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ENGINEERING ACOUSTICS EE 363N

INDEX
(p,q,r) modes ....................28 cross product .....................35 gradient mechanical radiation
2θHP half-power beamwidth curl ....................................36 thermoacoustic .............32 impedance ....................... 18
.........................................16 D(r) directivity function ...16 gradient ratio .....................32 modal density.................... 28
A absorption......................27 D(θ) directivity function..14, graphing terminology ........36 modes................................ 28
a absorption coefficient ....21 15, 16 H enthalpy........................36 modulus of elasticity ........... 9
absorption..........................27 dB decibels .............2, 12, 13 h specific enthalpy............36 momentum conservation . 6, 8
average .........................27 dBA ...................................13 half-power beamwidth ......16 monopole .......................... 13
measuring.....................27 decibel .....................2, 12, 13 harmonic wave ..................36 moving coil speaker .......... 17
absorption coefficient ..21, 28 del......................................35 heat flux ............................11 mr radiation mass ............. 18
measuring.....................21 density .................................6 Helmholtz resonator ..........25 mufflers....................... 24, 25
acoustic analogies................8 equilibrium.....................6 henry ...................................3 musical intervals ............... 12
acoustic impedance........3, 10 dependent variable.............36 Hooke's Law........................4 N fractional octave ........... 12
acoustic intensity ...............10 diffuse field .......................28 horsepower ..........................3 n number of reflections .... 28
acoustic power...................10 diffuse field mass law........22 humidity ............................28 N(f) modal density............ 28
spherical waves ............11 dipole.................................14 hyperbolic functions..........34 nabla operator ................... 35
acoustic pressure..............5, 9 direct field ...................29, 30 I acoustic intensity10, 11, 12 natural angular frequency.... 4
effective..........................5 directivity function 14, 15, 16 If spectral frequency density natural frequency ................ 4
adiabatic ........................7, 36 dispersion ..........................22 ........................................13 newton................................. 3
adiabatic bulk modulus........6 displacement IL intensity level...............12 Newton's Law ..................... 4
ambient density................2, 6 particle .........................10 impedance .....................3, 10 noise.................................. 36
amp......................................3 divergence .........................35 air 10 noise reduction .................. 30
amplitude.............................4 dot product ........................35 due to air ......................18 NR noise reduction .......... 30
analogies..............................8 double walls ......................23 mechanical ...................17 number of reflections ........ 28
anechoic room ...................36 E energy density...............26 plane wave ...................10 octave bands...................... 12
arbitrary direction plane E(t) room energy density..26 radiation .......................18 odd function ........................ 5
wave ..................................9 effective acoustic pressure...5 spherical wave .............11 p acoustic pressure ......... 5, 6
architectural absorption electrical analogies ..............8 incident power...................27 Pa ........................................ 3
coefficient........................28 electrical impedance ..........18 independent variable .........36 particle displacement... 10, 22
area electrostatic transducer ......19 inductance ...........................8 partition............................. 21
sphere ...........................36 energy density ...................26 inertance..............................8 pascal .................................. 3
average absorption.............27 direct field ....................29 instantaneous intensity ......10 paxial axial pressure ........... 19
average energy density ......26 reverberant field ...........30 instantaneous pressure.........5 Pe effective acoustic
axial pressure.....................19 enthalpy.............................36 intensity.......................10, 11 pressure ............................. 5
B bulk modulus..................6 entropy ..............................36 intensity (dB) ..............12, 13 perfect adiabatic gas............ 7
band equation of state ..............6, 7 intensity spectrum level.....13 phase ................................. 33
frequency......................12 equation overview ...............6 intervals phase angle.......................... 4
bandwidth..........................12 equilibrium density..............6 musical.........................12 phase speed ......................... 9
bass reflex..........................19 Euler's equation .................34 Iref reference intensity.......12 phasor notation.................. 33
Bessel J function..........18, 34 even function.......................5 isentropic...........................36 piezoelectric transducer..... 19
binomial expansion............34 expansion chamber......24, 25 ISL intensity spectrum level pink noise.......................... 36
binomial theorem...............34 Eyring-Norris ....................28 ........................................13 plane wave
bulk modulus .......................6 far field..............................16 isothermal..........................36 impedance.................... 10
C compliance......................8 farad ....................................3 isotropic.............................28 velocity .......................... 9
c speed of sound .................3 fc center frequency............12 joule ....................................3 plane waves......................... 9
calculus..............................34 fl lower frequency.............12 k wave number ...................2 polar form ........................... 4
capacitance ..........................8 flexural wavelength ...........22 k wave vector .....................9 power .......................... 10, 11
center frequency ................12 flow effects........................25 kelvin ..................................3 SPL .............................. 29
characteristic impedance....10 focal plane .........................16 L inertance..........................8 power absorbed ................. 27
circular source ...................15 focused source...................16 Laplacian...........................35 Pref reference pressure ...... 13
cocktail party effect ...........30 Fourier series.......................5 line source .........................14 pressure ........................... 6, 9
coincidence effect..............22 Fourier's law for heat linearizing an equation ......34 progressive plane wave ....... 9
complex conjugate.............33 conduction .......................11 LM mean free path.............28 progressive spherical wave 11
complex numbers ..............33 frequency m architectural absorption propagation ......................... 9
compliance ..........................8 center............................12 coefficient........................28 propagation constant ........... 2
condensation................2, 6, 7 frequency band ..................12 magnitude..........................33 Q quality factor ................ 29
conjugate frequency band intensity mass quality factor ..................... 29
complex........................33 level .................................13 radiation .......................18 r gas constant ..................... 7
contiguous bands ...............12 fu upper frequency ............12 mass conservation ...........6, 7 R room constant ............... 29
coulomb...............................3 gas constant .........................7 material properties.............20 radiation impedance .......... 18
Cp dispersion ....................22 general math ......................33 mean free path...................28 radiation mass ................... 18
Cramer's rule .....................23 glossary .............................36 mechanical impedance ......17 radiation reactance ............ 18
critical gradient..................32 grad operator .....................35 rayleigh number ................ 16

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rayls .....................................3 specific acoustic impedance trace wavelength ...............22 wave vector ......................... 9
rd reverberation radius ......29 .........................................10 transducer wavelength .......................... 2
reflection............................20 specific enthalpy................36 electrostatic ..................19 temperature effects....... 25
reflection coefficient..........20 specific gas constant............7 piezoelectric.................19 weber................................... 3
resonance spectral frequency density .13 transmission ......................20 weighted sound levels ....... 13
modal............................28 speed amplitude...................4 transmission at oblique white noise ........................ 36
reverberant field ................30 speed of sound.....................3 incidence .........................22 Wincident incident power..... 27
reverberation radius...........29 sphere ................................36 transmission coefficient ....20 Young's modulus................. 9
reverberation room ............36 spherical wave...................11 transmission loss ...............21 z acoustic impedance........ 10
reverberation time..............28 impedance ....................11 composite walls............22 z impedance................ 10, 11
rms.................................5, 34 velocity ........................11 diffuse field..................22 z0 rayleigh number ........... 16
room acoustics...................26 spherical wave impedance.11 expansion chamber ......25 ZA elec. impedance due to air
room constant ....................29 SPL sound power level.....29 thin partition.................21 ........................................ 18
room energy density ..........26 SPL sound pressure level..13 trigonometric identities .....34 ZM elec. impedance due to
room modes .......................28 spring constant ....................4 u velocity..................6, 9, 11 mech. forces .................... 18
root mean square ...............34 standing waves ..................10 U volume velocity..............8 Zm mechanical impedance 17
s condensation ................2, 6 Struve function ..................18 vector differential equation35 Zr radiation impedance..... 18
Sabin formula ....................28 surface density...................21 velocity................................6 Γ gradient ratio................. 32
sabins.................................27 T60 reverberation time.......28 plane wave .....................9 Π acoustic power ....... 10, 11
series..................................34 TDS ...................................36 spherical wave .............11 γ ratio of specific heats....... 6
sidebranch resonator..........26 temperature..........................3 volt ......................................3 λ wavelength...................... 2
simple harmonic motion ......4 temperature effects ............25 volume λp flexural wavelength ..... 22
sound ...................................3 tesla .....................................3 sphere...........................36 λtr trace wavelength.......... 22
sound decay .......................26 thermoacoustic cycle .........31 volume velocity...................8
ρ0 equilibrium density........ 6
sound growth .....................26 thermoacoustic engine.......31 w bandwidth .....................12
ρs surface density ............. 21
sound power level..............29 thermoacoustic gradient ....32 Wabs power absorbed ........27
sound pressure level (dB) ..13 thin rod ................................9 watt......................................3 τ time constant ................. 26
source ..........................13, 14 time constant .....................26 wave ξ particle displacement.... 10,
space derivative .................35 time delay spectrometry ....36 progressive...................11 22
space-time..........................33 time-average ......................33 spherical.......................11 ∇ del................................. 35
speaker...............................17 time-averaged power .........33 wave equation .....................6 ∇× · curl............................. 36
TL transmission loss ...21, 22 wave number .......................2 ∇2· Laplacian.................... 35
∇· divergence ................... 35

DECIBELS [dB] k WAVE NUMBER [rad/m]


A log based unit of energy that makes it easier to The wave number of propagation constant
describe exponential losses, etc. The decibel means is a component of a wave function
2π ω
10 bels, a unit named after Bell Laboratories. representing the wave density or wave
k= =
energy
spacing relative to distance. Sometimes
λ c
represented by the letter β. See also
L = 10 log [dB] WAVE VECTOR p9.
reference energy
One decibel is approximately the minimum discernable
amplitude difference that can be detected by the human ear s CONDENSATION [no units]
over the full range of amplitude.
The ratio of the change in density to the ambient
density, i.e. the degree to which the medium has
λ WAVELENGTH [m] condensed (or expanded) due to sound waves. For
example, s = 0 means no condensation or expansion
Wavelength is the distance that a c 2π of the medium. s = -½ means the density is at one
wave advances during one cycle. λ= = half the ambient value. s = +1 means the density is at
f k
twice the ambient value. Of course these examples
At high temperatures, the speed of 343 Tk are unrealistic for most sounds; the condensation will
sound increases so λ changes. Tk is λ= typically be close to zero.
temperature in Kelvin. f 293 ρ − ρ0
s=
ρ0
ρ = instantaneous density [kg/m3]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]

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UNITS c SPEED OF SOUND [m/s]
A (amp) = C = W = J = N ·m = V ·F Sound travels faster in stiffer (i.e. higher B, less
s V V ·s V ·s s compressible) materials. Sound travels faster at
higher temperatures.
C (coulomb) = A·s = V ·F = J = N ·m = W ·s
V V V λω
2 2 Frequency/wavelength relation: c = λf =
F (farad) = C = C = C = J = A·s 2π
V J N ·m V 2 V
H (henry) = V ·s (note that H·F = s 2 ) γ P0
In a perfect gas: c= = γrTK
A ρ0
2
J (joule) = N ·m = V ·C = W ·s = AV C
· ·s = F ·V 2 =
F γ BT
In liquids: c= where B = γ BT
N (newton) = J = C ·V = W ·s = kg ·m ρ0
m m m s2
γ = ratio of specific heats (1.4 for a diatomic gas) [no units]
Pa (pascal) = N = kg = J = W ·s P0 = ambient (atmospheric) pressure ( p = P0 ). At sea
m 2 m·s 2 m3 m3
level, P0 ≈ 101 kPa [Pa]
T (tesla) = Wb = V ·s = H · A
m2 m2 m2 ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
r = specific gas constant [J/(kg· K)]
V (volt) = W = J = J = W ·s = N ·m = C TK = temperature in Kelvin [K]
A C A·s C C F
B = ρ  ∂P  adiabatic bulk modulus [Pa]
2 0 
W (watt) = J = N ·m = C ·V = V · A = F ·V = 1 HP  ∂ρ ρ0
s s s s 746 BT = isothermal bulk modulus, easier to measure than the
Wb (weber) = H · A = V ·s = J adiabatic bulk modulus [Pa]
A
Two values are given for the speed of sound in solids, Bar
Acoustic impedance: [rayls or (Pa·s)/m] and Bulk. The Bar value provides for the ability of sound to
distort the dimensions of solids having a small-cross-
Temperature: [°C or K] 0°C = 273.15K sectional area. Sound moves more slowly in Bar material.
The Bulk value is used below where applicable.
Speed of Sound in Selected Materials [m/s]
Air @ 20°C 343 Copper 5000 Steel 6100
Aluminum 6300 Glass (pyrex) 5600 Water, fresh 20°C 1481
Brass 4700 Ice 3200 Water, sea 13°C 1500
Concrete 3100 Steam @ 100°C 404.8 Wood, oak 4000

