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Causes Of Flare Load


Design Guidelines

3.1 Radiation
3.2 Noise
3.3 Glc Of Toxic Combustion Products

Types Of Flares

4.1 Elevated Flares

Ground Flares


Flare System Components And Concepts


Design Of Flare Systems

6.1 Flare Load
6.2 Flare Header
6.3 Flare Stack
6.4 Knock Out Drum
6.5 Blow Down Pump
6.6 Water Seal Drum
6.7 Purge Gas Requirement
6.8 Smokeless Operation Of Flare


Inhouse Software Available For Design Of Flare System


Sample Calculations


Comparative Study Of Flare Systems Of Different Refineries


Flare Load Reduction Based On Interlocks


Flare Gas Recovery Systems




System Description


Comp. Selection & Suction Control


Operating Feedback

11.5 Attachments

Umoe’s Concept Of Flare Gas Recovery


Primary function of Flare is to convert flammable, toxic or corrosive vapours to less
objectionable components by combustion. Disposal of combustible gases, vapours and
liquids by burning is accomplished in flare. This serve as an emergency disposal system to
eliminate excess hydrocarbons coming to it due to:
Release from safety valves because of an equipment failure or because of major
plant emergency such as a power failure, cooling water failure or a plant fire.
Leakages from safety valves or control valves.
Disposal of flammable liquid-vapour products or by products which can not be
Process flares are used primarily in the oil and petrochemical industries from initial
production through transportation, storage, refining and processing. Flares are also used
for other process applications where hydrocarbon emissions must be controlled. A few
examples include: Sewage digestors, coal gasification and liquefaction, rocket engine
testing and heavy water plants.
The main objective of the flare has been to discharge flammable and waste gases at a safe
location and burn them in order to protect the environment from pollution and hazards.
Flaring, being a critical operation in many plants its design must be governed on strict
safety principles.
The various problems associated with flare are:
The flare generates a considerable amount of glare particularly during emergencies. This
causes inconvenience to the surrounding population and also gives the impression of
unnecessary waste of resources.
Smoke from flares causes a considerable amount of environmental pollution. The smoke
does occur in most of the flare system due to incomplete combustion of gases.
High noise levels are created by flare system during plant upset conditions. This again
causes inconvenience to the surrounding population. Prolonged exposure to excessive
noise may cause mental irritation, fatigue and even deafness. Now sophisticated design of
flare tips have greatly reduced the noise pollution.
During peak flare, the radiation level from the flame could be high. This affects the
surrounding vegetation and habitation.
Ground level concentration (GLC)
High GLC of combustion products or unburnt hydrocarbons causes damage to human
health, deterioration of materials and structures or creation of an area where plant/animal
species cannot survive. With the growing consciousness of people in every country
regarding environmental protection, there is a lot of pressure to come up with better flare
systems to eliminate the problems mentioned above.
Another widely used disposal method is venting or direct discharge to atmosphere. There
is some difference of opinion on the question of what may and what may not be vented to
atmosphere. It is usually considered safe to vent hydrocarbon vapours or gases lighter
than air, except hydrocarbon vapours or gases lighter than air, except hydrogen. Some
designers recommend venting of vapours even as heavy as propane, provided it is vented
from an elevated vent stack at a high velocity. The vent stack height is selected so that the

concentration of vapour at grade is well below the lower flammable limit of the vapours.
The reliability for estimation of ground level concentrations is questionable and therefore
flaring is the only satisfactory method for safe disposal of hydrocarbons heavier than air.




Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchanges, operating equipments and piping are designed to
contain the system pressure. The design is based on the normal operating pressure at
operating temperature, the effect of any combination of mechanical loadings that is likely
to occur, and the differential between the operating and set pressures of the pressure
relieving device. Overpressure results because of an unbalance or disruption in normal
flows of material and energy that causes accumulation or loss in certain part of the system.
The process system designer must define the relief required to prevent
the pressure in
any piece of equipment from exceeding the maximum allowable accumulated pressure.
The causes of over pressures are listed below:
Closed outlet on Vessels
The inadvertent closure of a block valve on the outlet of a Pressure Vessel while the plant
is on stream may expose the vessel to a pressure that exceeds the maximum permissible
working pressure. If closure of valve results in Overpressure, a Pressure Relief valve
system is required.
Inadvertent Valve Opening:
In advertent opening of any valve from high pressure system to low pressure system may
cause an Overpressure in connecting lines or receiving system. A pressure relief valve is
required to protect the system.
Check valve malfunction:
The failure of check valve to close the reverse flow must be considered where potential of
back flow of high pressure fluid exists.
Utility Failure:
Loss of any utility service, whether unitwide or local may cause overpressure. A potential
failure may also lead an equipment to overpressure. In most of the case the utility failure
governs the maximum failure load. Possible utility failure & equipment affected are listed
Utility Failure
Cooling Water
Inst. Air
Fuel (Oil, Gas)
Inert Gas


Partial Failure:

Equipment Affected
Pumps for circulating cooling water, boiler feed water,
quench or reflux. Fans for air cooled exchanges, Cooling
towers or combustion air.
Condensers for Process or Utilities Service coolers for
Process fluids, lubricating oil or seal oil.
Transmitters and Controllers, Process regulating valves,
Alarm and shutdown system
Turbine drivers for Rotating Equipment, Reboilers,
pumps, Ejectors
Boilers for Process steam, Reboilers, Gas Turbines,
Seal, Catalytic reactors






Partial preotectice credit can be taken for normally operating parallel equipments or stand
by services that have two unrelated source of energy to the drivers. Standby services
cannot be considered totally reliable hence it does not suffice insurance against
Electrical or Mechanical Failure:
The failure of electrical or mechanical equipment that provides cooling or condensation in
process streams can cause overpressure in process vessels.
Reflux Failure:
Reflux failure causes condensers flooding or loss of coolant resulting in an overpressure.
Heat exchanger tube failure:
When tube side pressure of an exchanger is much lower than the shell side, rupture of tube
will overpressure the tube side. Thermal shock, vibration, corrosion may also cause tube
failure. This must be protected with a pressure relief valve.,
Chemical reaction:
Over pressure may occur because of unbalance reaction in a reactor. Sophisticate safety
valves are used in these cases.
Hydraulic Expansion:
Thermal relief valves are provided to overcome overpressure because of rise in
Plant Fires:
Any process equipment in an operating plant that handles or processes fluid may get
exposed to fire. Continuous vapour generation will lead to over pressure in system.
Pressure relief valve is required to protect the vessels releasing the generated vapor.
Local Power Failure:
There might be local power failures in units/equipments which will cause disturbances to
local equipments. This may result in over pressure in system.
The permissible limits on pollution, radiation and other effects on environment have
been laid down considering various aspects. Although there is no definite quantitative
limit on flare and smoke emission from flare, most authorities demand that these should
For thermal radiation, noise and ground level concentrations following guidelines should
be followed:
Maximum permissible level is a function of the length of exposure, factors involving
reaction time and human mobility. Following limits of heat intensity radiations
should be observed:
Permissible Design Level (K) Conditions
Btu/Hr- ft2
Continuous exposure with appropriate clothing
Emergency action lasting for several minutes for personnel
with proper clothing but without shielding.
Emergency action lasting upto one minute without
shielding but appropriate clothing.
Radiation level at any location where people have access.

For example at grade below the flare or a service platforms
nearby tower) exposure should be limited to a few seconds
sufficient for escape only.
Radiation level on structure and in areas where operators
are not likely to be performing duties and where shelter
from radiating heat is available (for example behind
Note: On towers or other elevated structures where rapid escape is not possible, ladders must be
provided on side away from flare when K is greater than 6.31 KW/m2.(Reference API RP - 521,
Fifth edition).
The heat radiation level for personnel are with account taken of reaction time and human
mobility time of between 8 and 15 seconds from the onset of heat radiation. In emergency
release, a reaction time 3 - 5 seconds may be assumed and 5 - 10 seconds would elapsed
before individual could seek cover or deport from the area, which would result exposure
time 8 - 15 seconds.
Exposure time necessary to reach the Pain threshold.
Radiation intensity
Time to pain threshold
The radiation levels take into account the influence of clothing, but excludes the
contribution of wind chill factor, ability of personnel to face away from the radiation
source and lack of large open areas on offshore platforms.
The heat radiation figures are exclusive of an allowance for solar radiation. In our country
solar radiation would account for about 350 Btu/Hr ft2 heat and it is recommended that
for continuous exposure solar radiation should be taken into consideration. In that case
allowable heat radiation by combustion should be taken as 500 - 350 = 150 Btu/Hr - ft2.
For other conditions for calculations solar radiation should not be subtracted.

