p,q,r) MODES, rectangular cavity (9.1) S
The modes of a volume are the frequencies at which V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
resonances occur, and are a function of the room S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
dimensions. For example, the lowest mode will be the
frequency for which the longest dimension equals
½ -wavelength and is represented by (1,0,0).
n NUMBER OF REFLECTIONS [no units]
The number of acoustic reflections in a room in time t.
2 2 2
c p q r
f ( p, q, r ) = + + n=
ct ctS
=
2 L W H LM 4V
p, q, and r form the mode numbers. They are integers
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
representing the number of half-wavelengths in the length,
width, and height respectively. To avoid having more than
t = time [s]
one mode at the same frequency, the ratio of any two room LM = mean free path [m]
dimensions should not be a whole number. Some V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
recommended room dimension ratios are 1.6:1.25:1.0 for S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
small rooms and 2.4:1.5:1.0 or 3.2:1.3:1.0 for large rooms.
f = frequency [Hz]
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
L, W, H = room length, width, and height respectively [m]
NR = SPL1 − SPL2 1 R
M < 1+ + 1
SNR min 16πd 2
For measuring transmission loss:
Assume R ; A so that T = 0.161V / A ; 0.161V / R , then
S
TL = NR + 10log w , provided R2 ; A2 we can rewrite the expression in terms of the room volume V
R2 and the reverberation constant T.
1 V
Sw = surface area of the wall [m2] M < 1+ + 1 [mks units]
R2 = room constant of the receiving room [m2] SNR min 312d T
2
A2 = sound absorption or absorption area of the receiving If we further assume that to the listener, the speaker must
2
room [m ] be as loud as the background noise, then the maximum
number of speakers (conversations) in the room is
V
M max ; 2 +
312d 2T
W = power output of a speaker [W]
M = the number of speakers (or groups)
R = room constant [m2]
d = distance between speakers in the same group [m]
E = energy density [J/m3]
ξ Velocity
Pressure
time t u
p
Displacement
t0 t1 t2 t3
ξ
t0
Source
Pressure
Metal plate p
0 λ λ 3λ λ length
8 4 8 2
t1 ξ0 π πc
p = A cos kx sin ωt , k = , ω=
Source
Q λ/2 λ/2
Metal plate
A
u=− sin kx cos ωt
ρ0 c
t2 A
Source ξ=− sin kx cos ωt
ωρ0c
Metal plate
t3 ξ0
Source
Q
Metal plate
δT
x
2ξ 0
dT
= ( γ − 1) kT0
dx critical
Γ GRADIENT RATIO
The ratio of the operating temperature gradient to the
critical gradient.
dT / d x
Γ=
dT / d x critical
The magnitude of a complex number may be written as the = Re{2e j3 z e jωt xˆ + ( − j) 4e j3 z e jωt yˆ }
absolute value. v v
E ( r ) = 2e j3 z xˆ − j4e j3 z yˆ
Magnitude {x + jy} = x + jy
The square of the magnitude of a complex number is the
product of the complex number and its complex conjugate. TIME-AVERAGE
The complex conjugate is the expression formed by
reversing the signs of the imaginary terms.
When two functions are multiplied, they cannot be
converted to the phasor domain and multiplied.
x + jy = ( x + jy )( x + jy ) * = ( x + jy )( x − jy )
2
Instead, we convert each function to the phasor
domain and multiply one by the complex conjugate of
the other and divide the result by two. The complex
conjugate is the expression formed by reversing the
signs of the imaginary terms.
For example, the function for power is:
P (t ) = v ( t ) i (t ) watts
T 0
Re{V I * } watts
1
P (t ) =
2
T = period [s]
V = voltage in the phasor domain [s]
I* = complex conjugate of the phasor domain current [A]
1
type of function, the mean value of the square is ½ the peak
; 1 + 2 x + 3x 2 + 4 x 3 + L , − 12 < x < 12
value of the square.
(1 − x )
2
1
; 1 − x + x 2 − x 3 + L , − 12 < x < 12
1+ x
1
; 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + L , − 12 < x < 12
1− x
BINOMIAL THEOREM
Also called binomial expansion. When m is a positive
integer, this is a finite series of m+1 terms. When m is
not a positive integer, the series converges for -1<x<1.
m ( m − 1) 2 m ( m − 1)( m − 2 )L ( m − n + 1) n
(1 + x ) = 1 + mx + x +L + x +L
m
2! n!
EULER'S EQUATION
e jφ = cos φ + j sin φ
BESSEL FUNCTION EXPANSION
z 2z3 3z 5
TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES J1: + 2 − 2 2 +L , z = 1
2 2·4 2·4 ·6
e+ jθ + e− jθ = 2 cos θ
e+ jθ − e− jθ = j 2sin θ HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
e ± jθ = cos θ ± j sin θ j sin θ = sinh ( jθ )
j cos θ = cosh ( jθ )
CALCULUS
j tan θ = tanh ( jθ )
∫ sin u du = 12 u − 14 sin 2u + C
2
∫ cos u du = 12 u + 14 sin 2u + C
2
LINEARIZING AN EQUATION
Small nonlinear terms are removed. Nonlinear terms
include:
• variables raised to a power
• variables multiplied by other variables
∆ values are considered variables, e.g. ∆t.
∂ Dx ∂ Dy ∂ Dz
div D = ∇ ⋅ D = + + =ρ
∂x ∂y ∂z
D = electric flux density vector D = εE [C/m2]
ρ = source charge density [C/m3]
1 ∂ ( Bφ sin θ ) ∂Bθ
analogous to current flow.
curl B = ∇ × B = rˆ − + isothermal Having constant temperature, no heat flow to/from
r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ the surroundings. Analogous to voltage.
pink noise Noise composed of all audible frequencies with a
1 1 ∂Br ∂ ( rBφ ) ˆ 1 ∂ ( rBθ ) ∂Br 3 dB per octave attenuation with frequency increase. The
θˆ − +φ − attenuation is based on a per Hz value; the SPLs for each
r sin θ ∂φ ∂r r ∂r ∂θ octave are equal.
The divergence of a curl is always zero: reverberation room Characterized by long decay time.
a0 << 1, large T0..
∇·(∇ × H ) = 0 TDS time delay spectrometry. A sophisticated method for
obtaining anechoic results in echoic spaces.
white noise Noise composed of all audible frequencies at
SPHERE equal amplitude per Hz.
Area = πd = 4πr
2
Volume = 16 πd 3 = 43 πr 3
2
For a more comprehensive glossary, see the file
DictionaryOfAcousticTerms.PDF.
GRAPHING TERMINOLOGY
With x being the horizontal axis and y the vertical, we have
a graph of y versus x or y as a function of x. The x-axis
represents the independent variable and the y-axis
represents the dependent variable, so that when a graph
is used to illustrate data, the data of regular interval (often
this is time) is plotted on the x-axis and the corresponding
data is dependent on those values and is plotted on the y-
axis.