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SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION,
Restoring force on a spring s POLAR FORM
(Hooke's Law): M The solution above can be written
f s = − sx x ( t ) = A cos ( ω0t + φ ) ,
and Newton's Law: where we have the new constants:
F = ma 2
u 
A = x0 +  0 
2
d 2x d 2x s amplitude:
yield: − sx = m + x=0
dt 2
and
dt 2 m  ω0 
s  −u 
Let ω0 = φ = tan −1  0 
2
, so that the system is described by the initial phase angle:
m  ω0 x0 
d 2x Note that zero phase angle occurs at maximum positive
+ ω0 x = 0 .
2
equation 2 displacement.
dt
By differentiation, it can be found that the speed of the mass
s is the natural angular frequency in rad/s.
ω0 = is u = −U sin ( ω0t + φ ) , where U = ω0 A is the speed
m
ω0 amplitude. The acceleration is a = −ω0U cos ( ω0t + φ ) .
f0 = is the natural frequency in Hz.
2π Using the initial conditions, the equation can be written
The general solution takes the form
x ( t ) = A1 cos ω0t + A2 sin ω0t
2
u   u 
x ( t ) = x0 +  0  cos  ω0t − tan −1 0 
2

Initial conditions:  ω0   ω0 x0 
displacement: x ( 0 ) = x0 , so A1 = x0
x0 = the initial position [m]
u
velocity x& ( 0 ) = u0 , so A2 = 0 u0 = the initial speed [m/s]
ω0 s is the natural angular frequency in rad/s.
ω0 =
u0 m
Solution: x ( t ) = x0 cos ω0 t + sin ω0t
ω0 It is seen that displacement lags 90° behind the speed and
that the acceleration is 180° out of phase with the
s = spring constant [no units] displacement.
x = the displacement [m]
m = mass [kg]
u = velocity of the mass [m/s] SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION,
t = time [s] displacement – acceleration - speed
Displacement, Acceleration
Speed, a
Acceleration
Displacement Speed
x u

0 π π 3π 2π ω0 t
2 2 Phase
Angle

Initial phase angle φ=0°

The speed of a simple oscillator leads the displacement by


90°. Acceleration and displacement are 180° out of phase
with each other.

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FOURIER SERIES p ACOUSTIC PRESSURE [Pa]
The Fourier Series is a method of describing a Sound waves produce proportional changes in
complex periodic function in terms of the frequencies pressure, density, and temperature. Sound is usually
and amplitudes of its fundamental and harmonic measured as a change in pressure. See Plane
frequencies. Waves p9.

Let f ( t ) = f ( t + T ) = any periodic signal p = P − P0


where T = the period. For a simple harmonic plane wave traveling in the x
direction, p is a function of x and t:
p ( x, t ) = Pe
f (t) j( ωt − kx )

P = instantaneous pressure [Pa]

0 1T 2T t P0 = ambient (atmospheric) pressure ( p = P0 ). At sea


level, P0 ≈ 101 kPa [Pa]
P = peak acoustic pressure [Pa]
x = position along the x-axis [m]
∞ t = time [s]
1
Then f (t ) = A0 + ∑ ( An cos nωt + Bn sin nωt )
2 n =1

2π Pe EFFECTIVE ACOUSTIC PRESSURE


where ω = = the fundamental frequency
T [Pa]
A0 = the DC component and will be zero provided the The effective acoustic pressure is the rms value of the
function is symmetric about the t-axis. This is almost sound pressure, or the rms sum (see page 34) of the
always the case in acoustics. values of multiple acoustic sources.

2 t0 +T An is zero when f(t) is an


An =
∫ f ( t ) cos nωt dt odd function, i.e. f(t)=-f(-t), Pe =
P
Pe = P 2 = ∫ p 2 dt
2
T t0
the right-hand plane is a 2 T
mirror image of the left-
Pe = P1 + P2 + P3 + L
hand plane provided one of 2 2 2
them is first flipped about
the horizontal axis, e.g.
P = peak acoustic pressure [Pa]
sine function.
p = P − P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
2 t0 +T Bn is zero when f(t) is an
f ( t ) sin nωt dt
T ∫ t0
Bn = even function, i.e. f(t)=f(-t),
the right-hand plane is a
mirror image of the left-
hand plane, e.g. cosine
function.
where t0 = an arbitrary time

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ρ0 EQUILIBRIUM DENSITY [kg/m3] EQUATION OVERVIEW
The ambient density. Equation of State (pressure)
B γ P0 p = Bs
ρ0 = = 2 for ideal gases
c2 c Mass Conservation (density)
γ BT 3-dimensional 1-dimensional
ρ0 = 2 for liquids
c ∂s v v ∂ s ∂u
+ ∇ ⋅u = 0 + =0
The equilibrium density is the inverse of the specific volume. ∂t ∂t ∂ x
From the ideal gas equation:
Pν = RT → P = ρ0 RT Momentum Conservation (velocity)
3-dimensional 1-dimensional
B = ρ0 ( )∂P
∂ρ ρ
0
adiabatic bulk modulus, approximately equal v
∇p + ρ 0
v
∂u
=0
∂p
+ ρ0
∂u
=0
to the isothermal bulk modulus, 2.18×10 for water [Pa]
9
∂t ∂x ∂t
c = the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]
From the above 3 equations and 3 unknowns (p, s, u)
γ = ratio of specific heats (1.4 for a diatomic gas) [no units] we can derive the Wave Equation
P0 = ambient (atmospheric) pressure ( p = P0 ). At sea
1 ∂2 p
level, P0 ≈ 101 kPa [Pa]
∇2 p =
P = pressure [Pa] c 2 ∂t 2
ν = V/m specific volume [m3/kg]
V = volume [m3]
m = mass [kg] EQUATION OF STATE - GAS
R = gas constant (287 for air) [J/(kg· K)]
An equation of state relates the physical properties
T = absolute temperature [K] (°C + 273.15)
describing the thermodynamic behavior of the fluid. In
ρ0 Equilibrium Density of Selected Materials [kg/m3] acoustics, the temperature property can be ignored.
Air @ 20°C 1.21 Copper 8900 Steel 7700
In a perfect adiabatic gas, the thermal conductivity of
Aluminum 2700 Glass (pyrex) 2300 Water, fresh 20°C 998
the gas and temperature gradients due to sound
Brass 8500 Ice 920 Water, sea 13°C 1026
waves are so small that no appreciable thermal
Concrete 2600 Steam @ 100°C 0.6 Wood, oak 720
energy transfer occurs between adjacent elements of
the gas.
B ADIABATIC BULK MODULUS [Pa] γ
P ρ
B is a stiffness parameter. A larger B means the Perfect adiabatic gas: = 
material is not as compressible and sound travels P0  ρ0 
faster within the material.
p = γ P0 s
∂ P Linearized:
B = ρ0   = ρ0 c = γ P0
2
P = instantaneous (total) pressure [Pa]
 ∂ρ  ρ0 P0 = ambient (atmospheric) pressure ( p = P0 ). At sea
ρ = instantaneous density [kg/m3] level, P0 ≈ 101 kPa [Pa]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3] ρ = instantaneous density [kg/m3]
c = the phase speed (speed of sound, 343 m/s in air) [m/s] ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
P = instantaneous (total) pressure [Pa or N/m2]
γ = ratio of specific heats (1.4 for a diatomic gas) [no units]
P0 = ambient (atmospheric) pressure ( p = P0 ). At sea p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
level, P0 ≈ 101 kPa [Pa] s = ρ − ρ0 = 1 condensation [no units]
γ = ratio of specific heats (1.4 for a diatomic gas) [no units] ρ0
B Bulk Modulus of Selected Materials [Pa]
Aluminum 75×109 Iron (cast) 86×109 Rubber (hard) 5×109
Brass 136×109 Lead 42×109 Rubber (soft) 1×109
9 9
Copper 160×10 Quartz 33×10 Water *2.18×109
Glass (pyrex) 39×109 Steel 170×109 Water (sea) *2.28×109
*BT, isothermal bulk modulus

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EQUATION OF STATE – LIQUID MASS CONSERVATION – one dimension
An equation of state relates the physical properties For the one-dimensional problem, consider sound
describing the thermodynamic behavior of the fluid. In waves traveling through a tube. Individual particles of
acoustics, the temperature property can be ignored. the medium move back and forth in the x-direction.
Adiabatic liquid: p = Bs x x + dx

p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa] A = tube area


B = ρ0 ( )
∂P
∂ρ ρ
0
adiabatic bulk modulus, approximately equal
9
to the isothermal bulk modulus, 2.18×10 for water [Pa] ( ρuA) x is called the mass flux [kg/s]
s = ρ − ρ0 = 1 condensation [no units]
ρ0 ( ρuA ) x+ dx is what's coming out the other side (a different
value due to compression) [kg/s]
The difference between the rate of mass entering the center
r SPECIFIC GAS CONSTANT [J/(kg· K)] volume (A dx) and the rate at which it leaves the center
volume is the rate at which the mass is changing in the
The specific gas constant r depends on the universal center volume.
gas constant R and the molecular weight M of the
∂ ( ρuA )
particular gas. For air r ≈ 287 J/ ( kg·K ) . ( ρuA ) x − ( ρuA ) x+ dx = − dx
∂x
R ρ dv is the mass in the center volume, so the rate at which
r=
M the mass is changing can be written as
R = universal gas constant ∂ ∂
ρ dv = ρA dx
M = molecular weight ∂t ∂t
Equating the two expressions gives
∂ ∂ ( ρuA )
ρA dx = − dx , which can be simplified
∂t ∂x
∂ ∂
ρ + ( ρu ) = 0
∂t ∂x
u = particle velocity (due to oscillation, not flow) [m/s]
ρ = instantaneous density [kg/m3]
p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
A = area of the tube [m2]

MASS CONSERVATION –
three dimensions
∂ v v
ρ + ∇ ⋅ ( ρu ) = 0
∂t
v
where ∇ ∂ ∂ ∂
= ρ xˆ + ρ yˆ + ρ zˆ
∂x ∂y ∂z

and let ρ = ρ0 (1 + s )

∂ v v
s + ∇ ⋅ u = 0 (linearized)
∂t

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MOMENTUM CONSERVATION – one ACOUSTIC ANALOGIES
dimension (5.4) to electrical systems
For the one-dimensional problem, consider sound ACOUSTIC ELECTRIC
waves traveling through a tube. Individual particles of p V
the medium move back and forth in the x-direction. Impedance: ZA = Z=
U I
x x + dx
Voltage: ∆p V =IR
( PA) x -( PA) x+dx A = tube area V
Current: U I=
R
( PA) x is the force due to sound pressure at location x in p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
the tube [N] U = volume velocity (not a vector) [m3/s]
ZA = acoustic impedance [Pa·s/m3]
( PA) x +dx is the force due to sound pressure at location
x + dx in the tube (taken to be in the positive or
right-hand direction) [N] L INERTANCE [kg/m4]
The sum of the forces in the center volume is:
Describes the inertial properties of gas in a channel.
∂P
∑ F = ( PA ) − ( PA )
x x + dx
= −A
∂x
dx Analogous to electrical inductance.
ρ0 ∆x
Force in the tube can be written in this form, noting that this
L=
is not a partial derivative:
A
ρ0 = ambient density [kg/m3]
du
F = ma = ( ρA dx ) ∆x = incremental distance [m]
dt A = cross-sectional area [m2]
For some reason, this can be written as follows:
du  ∂u ∂u 
( ρA dx ) = ( ρA dx )  + u  C COMPLIANCE [m6/kg]
dt  ∂t ∂x 
The springiness of the system; a higher value means
with the term u
∂u often discarded in acoustics. softer. Analogous to electrical capacitance.
∂x
V
P = instantaneous (total) pressure [Pa or N/m2] C=
A = area of the tube [m2] γρ0
ρ = instantaneous density [kg/m3] V = volume [m3]
p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa] γ = ratio of specific heats (1.4 for a diatomic gas) [no units]
u = particle velocity (due to oscillation, not flow) [m/s] ρ0 = ambient density [kg/m3]

MOMENTUM CONSERVATION – U VOLUME VELOCITY [m3/s]


three dimensions Although termed a velocity, volume velocity is not a
∂  ∂u ∂u  vector. Volume velocity in a (uniform flow) duct is the
P + ρ + u  = 0 product of the cross-sectional area and the velocity.
∂t  ∂t ∂x 
v v ∂V d ξ
 ∂u v v v  U= = S = uS
and ∇p + ρ  + u ⋅∇u  = 0 ∂t d t
 ∂t 
v v V = volume [m3]
Note that uv ⋅∇uv is a quadratic term and that ρ ∂u is
∂t
S = area [m2]
u = velocity [m/s]
quadratic after multiplication
v ξ = particle displacement, the displacement of a fluid
v ∂u element from its equilibrium position [m]
∇p + ρ 0 = 0 (linearized)
∂t

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PLANE WAVES u VELOCITY, PLANE WAVE [m/s]
PLANE WAVES (2.4, 5.7) The acoustic pressure divided by the impedance, also
A disturbance a great distance from the source is from the momentum equation:
approximated as a plane wave. Each acoustic p p
∂p ∂u u= =
variable has constant amplitude and phase on any + ρ0 =0→
plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. ∂x ∂t z ρ0 c
The wave equation is the same as that for a
disturbance on a string under tension. p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
z = wave impedance [rayls or (Pa· s)/m]
There is no y or z dependence, so ∂ = ∂ = 0 . ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
∂ y ∂z
c = dx
dt is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]
One-dimensional wave equation: ∂ p = 1 ∂ p
2 2
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
∂ x 2 c 2 ∂t 2 r = radial distance from the center of the sphere [m]
General Solution
p ( x, t ) = 1 ( ) ( )
j ωt − kx j ωt + kx
for the acoustic 424
Ae 3+1 424
Be 3 PROPAGATION (2.5)
pressure of a propagating in propagating in
the +x direction the -x direction a disturbance
plane wave:
F(x-c∆t)
p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
A = magnitude of the positive-traveling wave [Pa]
B = magnitude of the negative-traveling wave [Pa] x x
ω = frequency [rad/s] ∆ x = c ∆t
t = time [s]
∆x dx
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m] c= → , ∆t → 0
x = position along the x-axis [m] ∆t dt
dx
c= dt is the phase speed (speed of sound) at which F is
PROGRESSIVE PLANE WAVE (2.8) translated in the +x direction. [m/s]

v
A progressive plane wave is a unidirectional plane
wave—no reverse-propagating component.
k WAVE VECTOR [rad/m or m-1]
p ( x, t ) = Ae (
j ωt − kx )

v
The phase constant k is converted to a vector. For
plane waves, the vector k is in the direction of
ARBITRARY DIRECTION PLANE WAVE propagation.
v
The expression for an arbitrary direction plane wave k = k x xˆ + k y yˆ + k z zˆ where
contains wave numbers for the x, y, and z
ω
2
components.
k +k +k =  
2 2 2

( )
x y z
p ( x, t ) = Ae
j ωt − k x x −k y y −k z z c

 ω
2
where k + k +k = 
2
x
2
y
2
z THIN ROD PROPAGATION
c A thin rod is defined as λ ? a .
a

a = rod radius
dx
c= dt is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]
ϒ = Young's modulus, or modulus of elasticity, a
characteristic property of the material [Pa]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 9 of 36


v
STANDING WAVES ξ PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT [m]
Two waves with identical frequency and phase The displacement of a fluid element from its
equilibrium position.
v
characteristics traveling in opposite directions will
cause constructive and destructive interference:
v ∂ξ p
p ( x, t ) = p1e ( )
+pe(
j ωt − kx ) j ωt + kx u= ξ=
1424 3 12424 3 ∂t ωρ0c
moving right moving left
v
for p1=p2=10, k=1, t=0: u = particle velocity [m/s]

Π ACOUSTIC POWER [W]


Acoustic power is usually small compared to the
power required to produce it.
v v
Π = ∫ I ·d s
S
S = surface surrounding the sound source, or at least the
2
for p1=5, p2=10, k=1, t=0: surface area through which all of the sound passes [m ]
I = acoustic intensity [W/m2]

I ACOUSTIC INTENSITY [W/m2]


The time-averaged rate of energy transmission
through a unit area normal to the direction of
propagation; power per unit area. Note that I = 〈pu〉T
is a nonlinear equation (It’s the product of two
functions of space and time.) so you can't simply use
z SPECIFIC ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE jωt or take the real parts and multiply, see Time-
[rayls or (Pa· s)/m] (5.10) Average p33.
Specific acoustic impedance or characteristic 1 T
I = I (t )
T ∫0
impedance z is a property of the medium and of the T
= pu T
= pu dt
type of wave being propagated. It is useful in
calculations involving transmission from one medium For a single frequency:
to another. In the case of a plane wave, z is real and 1
is independent of frequency. For spherical waves the I= Re{ p u *}
opposite is true. In general, z is complex. 2
p For a plane harmonic wave traveling in the +z direction:
z= = ρ0 c (applies to progressive plane waves) 2
u 1 ∂E 1 ∂E ∂x ∂E p Pe2
I= = =c , I= =
Acoustic impedance is analogous to electrical
A ∂t A ∂x ∂t ∂V 2ρ0 c ρ0 c
impedance: T = period [s]
pressure volts I(t) = instantaneous intensity [W/m2]
= impedance = p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
velocity amps
|p| = peak acoustic pressure [Pa]
z = r+ j x u = particle velocity (due to oscillation, not flow) [m/s]
Pe = effective or rms acoustic pressure [Pa]
In a sense this is resistive, In a sense this is reactive, ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
i.e. a loss since the wave in that this value represents
departs from the source. an impediment to propagation. c = dxdt is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]

ρ0c Characteristic Impedance, Selected Materials (bulk) [rayls]


Air @ 20°C 415 Copper 44.5×106 Steel 47×106
Aluminum 17×106 Glass (pyrex) 12.9×106 Water, fresh 20°C 1.48×106
Brass 40×106 Ice 2.95×106 Water, sea 13°C 1.54×106
Concrete 8×106 Steam @ 100°C 242 Wood, oak 2.9×106

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FOURIER'S LAW FOR HEAT IMPEDANCE [rayls or (Pa· s)/m]
CONDUCTION, HEAT FLUX Spherical wave impedance is frequency dependent:
Sound waves produce proportional changes in p ρ0 c
z= =
pressure, density, and temperature. Since the
periodic change in temperature is spread over the
u 1 − j / ( kr )
length of a wavelength, the change in temperature per
unit distance is very small. p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
u = particle velocity (due to oscillation, not flow) [m/s]
∂T ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
q = −K
∂x c = dx
dt
is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]
q = heat flux [°C/m] k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
T = temperature [°C] r = radial distance from the center of the sphere [m]
K = a constant
x = distance [m]
u VELOCITY, SPHERICAL WAVE [m/s]
SPHERICAL WAVES p p  j 
u= = 1 − 
z ρ0 c  kr 
SPHERICAL WAVES (5.11)
General solution for a symmetric spherical wave: p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
A j( ωt − kr ) B j( ωt + kr ) z = wave impedance [rayls or (Pa· s)/m]
p (r, t ) = e + e ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
1
r424 3 1 r424 3 c = dx
divirging from converging on dt is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]
the source the source k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
r = radial distance from the center of the sphere [m]
A j( ωt − kr )
Progressive spherical wave: p ( r , t ) = e
r Π ACOUSTIC POWER, SPHERICAL
p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa] WAVES [W]
r = radial distance from the center of the sphere [m] For a constant acoustic power, intensity increases
A = magnitude of the positive-traveling
v v
r proportional to a reduction in dispersion area.
Π = ∫ I ·d s
wave [Pa]
general definition
B = magnitude of the negative- S
traveling wave [Pa]
Π = 4{
πr I 2
for spherical dispersion
ω = frequency [rad/s] area of a
t = time [s] spherical
surface
k = wave number or propagation
constant [rad./m] Π = 2{
πr 2 I for hemispherical dispersion
hemi-
spherical
surface
SPHERICAL WAVE BEHAVIOR
S = surface surrounding the sound source, or at least the
Spherical wave behavior changes markedly for very 2
surface area through which all of the sound passes [m ]
small or very large radii. Since this is also a function I = acoustic intensity [W/m2]
of the wavelength, we base this on the kr product r = radial distance from the center of the sphere [m]
where kr ∝ r/λ.
For kr ? 1 , i.e. r ? λ (far from the source):
In this case, the spherical wave is much like a plane
wave with the impedance z ; ρ0 c and with p and u in
phase.

For kr = 1 , i.e. r = λ (close to the source):


In this case, the impedance is almost purely reactive
z ; jωρ0 r and p and u are 90° out of phase. The
source is not radiating power; particles are just sloshing
back and forth near the source.

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FREQUENCY BANDS CONTIGUOUS BANDS
fu fl FREQUENCY BANDS The upper frequency of one band is the lower
frequency of the next.
The human ear perceives different frequencies at n n n
different levels. Frequencies around 3000 Hz appear fl fc fu
loudest with a rolloff for higher and lower frequencies. log f
Therefore in the analysis of sound levels, it is 300 1k 10k
n+1 n+1 n+1
necessary to divide the frequency spectrum into fl fc fu
segments or bands.

f u = 21/ N f l a 1 -octave band f cn +1 1

n
= 2N
N fc
fu = the upper frequency in the band [Hz]
fl = the lowest frequency in the band [Hz] Octave bands are the most common contiguous bands:
N = the bandwidth in terms of the (inverse) fractional portion
of an octave, e.g. N=2 describes a ½-octave band f cn +1 fc fc
=2 fl = fu = f c 2 w=
f cn 2 2
fc CENTER FREQUENCY [Hz]
e.g. for fc = 1000 Hz, fl = 707 Hz, fu = 1414 Hz
The center frequency is the geometric mean of a
frequency band.
STANDARD CENTER FREQUENCIES [Hz]
fl fc fu
log f Octave bands:
16, 31.5, 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000
300 1k 10k
1/3-Octave bands:
fc = fu fl 10, 12.5, 16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50, 63, 80, 100, 125, 160, 200,
250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000, 2500,
fu = the upper frequency in the band [Hz] 3150, 4000, 5000, 6300, 8000
fl = the lowest frequency in the band [Hz]
MUSICAL INTERVALS [Hz]
1/12
w BANDWIDTH [Hz] Each half-step is 2 times higher than the previous
The width of a frequency band. note.
Harmonious frequency ratios:
fl fu 2:1 octave 212/12 = 2.000 2/1 = 2.000
w log f 3:2 perfect fifth 27/12 = 1.489 3/2 = 1.500
300 1k 10k 4:3 perfect fourth 25/16 = 1.335 4/3 = 1.333

( )f
1 − 21N
5:4 major third 24/12 = 1.260 5/4 = 1.200
w = fu − fl = 2 2 N − 2 c

IL INTENSITY LEVEL [dB]


Acoustic intensity in decibels. Note that IL = SPL
when IL is referenced to 10-12 and SPL is referenced to
20×10-6.

 I 
Intensity Level: IL = 10 log  
 I ref 
I = acoustic intensity [W/m2]
Iref = the reference intensity 1×10-12 in air [W/m2]

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If SPECTRAL FREQUENCY DENSITY PSL PRESSURE SPECTRUM LEVEL
2
[W/m ] [dB]
The distribution of acoustic intensity over the Same as intensity spectrum level.
frequency spectrum; the intensity at frequency f over a
bandwidth of ∆f. The bandwidth ∆f is normally taken PSL ( f ) = ISL ( f ) = SPL in a 1 Hz band
to be 1 Hz and may be suppressed. SPL = sound pressure level [dB]
∆I
If ( f ) =
∆f
dBA WEIGHTED SOUND LEVELS (13.2)
Since the ear doesn't perceive sound pressure levels
ISL INTENSITY SPECTRUM LEVEL [dB] uniformly across the frequency spectrum, several
The spectral frequency density expressed in decibels. correction schemes have been devised to produce a
This is what you see on a spectrum analyzer. more realistic scale. The most common is the A-
weighted scale with units of dBA. From a reference
I f ( f )·1Hz point of 1000 Hz, this scale rolls off strongly for lower
ISL ( f ) = 10 log frequencies, has a modest gain in the 2-4 kHz region
I ref and rolls off slightly at very high frequencies. Other
Iref = the reference intensity 10 -12
[Pa] scales are dBB and dBC. Most standards, regulations
and inexpensive sound level meters employ the A-
weighted scale.
ILBAND FREQUENCY BAND INTENSITY
LEVEL [dB] ACOUSTICAL SOURCES
The sound intensity within a frequency band.
MONOPOLE (7.1)
ILBAND = ISL + 10 log w
The monopole source is a basic theoretical acoustic
ISL = intensity spectrum level [dB] source consisting of a small (small ka) pulsating
w = bandwidth [Hz] sphere.
A j( ωt − kr )
p (r, t ) =
e a
SPL SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL [dB] r
u0e jωt
where A = jka ρ0 cu0
2
Acoustic pressure in decibels. Note that IL = SPL
when IL is referenced to 10-12 and SPL is referenced to
20×10-6. An increase of 6 dB is equivalent to doubling p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
the amplitude. A spherical source against a planar r = radial distance from the center of the source [m]
surface has a 3 dB advantage over a source in free ω = frequency [rad/s]
space, 6 dB if it's in a corner, 9 dB in a 3-wall corner. k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
 P  c= dx
is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s]
Sound Pressure Level: SPL = 20 log  e  dt
u = particle velocity (due to oscillation, not flow) [m/s]
 Pref 
for Multiple Sources:
 N  Pei  2   N SPLi /10 
SPL = 10 log  ∑    = 10 log  ∑10 
 i =1  Pref    i =1 

for Multiple Identical Sources:


SPL = SPL0 + 10 log N
Pe = effective or rms acoustic pressure [Pa]
Pref = the reference pressure 20×10-6 in air, 1×10-6 in water
[Pa]
N = the number of sources

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DIPOLE LINE SOURCE (7.3)
The dipole source is a basic theoretical acoustic A line source of length L is calculated as follows.
source consisting of two adjacent monopoles 180° out
of phase. Mathematically this approximates a single x
p (r, θ )
source in translational vibration, which is what we R
really want to model. dx r
− +
− + = L θ
z
θ= 0 p (r, θ) as r→∞

r2
r2 r r1
r r1 dx A j( ωt − kR )
Let Pdx ( R, θ, t ) = e
θ L R
d
2 sin θ θ
where Pdx is the pressure at a remote point due to
− + x one tiny segment of the line source,
d
d 2
and A = jka 2ρ0cu0 .
A j( ωt − kr1 ) A j( ωt − kr2 )
p ( r, θ) = e − e
r1 r2 for r ? L , R ≈ r − x sin θ ,
A = jka ρ0 cu0 p ( r , θ ) = ∫ Pdx ( r , θ, t ) dx (abbreviated form)
2
where
L
Far from the source, the wave looks spherical:
dx A j( ωt − kr + kx sin θ)
A j ωt − kr ) Pdx ( r , θ, t ) ≈ e
p ( r , θ ) = j2 e ( sin ( 12 kd sin θ ) L r
1424
r 3 144244 3
1 A j( ωt − kr ) L / 2 jkx sin θ
p ( r , θ, t ) = ∫− L / 2 e dx
directivity function
spherical wave
e
L r
p = P - P0 acoustic pressure [Pa]
A j ωt − kr )
p ( r , θ, t ) = e ( D ( θ ) where
r = radial distance from the center of the source [m]
ω = frequency [rad/s]
r
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3] sin ( 12 kL sin θ )
dx D ( θ) = Directivity Function
c= dt is the phase speed (speed of sound) [m/s] 1
2 kL sin θ
u = particle velocity (due to oscillation, not flow) [m/s]
see also Half Power Beamwidth p16.

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DIRECTIVITY FUNCTION CIRCULAR SOURCE (7.4, 7.5a)
The directivity function is responsible for the lobes of A speaker in an enclosure may be modeled as a
the dispersion pattern. The function is normalized to circular source of radius a in a rigid infinite baffle
have a maximum value of 1 at θ = 0. Different vibrating with velocity µ0ejωt. For the far field pressure
directivity functions are used for different elements; (r > ½ ka2).
the following is the directivity function for the line
ka 2
p ( r , θ, t ) = j ρ 0 cµ 0 D ( θ ) e (
source. j ωt − kr )

sin ( 12 kL sin θ ) 2r
D ( θ) = 1
2 kL sin θ 2 J1 ( ka sin θ )
where D ( θ) = Directivity function
ka sin θ

The following is the directivity function for a focused


source.
J1 ( 2Gr / a )
D (r) =
Gr / a
 3.83 
θnull 1 ≈ sin −1   First null
 ka 
J1(x) = first order Bessel J function
r = radial distance from the source [m]
θ = angle with the normal from the circular source [radians]
t = time [s]
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls] (415 for air)
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]

J1(x) = first order Bessel J function


see also Half Power Beamwidth p16.

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θHP HALF-POWER BEAMWIDTH
2θ FOCUSED SOURCE
The angular width of the main lobe to the points where The dispersion pattern of a focused source is
power drops off by 1/2; this is the point at which the measured at the focal plane, a plane passing through
the focal point and perpendicular to the central axis.
directivity function equals 1/ 2 .
FOCUSED SOURCE

z= 0 z= d
r

µ0 e jωt d Focal Plane

Focal Plane pressure p ( r ) = Gρ0c D ( r )

ka 2
where G=
For a circular source: 2d
2 J ( ka sin θ )
from the Directivity function: D ( θHP ) =
1
= 1 J1 ( 2Gr / a )
2 ka sin θ and D ( r ) = (Directivity function)
Gr / a
 1.61634 
ka sin θHP = 1.61634 ⇒ 2θHP = 2sin −1  
J1(x) = first order Bessel J function
 ka  r = radial distance from the central axis [m]
G = constant [radians]
3.2327 185.22
2θHP ≈ radians or degrees, for ka ? 1 a = radius of the source [m]
ka ka d = focal length [m]
J1(x) = first order Bessel J function ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls] (415 for air)
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
For a line source:
sin ( 12 kL sin θ )
from the Directivity function: D ( θ ) = 1 =
HP
2 1
2 kL sin θ z0 RAYLEIGH NUMBER [rad.·m]
The Rayleigh number or Rayleigh length is the
 1.391558 
1
2 kL sin θHP = 1.391558 ⇒ 2θHP = 2sin −1  1  distance along the central axis from a circular piston
 2 kL  element to the beginning of the far field. Beyond this
point, complicated pressure patterns of the near field
can be ignored.

πa 2 1 2
z0 = = 2 ka
λ
a = radius of the source [m]
d = focal length [m]
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls] (415 for air)
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]

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MOVING COIL SPEAKER (14.3b, 14.5) Zm MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE [(N·s)/m]
Model for the moving coil magnet
u (1.7)
loudspeaker. The mechanical impedance is analogous to electrical
s impedance but does not have the same units. Where
V = φu Faraday's law electrical impedance is voltage divided by current,
F = φI Lorentz force + −
Rm mechanical impedance is force divided by speed,
V sometimes called mechanical ohms.
ZE
ZM x
R0 L0 F s
Zm = F m
V I RM LM CM ZA φu u
Rm
u = velocity of the voice coil [m/s]
F −
{ {& =
sx − Rmx {&&
mx
Return Force due to Mass ×
I = electrical current [A] force of mechanical acceleration
R0 = electrical resistance of the voice coil [Ω]
the spring resistance

L0 = electrical inductance of the voice coil [H] F = mx&& + Rm x& + sx


F ( t ) = F% ( ω) e jωt X ( t ) = X% ( ω) e jωt
s = spring stiffness due to flexible cone suspension material
let and
[N/m]
Rm = mechanical resistance, a small frictional force [(N· s)/m then F% e jωt = ( −ω2 m + jωRm + s ) X% e jωt
or kg/s]
F%
X% =
RM = effective electrical resistance due to the mechanical
and
resistance of the system [Ω] −ω2 m + jωRm + s
CM = effective electrical capacitance due to the mechanical
jωF%
stiffness [F] so the velocity U% = dx
=jωX% =
−ω m + jωRm + s
LM = effective electrical inductance due to the mechanical dt 2

inertia [H]
finally
F% F%
V = voltage applied to the voice coil [V]
−ω2 m + jωRm + s
ZE = electrical impedance due to electrical components [Ω] Z mo = = =
ZA = effective electrical impedance due to mechanical air U% jωF% / ( −ω2 m + jωRm + s ) jω
loading [Ω]
ZM = effective electrical impedance due to the mechanical s
Z mo = Rm + { jωm − j
effects of spring stiffness, mass, and (mechanical) { ω
resistance [Ω] damping inertia {
due to spring
F = force on the voice coil [V] mass effect
φ = Bl coupling coefficient [N/A] m = mass of the speaker cone and voice coil [kg]
B = magnetic field [Tesla (an SI unit)] x = distance in the direction of motion [m]
l = length of wire in the voice coil [m] s = spring stiffness due to flexible cone suspension material
[N/m]
Rm = mechanical resistance, a small frictional force [(N·s)/m
or kg/s]
F = force on the speaker mass [N]
ω = frequency in radians

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ZM ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE DUE TO Zr RADIATION IMPEDANCE [(N·s)/m]
MECHANICAL FORCES [Ω] (7.5)
Converting mechanical impedance to electrical inverts This is the mechanical impedance due to air
each element. resistance. For a circular piston:

RM =
φ2 m
, CM = 2 , LM =
φ2 Z r = ρ0 cS  R1 ( 2ka ) + j X 1 ( 2ka ) 
Rmo φ s
 j 8 ρ a 3ω, ka = 1
Zr ≈  3 2 0
φ2  πa ρ0 c, ka ? 1
ZM = = RM P CM P LM
Z mo The functions R1 and X1 are defined as:
2 J1 ( x ) x2 x4 x6 x8
R1 ( x ) = 1 − ; − + −
s φ 2
x 8 192 9216 737280
Z mo = Rm + jωm − j → ZM =
ω Rm + jωm − j
s  4  x x3 x5 x7 x9 
  − + − 5+ 7  , x ≤ 4.32
ω 2H1 ( x )  π  3 45 1600 10 10 
X1 ( x ) = ;
RM = effective electrical resistance due to the mechanical x 4 8  3π 
 πx + πx 3 sin  x − 4  , x > 4.32
resistance of the system [Ω] 
CM = effective electrical capacitance due to the mechanical
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls] (415 for air)
stiffness [F]
S = surface area of the piston [m2]
LM = effective electrical inductance due to the mechanical
J1 = first order Bessel J function
inertia [H]
R1 = a function describing the real part of Zr
Rm = mechanical resistance, a small frictional force [(N·s)/m
X1 = a function describing the imaginary part of Zr
or kg/s]
x = just a placeholder here for 2ka
m = mass of the speaker cone and voice coil [kg] k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]
s = spring stiffness due to flexible cone suspension material a = radius of the source [m]
[N/m]
H1 = first order Struve function
φ = Bl coupling coefficient [N/A] ω = frequency in radians
Zmo = mechanical impedance, open-circuit condition
[(N·s)/m or kg/s]
mr RADIATION MASS [kg] (7.5)
ZA ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE DUE TO The effective increase in mass due to the loading of
the fluid (radiation impedance).
AIR [Ω]
Xr
The factor of two in the denominator is due to loading mr =
on both sides of the speaker cone. ω
φ2 The effect of radiation mass is small for light fluids
ZA = such as air but in a more dense fluid such as water, it
2Z r can significantly decrease the resonant frequency.
s s
ω0 = →
m m + mr
The functions R1 and X1 are defined as:
Xr = radiation reactance, the imaginary part of the radiation
impedance [(N·s)/m]
ω = frequency in radians
s = spring stiffness due to flexible cone suspension material
[N/m]
m = mass of the speaker cone and voice coil [kg]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 18 of 36


paxial AXIAL PRESSURE [Pa] (7.4a) ELECTROSTATIC TRANSDUCER
(14.3a, 14.9)
ka 2 ωρ a 2
paxial =j ρ0 c u = j 0 u , r > ka 1
2
2
A moving diaphragm of area A is separated from a
2r 2r stationary plate by a dielectric material (air). A bias
Z MA V voltage is applied between the diaphragm and plate.
u= Modern devices use a PVDF film for the diaphragm
Z MA + Z E φ which has a permanent charge, so no bias voltage is
required. Bias, in this case and in general, is an
Z MA jωρ0 a 2 attempt to linearize the output by shifting its operating
paxial = V0 e jωt
Z MA + Z E 2φr range to a less non-linear operating region. The DC
bias voltage is much greater in magnitude than the
ZMA = ZM || ZA = effective electrical impedance due to the time-variant signal voltage but is easily filtered out in
mechanical components and the effect of air [Ω] signal processing.
ZE = electrical impedance due to the voice coil [Ω] oscillation
x
area A diaphragm

BASS REFLEX ENCLOSURE (14.6c) x0


The bass response of a speaker/cabinet system can V dielectric ε
be improved bat the expense of an increase in low 0
frequency rolloff by adding a port to the enclosure.
Speaker I φu Zms φ2
+

Co F
V φ
- +

Port
1
Acoustic voltage: V = ( I + φu ) ,
Choose ωc somewhat less than s / m to add a response jωC0
peak just below the existing damping-controlled peak.
Rolloff below that point will increase from 12 dB/octave to 18 F 1 Z
dB/octave. Mechanical voltage: = I + ms2 φu ,
φ jωCo φ
1 φ2 mv
ωc = , Lc = , Cc = For this circuit model, there is no
Lc Cc sc φ2 inverting of mechanical impedances
as in the loudspeaker circuit.
ZE ZC C0V0
R0 L0
ZM
RC
Coupling coefficient: φ= ,
x0
RM LM CM φu
LC
εA
V
I CC Equilibrium capacitance: C0 =
x0
Lc = effective electrical inductance due to the cabinet [H] V0 = bias voltage [V]
sc = cabinet stiffness [N/m] C0 = equilibrium capacitance due to diaphragm, back plate,
Cc = effective electrical capacitance due to the cabinet [F] and dielectric [F]
mv = mass of the air inside the port or vent [kg] F = force on the diaphragm [N]
φ = Bl coupling coefficient [N/A] I = electrical current [A]
φu = electrical current due to mechanical force [A]
φ = coupling coefficient [N/V]
PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER (14.12b) u = acoustic velocity [m/s]
Uses a crystal (usually quartz) or a ceramic; voltage is Zms = short-circuit mechanical impedance [(N· s)/m]
proportional to strain. High efficiency (30% is high for x0 = equilibrium position of the diaphragm [m]
acoustics.) Highly resonant. Used for microphones A = area of the diaphragm [m2]
and speakers.

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 19 of 36


REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT USING REFLECTION TO DETERMINE
NORMAL INCIDENCE (6.2) MATERIAL PROPERTIES (6.1)
(j ωt − k1 x )
Incident: pi = Pe
i
The impedance of a material (and thereby its density)
can be determined by bouncing a plane wave off of
pr = Pr e (
j ωt + k1 x ) the material at normal incidence and measuring the
Reflected:
relative sound pressure levels. However, there are
( j ωt − k2 x )
Transmitted: pt = Pe
t
two possible results since we don't know the phase of
the reflected wave, i.e. Pr can be positive or negative.
k1 = ω /c1 , r1 = ρ01 c1 k2 = ω /c2 , r2 = ρ02 c2
r1 = ( ρ 0 c) 1 r2 = ( ρ 0 c) 2
pi Pi test material
pt
pr Pr

x=0 x
Pi ± Pr r −r
Boundary Conditions: SPL difference = 20 log and =R= 2 1
1) Pressure is equal across the boundary at x=0.
± Pr Pi r2 + r1
pi + pr = pt → Pi + Pr = Pt Pi = peak acoustic pressure, incident [Pa]
2) Continuity of the normal component of velocity. Pr = peak acoustic pressure, reflected [Pa]
r1 = characteristic acoustic impedances of the known
ui + ur = ut material (ρ0c)1 [rayls or (Pa·s)/m]
r2 = characteristic acoustic impedance of the unknown
material (ρ0c)2 [rayls or (Pa·s)/m]
R, T, RI, TI REFLECTION AND ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS (6.2) c = the phase speed (speed of sound, 343 m/s in air) [m/s]
The ratio of reflected and transmitted magnitudes to
incident magnitudes. The stiffness of the medium has
the most effect on reflection and transmission.
i) r2 >> r1 Medium 2 is very hard compared to medium 1
and we have total reflection. R ≈ 1, T ≈ 2
Note that T=2 means that the amplitude doubles, but
there is practically no energy transmitted due to high
impedance.
ii) r2 = r1 The mediums are similar and we have total
transmission. R = 0, T = 1
iii) r2 << r1 Medium 2 is very soft and we have total
reflection with the waveform inverted. R ≈ −1, T ≈0
2
P r −r  r −r 
R= r = 2 1 RI =  2 1 
Pi r2 + r1  r2 + r1 

Pt 2r2 4r2 r1
T= = TI =
Pi r2 + r1 ( r2 + r1 )
2

Pi, Pr, Pt = peak acoustic pressure (or magnitude) of


incident, reflected, and transmitted waves [Pa]
r1, r2 = characteristic acoustic impedances of the materials
(ρ0c)1, (ρ0c)2 [rayls or (Pa·s)/m]
ρ0 = equilibrium (ambient) density [kg/m3]
c = the phase speed (speed of sound, 343 m/s in air) [m/s]
RI = reflection intensity coefficient [no units]
TI = transmission intensity coefficient [no units]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 20 of 36


a ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT TRANSMISSION THROUGH PARTITIONS
The absorption coefficient can be measured in an TL TRANSMISSION LOSS THROUGH A
impedance tube by placing a sample at the end of the THIN PARTITION [dB] (13.15a)
tube, directing an acoustic wave onto it and measuring
the standing wave ratio. For a planar, nonporous, homogeneous, flexible wall,
the transmission loss is dependent on the density of
Wa SWR − 1 the partition and the frequency of the noise.
a= = 1− 2
Wi SWR + 1  ωρ   2ρ c 
Pi + Pr = 1 + j s  Pt TI =  0 
 ρ0 c   ωρ s 
An alternative method is to place a sample in a reverberation
room and measuring the effect on the reverberation time for
Ii ρc
the room. Difficulties with this method include variations
TL = 20 log = 20 log ( f ρ s ) − 20 log 0
encountered due to the location of the sample in the room
and the presence of standing waves at various frequencies.
It π
This is the Normal Incidence Mass Law. Low
0.161V 1 1
as = a0 +  − 
frequency roll off of the transmitted wave will be 6
Ss  Ts T0  dB/octave. Doubling the mass of the wall will give an
additional 6 dB loss.
Wi = power incident on a surface [W]
Wa = power absorbed by ? [W] Loss through a thin partition in air (ρ0c = 415):
Wr = Wi - Wa = power in the reflected sound [W] Ii
as = absorption coefficient of the sample [no units] TL0 = 20 log = 20 log ( f ρ s ) − 42
a0 = absorption coefficient of the empty room [no units] It
V = volume of the room [m3]
Ss = surface area of the sample [no units] Transmission loss as a function of power:
Wi
Ts = reverberation time with the same in place [s]
TL0 = 10log
T0 = reverberation time in the empty room [s] Wt
a Absorption Coefficient, Selected Materials [no units] ρs = surface density of the partition material [kg/m2]
250 Hz 1 kHz 4 kHz ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls or (Pa·s)/m] (415 for
acoustic tile suspended ceiling 0.50 0.75 0.60 air)
brick 0.03 0.04 0.07 f = frequency [Hz]
carpet 0.06 0.35 0.65 Pi = peak acoustic pressure, incident [Pa]
concrete 0.01 0.02 0.02 Pr = peak acoustic pressure, reflected [Pa]
concrete block, painted 0.05 0.07 0.08 Pt = peak acoustic pressure, transmitted [Pa]
fiberglass, 1" on rigid backing 0.25 0.75 0.65 Ii = intensity of the incident wave [W/m2]
glass, heavy plate 0.06 0.03 0.02 It = intensity of the transmitted wave [W/m2]
glass, windowpane 0.25 0.12 0.04 Wi = power of the incident wave [W/m2]
gypsum, ½ " on studs 0.10 0.04 0.09 Wt = power of the transmitted wave [W/m2]
floor, wooden 0.11 0.07 0.07
floor, linoleum on concrete 0.03 0.03 0.02
floor, terrazzo 0.01 0.02 0.02 ρs SURFACE DENSITY [kg/m2]
upholstered seats 0.35 0.65 0.60 The surface density affects the transmission loss
wood paneling, 3/8-1/2" 0.25 0.17 0.10 through a material and is related to the material
density.
ρ s = ρ0 h
ρ0 = density of the material [kg/m3]
h = thickness of the material [m]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 21 of 36


TL TRANSMISSION LOSS IN COINCIDENCE EFFECT (13.15a)
COMPOSITE WALLS AT NORMAL When a plane wave strikes a thin partition at an angle,
INCIDENCE [dB] there are alternating high and low pressure zones
along the partition that cause it to flex sinusoidally.
For walls constructed of multiple materials, e.g. a brick
This flexural wave propagates along the surface of
wall having windows, the transmission loss is the sum
the wall. At some frequency, there is a kind of
of the transmission losses in the different materials.
resonance and the wall becomes transparent to the
1 wave. This causes a marked decrease in the
TL0 = 10 log , where TI = 1 ∑ Ti Si , transmission loss over what is expected from the
TI S i
mass law; it can be 10-15 dB.
2

for a wall in air: Ti =  132 
 Coincidence occurs y
 f ρS  when λtr = λp. -

Si = area of the ith element [m2] +


Ti = TI for of the ith element (transmission intensity The wave equation λ tr
-
coefficient [no units] for a thin plate:
ρs = surface density [kg/m2] +
∂ 4ξ 12 ∂ 2ξ ξ ( y, t )
+ =0 -
∂ y 4 h 2cbar
2
∂ t2 θ
TRANSMISSION AT OBLIQUE +
INCIDENCE [dB] h
Waves striking a wall at an angle see less impedance ( )
ξ ( y, t ) = e
jω t − y / C p
than waves at normal incidence. Particle displacement:

pt π
pr Dispersion: Cp ( f ) = hcbar f [m/s]
3
θ θ
θ λ
Trace wavelength: λ tr = [m]
sin θ
pi
Cp
Flexural wavelength: λ p = [m]
1
TI ( θ ) = 2
f
 ωρS  c2
1+  cos θ  Coincidence frequency: f c = [Hz]
 2ρ0 c  1.8hcbar
TI = transmission intensity coefficient [no units] TL Mass law
6 dB/octave
θ = angle of incidence [radians] (dB) slope

ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls or (Pa·s)/m] (415 for


air) 10-15 dB
ρs = surface density [kg/m2]

fc log f
DIFFUSE FIELD MASS LAW [dB]
Design considerations: If f < fc, use the diffuse field mass
In a diffuse field, sound is incident by definition at all law to find the transmission loss. If f > fc, redesign to avoid.
angles with equal probability. Averaging yields an Note that fc is proportional to the inverse of the thickness.
increase in sound transmission of 5 dB over waves of
normal incidence. ξ = transverse particle displacement [m]
h = panel thickness [m]
TLdiffuse = TL0 − 5 cbar = bar speed for the panel material [m/s]
t = time [s]
Loss through a thin partition in air (ρ0c = 415): θ = angle of incidence [radians]
TLdiffuse = 20 log ( f ρ S ) − 47

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 22 of 36


DOUBLE WALLS DOUBLE WALL result
Masses in series look like series electrical
At low frequencies f < f0
connections. We want to determine the motion of the
second wall due to sound incident on the first. Both walls move together (in phase) like one wall of twice
the mass. So the mass law is recovered.
Assume that d << λ and let:
mi = ρS i mass per unit area of i wall
th Z w ; j ω ( ρ s1 + ρ s 2 )

γP0 ρ0c ω ( ρ s1 ρ s 2 )
s= = stiffness per unit area of air TL ; 20log ; 6dB/octave
d d 2ρ0c
f1 = pi + pr force per unit area on wall 1 At high frequencies f > f0
ρs1 Double walls are most effective.
s ρ s1 ρ s 2 d
f1 m1 m2 ρs2 Z w ; − jω3
ρ0 c 2
x1 x2 ω3 (ρ s1 ρ s 2 )
d TL ; 20log ; 18dB/octave
2ρ02c 3
From Newton's Law F=ma:
At very high frequencies f << f0
Mass 1: f1 − s ( x1 − x2 ) = m1 &&
x1 The walls decouple. The transmission loss is the sum of
the losses of the two walls; there is no interaction.
Mass 2: s ( x1 − x2 ) = m2 &&
x2 TL ; TL1 + TL2 ; 12dB/octave
Let f1 = F1e jωt
, xi = X i ( ω) e jωt

644474448 A
} x } b

 s − m1ω2
− s   X 1   F1 
  = 
 −s s − m2 ω2   X 2   0 
∆i
Apply Cramer's rule, Xi =

where ∆ = det A and
∆ i = det A, with b in the i th column
The wall impedance is
F1 ∆ ∆  mm 
ZW = = = j ( m1 + m2 ) ω − 1 2 ω3 
jω ∆ 2 jωs  s 
 ρ S 1ρ S 2 d 3 
→ ZW =j ( ρ S 1 + ρS 2 ) ω − ω
 ρ 0 c 2

Resonance occurs at ZW=0:

1 ρ0 c 2  1 1 
f0 =  + 
2π d  ρ S 1 ρ S 2 

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 23 of 36


MUFFLERS EXPANSION CHAMBER BOUNDARY
EXPANSION CHAMBER CONDITIONS
When sound traveling through a pipe encounters a Boundary condition 1: at x = 0,
section with a different cross-sectional area, it sees a pi + pr = p+ + p− → Pi + Pr = P+ + P− →
new impedance and some sound is reflected. The
Pi Pr P+ P−
dimensions can be chosen to optimize the + = + → 1 + R = α + β (i)
transmission loss through the exit at particular Pi Pi Pi Pi
frequencies. We assume d < λ. Boundary condition 2: at x = 0,
expansion gas Conservation of mass Volume velocity is equal
chamber flow across the boundary.
by equating volume
pi p+ velocities. The volume
d pt velocity is the cross- Area
pr p- sectional area times the Sc
net velocity. See p8. Area Sp

S p ( ui + ur ) = S c ( u+ + u− ) → S p ( Pi − Pr ) = S c ( P+ − P− )
pipe

0 l x Pi Pr Sc  P+ P− 
→ − =  −  → 1 − R = m (α − β)
(ii)
j( ωt − kx ) p
Let pi = Pe ui = i Pi Pi S p  Pi Pi 
ρ0 c
i

(i) + (ii): (1 + m) α + (1 − m) β = 2 [Eqn. 1]


j( ωt + kx ) p
pr = Pr e ur = − r Boundary condition 3: at x = l,
ρ0 c
p+ + p− = pt → P+ e − jkl + P− e jkl = Pe
t
− jkl

p
p+ = P+ e (
j ωt − kx )
u+ = + αe− jkl + β e jkl = Te− jkl
ρ0 c [Eqn. 2]

p Boundary condition 4: at x = l,
p− = P− e (
j ωt + kx )
u− = − −
ρ0 c Sc ( u+ + u− ) = S p ut → ( P+ + P− ) =
Sp
Pt
Sc
( j ωt − kx ) p
pt = Pe ut = t
t
ρ0 c αe− jkl − β e jkl = m1 Te− jkl [Eqn. 3]

Pr Pt P P m = the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the expansion


R= T= α= + β= − chamber to the cross-sectional area of the pipe.
Pi Pi Pi Pi Next, solve the three equations:
pi = acoustic pressure, incident wave [Pa]
pr = acoustic pressure, reflected wave [Pa]
p+ = pressure, expan. chamber forward-traveling wave [Pa]
p- = pressure, expan. chamber reverse-traveling wave [Pa]
pt = acoustic pressure, transmitted wave [Pa]
Pi = peak acoustic pressure, incident [Pa]
Pr = peak acoustic pressure, reflected [Pa]
P+ = peak acoustic pressure, expansion chamber forward-
traveling wave [Pa]
P- = peak acoustic pressure, expansion chamber reverse-
traveling wave [Pa]
Pt = peak acoustic pressure, transmitted [Pa]
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls or (Pa·s)/m] (415 for
air)
R = reflection coefficient [no units]
T = transmission coefficient [no units]
α = expansion exit transmission coefficient [no units]
β = expansion exit reflection coefficient [no units]
Sp = cross-sectional area of the pipe [m2]
Sc = cross-sectional area of the expansion chamber [m2]
Next, apply the boundary conditions:

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 24 of 36


EXPANSION CHAMBER, FINAL STEPS HELMHOLTZ RESONATOR (10.8)
Solve the three equations:
A Helmholtz resonator is a vessel having a large
volume with a relatively small neck. The gas in the
(1 + m ) (1 − m ) 0  α   2 neck looks like a lumped mass and the gas in the
 − jk l 
 e e + jk l
−e− jk l   β  =  0  volume looks like a spring at low frequency.

 e− jk l −e + jk l − m1 e− jk l  T   0  S l A= area
M
∆T e jk l V = volume
Cramer's Rule: T= =
∆ cos kl + j 12 ( m + m1 ) sin kl
1 1 ρ 0 c 2 A2
TL = 10 log = 10 log 2 Stiffness due to a gas volume: s= [N/m]
TI T V
Mass of the gas in neck: m = ρ0 l ′ A [kg]
Transmission loss in an expansion chamber:
Some gas spills out of the neck, so the
TL = 10 log 1 + 14 ( m − m1 ) sin 2 kl 
2 neck
mass plug is actually slightly longer than
  the neck. In practice, the effective length
is:
l ′ ≈ l + 0.8 A
Design point
TL

S 1 S c A
Resonance: ω0 = , f0 = =
0 π 2π kl m 2π m 2π l ′V

FLOW EFFECTS
Muffler performance is affected by flow rate, but the
preceding calculations are valid for flows up to 35 m/s.

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
The effect of having high temperature gases in a
muffler causes the speed of sound to increase, so λ
becomes larger.
343 T + 273
λ=
f 293
λ = wavelength [m]
f = frequency [Hz]
T = temperature [°C]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 25 of 36


SIDEBRANCH RESONATOR E(t) ROOM ENERGY DENSITY [J/m3]
Refer to the Helmholtz resonator above. (12.2)
Sound growth: The following expression describes
Helmholtz
resonator
V = Volume the effect of sound energy filling a room as a source is
pipe A = Area gas
flow turned on at t=0.
pi
pr
pt
E (t ) =
4W0
Ac
(1 − e−t / τ )
The effect here is similar to the effect of blowing across the
top of a coke bottle. The air across the bottle creates noise The following is the differential equation that describes
at many frequencies but the coke bottle responds only to its the growth of sound energy in a live room.
resonant frequency.
dE Ac
V + E = W0
  π f V 2  {
  { d t { 4
 
0 power

TL ≈ 10 log 1 +   
the rate at which of the
sc the rate at which
energy increases energy is absorbed input
  f f0   in the volume by the surfaces source
  f − f  
  0   This can be rewritten to include the time constant.
dE 4W0 4V
For a duct of impedance ρ0c with a Helmholtz resonator τ +E = , where τ=
having stiffness s and neck mass m, the arrangement can be dt Ac Ac
modeled as follows.
Sound decay: The following expression describes
uH ut the effect of sound dissipation as a source is turned
jωm off at t=0.
pi + pr ρ0 c pt
s
E ( t ) = E0 e− t / τ

W0 = power of the sound source [W]
Ø ω→ 0, z → ρ0c
Ø ω→ ∞, z → ρ0c z=
(s − ω m)ρ c
2
0
A = sound absorption, in units of metric sabin or English
2 2
sabin [m or ft ]
s − ω m + jωρ0c
2 t = time [s]
Ø ω→ s/m , z → 0 τ = time constant [s]
E0 = initial energy density [J/m3]
TL = transmission loss [dB]
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
f = frequency [Hz]
f0 = resonant frequency of Helmholtz resonator [Hz]
V = resonator volume [m3]
s = stiffness [m3] E AVERAGE ENERGY DENSITY [J/m3]
(12.2)
ROOM ACOUSTICS 1
V∫
E = E dV
E ENERGY DENSITY [J/m3] (5.8)
E = energy density [J/m3]
The amount of sound energy (potential and kinetic) V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
per unit volume. In a perfectly diffuse field, E does not
depend on location.
2
prms P2
E= =
ρ0 c 2ρ0 c
prms = acoustic pressure, rms [Pa]
P = peak acoustic pressure or pressure magnitude [Pa]
ρ0c = impedance of the medium [rayls or (Pa·s)/m] (415 for
air)

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 26 of 36


A ABSORPTION [m2 or ft2] (12.1) Wabs POWER ABSORBED [W] (12.2)
The absorption or absorption area may have units of 1
metric sabins or English sabins, named for Wallace
Wabs = aWincident where a = ∑ ai Si
S
Sabine (1868-1919). The absorption area can be
thought of as the equivalent area to be cut out of a Wincident = power incident on the surface [W]
wall in order to produce the same effect as an object a = average absorption coefficient [no units]
of absorption A. See also ABSORPTION S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
COEFFICIENT p21. Ai = sound absorption of a particular material in the room
[m2 or ft2]
A = a S = ∑ Ai ai = absorption coefficient of a particular material [no units]
Si = area represented by a particular material [no units]
1
where a =
S
∑ ai Si , Ai = ai Si
a = average absorption coefficient [no units] Wincident INCIDENT POWER [W] (12.2)
S = total surface area [m2 or ft2] The total power incident on the walls of a room.
Ai = sound absorption of a particular material in the room 1
[m2 or ft2] Wincident = Sc E
ai = absorption coefficient of a particular material [no units] 4
Si = area represented by a particular material [no units] S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]

a E = average energy density [J/m ]


3
AVERAGE ABSORPTION [m2 or ft2]
(12.3)
The average sound absorption over an area.
1

Wabs A
a= ai Si , a = =
S Wincident S
A = total absorption area [m2 or ft2]
S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
ai = absorption coefficient of a particular material [no units]
Si = area represented by a particular material [no units]
Wabs = power absorbed by the surfaces [W]
Wincident = power incident on the surfaces [W]

MEASURING ABSORPTION [m2 or ft2]


The absorption of a sample can be measured by
placing the sample in a reverberation chamber and
measuring the effect it has on reverberation time. The
absorption value for a person @ 1kHz is about
0.95 m2, for a piece of furniture about 0.08 m2. See
also ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT p21.
1 1
As = 0.161V  − 
 Ts T0 
As = sound absorption of the sample [m2 or ft2]
V = volume of the room [m3]
Ts = reverberation time with the sample in place [s]
T0 = reverberation time in the empty room [s]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 27 of 36


T60 REVERBERATION TIME [s] (12.3) N(f) MODAL DENSITY [Hz-1] (9.2)
The time required for a sound to decay by 60 dB, i.e. The number of modes (resonant frequencies) per unit
to one millionth of its previous value. Sound decay is hertz. The modal density increases with frequency
linear when viewed on a log scale. until it becomes a diffuse field. In a diffuse field, the
modal structure is obscured and the sound field
SPL
[dB] seems isotropic, i.e. the SPL is equal everywhere.
4π 2
60 dB Rectangular room: N( f )≈ Vf
c3
f = frequency [Hz]
t =0 t V = room volume [m3]
T60
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]

T 4V
−60 = 10 log e ⇒ T = 13.816τ , τ = m AIR ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT,
τ ac
ARCHITECTURAL [no units] (12.3)
Sabin formula:
0.161V 0.049V I = I 0e − mx = I 0e − mct m = 2α
T= (metric), T= (English)
For most architectural applications, the air absorption
A A
coefficient can be approximated as:
a ≤ 0.2 ):
m = 5.5 × 10 −4 ( 50 / h )( f /1000 )
Including air absorption (for 1.7
0.161V
T= (metric) I = acoustic intensity [W/m2]
A + 4mV I0 = initial acoustic intensity [W/m2]
More accurate, Eyring-Norris reverberation formula: h = relative humidity (limited to the range 20 to 70%) [%]
f = frequency (limited to the range 1.5 to 10 kHz) [Hz]
0.161V
T= (metric) c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
4mV − S ln (1 − a ) α = air absorption coefficient due to combined factors [no
units]
τ = time constant [s]
V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
A = sound absorption, in units of metric sabin or English LM MEAN FREE PATH [m]
2 2
sabin [m or ft ]
a = average absorption coefficient [no units] The average distance between reflections in a
rectangular room. This works out to 2L/3 for a cubic
m = air absorption coefficient [no units]
S = total surface area [m2 or ft2] room and 2d/3 for a sphere.
4V
LM =
(p,q,r) MODES, rectangular cavity (9.1) S
The modes of a volume are the frequencies at which V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
resonances occur, and are a function of the room S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
dimensions. For example, the lowest mode will be the
frequency for which the longest dimension equals
½ -wavelength and is represented by (1,0,0).
n NUMBER OF REFLECTIONS [no units]
The number of acoustic reflections in a room in time t.
2 2 2
c  p  q   r 
f ( p, q, r ) =   +  +  n=
ct ctS
=
2  L  W   H  LM 4V
p, q, and r form the mode numbers. They are integers
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
representing the number of half-wavelengths in the length,
width, and height respectively. To avoid having more than
t = time [s]
one mode at the same frequency, the ratio of any two room LM = mean free path [m]
dimensions should not be a whole number. Some V = room volume [m3 or ft3]
recommended room dimension ratios are 1.6:1.25:1.0 for S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
small rooms and 2.4:1.5:1.0 or 3.2:1.3:1.0 for large rooms.
f = frequency [Hz]
c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
L, W, H = room length, width, and height respectively [m]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 28 of 36


R ROOM CONSTANT [m2] DIRECT FIELD
Note that R ; A when a is very small. The direct field is that part of a room in which the
dominant sound comes directly (unreflected) from the
A aS
R= = source.
1− a 1− a SPL
Direct field
(slope is 6 dB per
doubling of distance)
A = sound absorption, in units of metric sabin or English [dB]
2 2
sabin [m or ft ]
Reverberant
a = average absorption coefficient [no units] field
SPLrev
S = total surface area [m2 or ft2]
rd log r
SPL SOUND POWER LEVEL [dB]
I Q W
W Energy density (direct): Edir = = [J/m3]
Source: SPL = Lw = 10 log c c 4 πr 2
Wref
I = acoustic intensity [W/m2]
 Q 4  ρ cW  c = the speed of sound (343 m/s in air) [m/s]
SPL = Lw + 10 log  +  +10 log  0 2 ref  Q = quality factor (Q=1 when source is remote from all
 4πr R
2
144  Pref 3
42444 surfaces) [no units]
In mks units, this is 10 log 1.04, W = sound power level of the source [W]
which is small enough to be ignored.
r = distance from the source to the observation point [m]
 Q 4
SPL = Lw + 10 log  + 
 4πr R
2
rd REVERBERATION RADIUS [m]
Lw = sound power level of the source [dB] The distance from the source at which the SPL due to
W = sound power level of the source [W] the source falls to the level of the reverberant field.
Wref = reference power level, 10-12 [W]
Q = quality factor [no units] QR
rd =
r = distance from the source to the observation point [m] 16π
R = room constant [m2]
Pref = the reference pressure 20×10-6 in air, 1×10-6 in water Q = quality factor (Q=1 when source is remote from all
[Pa] surfaces) [no units]
R = room constant [m2]

Q QUALITY FACTOR [no units]


A factor that is dependent on the location of a source
relative to reflective surfaces. The source strength or
amplitude of volume velocity.
Q = 1 The source is located away from surfaces.
Q = 2 The source is located on a hard surface.
Q = 4 The source is located in a 2-way corner.
r = distance from the source to the observation point [m]
R = room constant [m2]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 29 of 36


REVERBERANT FIELD COCKTAIL PARTY EFFECT
The area in a room that is remote enough from the Consider a room of a given volume V and reverberation time
sound source that movement within the field does not T, and assume a fixed distance d among speakers and
cause appreciable change in sound level. The area of listeners in M small conversational groups. In each group,
the room not in the direct field. only one person is speaking at a time. There is a theoretical
maximum number of groups that can exist before the onset
SPL
Direct field
(slope is 6 dB per
of instability and loss of intelligibility. That is, as more
[dB] doubling of distance) conversations are added, one must speak louder in order to
be heard. But with everyone speaking louder, the
Reverberant background noise increases, hence the instability.
field
SPLrev
B
rd log r
d
A
Sound power level: SPL rev = Lw + 6 − 10 log R [dB]
Energy density at B due to speaker A:
4Wrev 4W
Energy density (reverberant): Erev = = [J/m3] W 1 4
Ac Rc E1 =  + 
SPLrev = sound power level in the reverberant field [m] c  4 πd 2
R
r = distance from the source to the observation point [m]
rd = distance from the source to the reverberant field Reverberant energy density due to other M-1
boundary [m] conversations:
4W
Erev = ( M − 1)
Lw = sound power level of the source [dB]
R = room constant [m2] Rc
Wrev = reverberant sound power level of the room [W]
W = sound power level of the source [W] Signal to noise ratio:
E1 1  R 
SNR = =  + 1
NR NOISE REDUCTION [dB] (13.13) Erev M − 1  16πd 2

The noise reduction from one room to an adjoining room is
Notice that the power W drops out of the equation.
the difference between the sound power levels in the two
rooms. The value is used in the measurement of Now if we require that this signal to noise ratio be some
transmission loss for various partition materials and minimum required in order for the listener to be able to
construction. understand the speaker, the expression can be written:

NR = SPL1 − SPL2 1  R 
M < 1+  + 1
SNR min  16πd 2

For measuring transmission loss:
Assume R ; A so that T = 0.161V / A ; 0.161V / R , then
S
TL = NR + 10log w , provided R2 ; A2 we can rewrite the expression in terms of the room volume V
R2 and the reverberation constant T.
1  V 
Sw = surface area of the wall [m2] M < 1+  + 1 [mks units]
R2 = room constant of the receiving room [m2] SNR min  312d T
2

A2 = sound absorption or absorption area of the receiving If we further assume that to the listener, the speaker must
2
room [m ] be as loud as the background noise, then the maximum
number of speakers (conversations) in the room is
V
M max ; 2 +
312d 2T
W = power output of a speaker [W]
M = the number of speakers (or groups)
R = room constant [m2]
d = distance between speakers in the same group [m]
E = energy density [J/m3]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 30 of 36


THERMOACOUSTIC CYCLE THERMOACOUSTIC ENGINE
Consider a small volume of air in acoustic oscillation A transducer in one end of a half-wavelength chamber
at t0 and ambient pressure p0. As it moves toward the creates a high power standing wave. Thin metal
source, pressure and temperature increase while plates are positioned ¼ of the way from one end so
volume decreases. The volume of air slows and that velocity, displacement and pressure amplitudes
reverses direction at t1 and transfers heat to the metal will all be high.
plate. As the volume of air moves away from the
source, pressure and temperature decrease. At the
volume reaches t3, it slows and again reverses Thermoacoustic Engine
direction. The cooler volume absorbs heat from the λ
metal place. This action takes place all along the Transducer 2
length of the metal plate, forming a bucket brigade of
heat transfer.
Displacement Hot Cold

ξ Velocity
Pressure
time t u
p
Displacement
t0 t1 t2 t3
ξ
t0
Source
Pressure

Metal plate p
0 λ λ 3λ λ length
8 4 8 2
t1 ξ0 π πc
p = A cos kx sin ωt , k = , ω=
Source
Q λ/2 λ/2
Metal plate
A
u=− sin kx cos ωt
ρ0 c
t2 A
Source ξ=− sin kx cos ωt
ωρ0c
Metal plate

t3 ξ0
Source
Q
Metal plate

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 31 of 36


THERMOACOUSTIC GRADIENT
Also called critical gradient. The oscillatory motion
and oscillatory temperature of gas particles along the
metal plates establishes a temperature gradient along
the plates. The parallel stacking of plates increases
the power of the engine but does not affect the
gradient.
T

δT

x
2ξ 0

Maximum temperature gradient:

dT
= ( γ − 1) kT0
dx critical

γ = ratio of specific heats (1.4 for a diatomic gas) [no units]


T0 = ambient temperature [K]
k = wave number or propagation constant [rad./m]

Γ GRADIENT RATIO
The ratio of the operating temperature gradient to the
critical gradient.
dT / d x
Γ=
dT / d x critical

Γ > 1: Thermoacoustic heat engine


Heat flow generates sound (does work)
QH
+
Vout
-
QC

Γ < 1: Thermoacoustic refrigerator


Acoustic energy pumps heat from cold end to hot
end of stack
QH
+
Vin
-
QC

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 32 of 36


GENERAL MATHEMATICAL
x + j y COMPLEX NUMBERS PHASOR NOTATION
Im When the excitation is sinusoidal and under steady-
state conditions, we can express a partial derivative in
y phasor notation, by replacing ∂ with jω . For
A ∂t
θ example, the Telegrapher's equation ∂V = − L ∂I
∂z ∂t
0 x Re ∂V

becomes = − LjωI . Note that V ( z , t ) and
x + jy = Ae = A cos θ + jA sin θ ∂z
I ( z , t ) are functions of position and time (space-time
Re{ x + jy} = x = A cos θ
functions) and V ( z ) and I ( z ) are functions of position
Im{ x + jy} = y = A sin θ only.
Magnitude { x + jy} = A = x 2 + y 2 Sine and cosine functions are converted to
y exponentials in the phasor domain.
Phase { x + jy} = θ = tan −1 Example:
x v v
j
π
E ( r , t ) = 2 cos ( ωt + 3 z ) xˆ + 4sin ( ωt + 3 z ) yˆ
j=e 2

The magnitude of a complex number may be written as the = Re{2e j3 z e jωt xˆ + ( − j) 4e j3 z e jωt yˆ }
absolute value. v v
E ( r ) = 2e j3 z xˆ − j4e j3 z yˆ
Magnitude {x + jy} = x + jy
The square of the magnitude of a complex number is the
product of the complex number and its complex conjugate. TIME-AVERAGE
The complex conjugate is the expression formed by
reversing the signs of the imaginary terms.
When two functions are multiplied, they cannot be
converted to the phasor domain and multiplied.
x + jy = ( x + jy )( x + jy ) * = ( x + jy )( x − jy )
2
Instead, we convert each function to the phasor
domain and multiply one by the complex conjugate of
the other and divide the result by two. The complex
conjugate is the expression formed by reversing the
signs of the imaginary terms.
For example, the function for power is:

P (t ) = v ( t ) i (t ) watts

Time-averaged power is:


1
P (t ) = ∫ v ( t ) i ( t ) dt watts
T

T 0

For a single frequency:

Re{V I * } watts
1
P (t ) =
2
T = period [s]
V = voltage in the phasor domain [s]
I* = complex conjugate of the phasor domain current [A]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 33 of 36


RMS SERIES
1
x , x =1
rms stands for root mean square.
1+ x ; 1+
root mean square 2
f ( t )rms = f (t )
2
1 x 3x 2 5 x 3 35 x 4
; 1− + − + − L , − 12 < x < 12
〈 p 2〉 1+ x 2 8 16 128
1
The plot below shows a sine wave and its rms value, along
; 1 + x 2 + x 4 + x 6 + L , − 12 < x < 12
with the intermediate steps of squaring the sine function and
taking the mean value of the square. Notice that for this
1− x 2

1
type of function, the mean value of the square is ½ the peak
; 1 + 2 x + 3x 2 + 4 x 3 + L , − 12 < x < 12
value of the square.
(1 − x )
2

1
; 1 − x + x 2 − x 3 + L , − 12 < x < 12
1+ x
1
; 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + L , − 12 < x < 12
1− x

BINOMIAL THEOREM
Also called binomial expansion. When m is a positive
integer, this is a finite series of m+1 terms. When m is
not a positive integer, the series converges for -1<x<1.
m ( m − 1) 2 m ( m − 1)( m − 2 )L ( m − n + 1) n
(1 + x ) = 1 + mx + x +L + x +L
m

2! n!
EULER'S EQUATION
e jφ = cos φ + j sin φ
BESSEL FUNCTION EXPANSION
z 2z3 3z 5
TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES J1: + 2 − 2 2 +L , z = 1
2 2·4 2·4 ·6
e+ jθ + e− jθ = 2 cos θ
e+ jθ − e− jθ = j 2sin θ HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
e ± jθ = cos θ ± j sin θ j sin θ = sinh ( jθ )
j cos θ = cosh ( jθ )
CALCULUS
j tan θ = tanh ( jθ )
∫ sin u du = 12 u − 14 sin 2u + C
2

∫ cos u du = 12 u + 14 sin 2u + C
2
LINEARIZING AN EQUATION
Small nonlinear terms are removed. Nonlinear terms
include:
• variables raised to a power
• variables multiplied by other variables
∆ values are considered variables, e.g. ∆t.

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 34 of 36


DOT PRODUCT ∇ NABLA, DEL OR GRAD OPERATOR
The dot product is a scalar value. Compare the ∇ operation to taking the time derivative.
A • B = (xˆ Ax + yˆ Ay + zˆ Az ) • (xˆ B x + yˆ B y + zˆ B z ) = Ax B x + Ay B y + Az B z Where ∂/∂t means to take the derivative with respect
to time and introduces a s-1 component to the units of
A • B = A B cos ψ AB B
the result, the ∇ operation means to take the
xˆ • yˆ = 0 , xˆ • xˆ = 1 ψ A derivative with respect to distance (in 3 dimensions)
and introduces a m-1 component to the units of the
B • yˆ = (xˆ Bx + yˆ By + zˆ Bz ) • yˆ = By A•B result. ∇ terms may be called space derivatives and
Projection of B B an equation which contains the ∇ operator may be
along â: B called a vector differential equation. In other words
∇A is how fast A changes as you move through
(B • aˆ )aˆ ψ ψ space.
â â
in rectangular ∂A ∂A ∂A
The dot product of 90° vectors is zero. ∇A = xˆ + yˆ + zˆ
coordinates: ∂x ∂y ∂z
The dot product is commutative and distributive:
A•B = B•A A • (B + C) = A • B + A • C
in cylindrical ∂A ˆ 1 ∂A ∂A
coordinates: ∇A = rˆ +φ + zˆ
∂r r ∂φ ∂z
in spherical ∂A ˆ 1 ∂A ˆ 1 ∂A
CROSS PRODUCT coordinates: ∇A = rˆ +θ +φ
∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ
A × B = (xˆ Ax + yˆ Ay + zˆ Az ) × (xˆ Bx + yˆ B y + zˆ B z )
= xˆ (Ay Bz − Az B y ) + yˆ ( Az Bx − Ax B z ) + zˆ (Ax B y − Ay Bx )
∇2 THE LAPLACIAN
A × B = nˆ A B sin ψ AB A×B The divergence of a gradient
where n̂ is the unit vector normal to both A Laplacian of a scalar in ∂2 A ∂2 A ∂2 A
n ∇2 A = + +
and B (thumb of right-hand rule). rectangular coordinates: ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2
A
B × A = −A × B ψ
Laplacian of a v ∂ 2 Ax ∂ 2 Ay ∂ 2 Az
x×y = z y × x = −z x×x = 0 vector in rectan- ∇ A = xˆ
2
+ ˆ
y + ˆ
z
gular coordinates: ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2
φ× z = r φ× r = −z B
In spherical and ∇ 2 A ≡ ∇ (∇·A ) − ∇ × ∇ × A
The cross product is distributive: cylindrical
A × (B + C) = A × B + A × C coordinates: = grad (div A ) − curl(curl A )
Also, we have:
A × ( B × C) = ( A ⋅ C) B − ( A ⋅ B ) C ∇⋅ DIVERGENCE
The del operator followed by the dot product operator
is read as "the divergence of" and is an operation
performed on a vector. In rectangular coordinates, ∇⋅
means the sum of the partial derivatives of the
magnitudes in the x, y, and z directions with respect to
the x, y, and z variables. The result is a scalar, and a
factor of m-1 is contributed to the units of the result.
For example, in this form of Gauss' law, where D is a
density per unit area, ∇⋅D becomes a density per unit
volume.

∂ Dx ∂ Dy ∂ Dz
div D = ∇ ⋅ D = + + =ρ
∂x ∂y ∂z
D = electric flux density vector D = εE [C/m2]
ρ = source charge density [C/m3]

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 35 of 36


CURL curl B = ∇ × B GLOSSARY
The circulation around an enclosed area. The curl of
adiabatic Occurring without loss or gain or heat.
vector B is
anechoic room Highly absorptive room. a ≈ 1.
in rectangular coordinates: enthalpy (H) A thermodynamic property. The sum of the
curl B = ∇ × B = internal energy U and the volume-pressure product PV. If a
body is heated without changing its volume or pressure, then
 ∂B ∂B   ∂B ∂B   ∂B ∂B 
xˆ  z − y  + yˆ  x − z  + zˆ  y − x  the change in enthalpy will equal the heat transfer. Units of
 ∂y ∂z   ∂z ∂x   ∂x ∂y  kJ. Enthalpy also refers to the more commonly used specific
enthalpy or enthalpy per unit mass h, which has units of
in cylindrical coordinates: kJ/kg.
curl B = ∇ × B = entropy A measure of the unavailable energy in a closed
thermodynamic system, varies in direct proportion to
 1 ∂Bz ∂Bφ  ˆ  ∂Br ∂Bz  1  ∂ ( rBφ ) ∂Br  temperature change of the system. The thermal charge.
rˆ  −  +φ  − + ˆ
z  − 
 r ∂φ ∂z   ∂z ∂r  r  ∂r ∂φ  harmonic wave A waveform that is sinusoidal in time.
isentropic Having constant entropy, no change in thermal
in spherical coordinates: charge. However there could be heat flow in and out,

1  ∂ ( Bφ sin θ ) ∂Bθ 
analogous to current flow.
curl B = ∇ × B = rˆ  − + isothermal Having constant temperature, no heat flow to/from
r sin θ  ∂θ ∂φ  the surroundings. Analogous to voltage.
pink noise Noise composed of all audible frequencies with a
1  1 ∂Br ∂ ( rBφ )  ˆ 1  ∂ ( rBθ ) ∂Br  3 dB per octave attenuation with frequency increase. The
θˆ  − +φ  −  attenuation is based on a per Hz value; the SPLs for each
r  sin θ ∂φ ∂r  r  ∂r ∂θ  octave are equal.
The divergence of a curl is always zero: reverberation room Characterized by long decay time.
a0 << 1, large T0..
∇·(∇ × H ) = 0 TDS time delay spectrometry. A sophisticated method for
obtaining anechoic results in echoic spaces.
white noise Noise composed of all audible frequencies at
SPHERE equal amplitude per Hz.
Area = πd = 4πr
2
Volume = 16 πd 3 = 43 πr 3
2
For a more comprehensive glossary, see the file
DictionaryOfAcousticTerms.PDF.

GRAPHING TERMINOLOGY
With x being the horizontal axis and y the vertical, we have
a graph of y versus x or y as a function of x. The x-axis
represents the independent variable and the y-axis
represents the dependent variable, so that when a graph
is used to illustrate data, the data of regular interval (often
this is time) is plotted on the x-axis and the corresponding
data is dependent on those values and is plotted on the y-
axis.

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes EngineeringAcoustics.pdf 12/20/00 Page 36 of 36