The exposure 1 minutes for noise prescribed in some of the well accepted standards
are given below:
Daily exposureOSHA Noise Regulations
NIOSH Noise Regulations

001 100 100 5 1 20 25 50 1000 100 .3.5 Acrylonitire 20 Ammonia 100 Amyl acetate 200 Amyl alcohol 100 Aniline 5 Arsinic 0.1 500 0.1 Dichloroethane Diisobutyl ketone Dimethylsulfate Ethyl acetate Ethylamine Ethyl bromide Ethyl ether Ethylenedramine Ethylene dichloride Fluorine Gasoline Hydrogen selenide Isodine Isopropylamine Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol 200 2-Methyloxyethanol PPM 400 50 100 50 1 400 25 200 400 10 100 0.1 5 200 25 Gas or Vapor Cyclopropane O-Dichlorobenzene Diethylamine Dimethylaniline Diethylene dioxide Ethyl alcohole (ethanol) Ethylbenzene Eltyl chloride Ethylene chlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Ethylene oxide 100 Formaldehyde Hydrazine Hydrogen sulfide Isophorene Mesityl oxide Methyl acetylene Methyl bromide 20 Methyl chloride PPM 400 50 25 5 100 1000 200 1000 5 25 Methylyclohexane Methylcyclohexanone Methyl amyl alcohol 500 100 25 Methylcyclohexanol Methyl formate Methylene chloride 100 100 500 Naphtha (coal or tar) pNitroaniline Nitrobenzene Nitrogen dioxide 200 1 1 5 Naphtha (petroleum) Nickel carbonyl Nitroethane Nitromethane 500 0.05 0.3 GLC of toxic combustion products: Threshold limits of GLC for certain toxic substances (gases and vapors) are as follows: Gas or Vapor PPM Gas or Vapor PPM Acetaldehyde 200 Acetic acid 10 Acetic anhydride 5 Acetone 1.005 Benzene 35 Benzyl chloride 1 Bromide 1 Butadiene 1000 Butyl alcohol 100 Butylamine 5 Carbon dioxide 5000 Carbon disulfide 20 Carbon monoxide 100 Carbon tetrachloride 25 Chlorine 1 Chlorobenzene 75 Chloroform 100 Cresol (all isomers) 5 Cyclohexane 400 Cyclohexanol 100 Cyclohexanone 100 Gas or Vapor Cyclohexene Diacetone alcohol 1.000 Acrolein 0.

is used in this type of flares.2-Tetrachloroethane Toluene (toluol) Trichloroethylene 4. discovered by Henri Coanda. This type of flare systems are simple. High pressure gas ejected from a narrow slot follows a profile of curved surface.05 200 500 10 0. The combustion should be smokeless. This effect introduces both air and turbulence in the flame area. Jet Mix Flares: These are available in various configurations. this requires high pressure gas.1 5 0. the flared gas is spread out into ambient . wings with slotted openings or double angle drilled nozzles produce swirling action to enhance air entrainment.Nitrotoluene Ozone Gas or Vapor Propyl ketone Phenylhydrazine Phosphine Propyl acetate Propyl ether Pyridine Stbine Sulfur dioxide Sulfur monochloride 1. stable. flame. The other advantage is that these can handle small quantities of liquid droplets.025 1 5 TYPE OF FLARES The ideal flare is a device that burns hydrocarbons completely.1 200 1000 0. smokeless combustion and gives lower heat emissivity. Various types of flare are: Elevated flares: Conventional pipe flare: Conventional flare consists of a pipe stack with a burner on top. which ensure burning of hydrocarbons from the flare stack during upset conditions.1 10 1 5 200 200 Octane Pentane Gas or Vapor Phenol Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) Phorphorous trichloride Propyl alcohol Propylene dichloride Quinone Styrene Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur pentafluoride Tetranitromethane o-Toluidine 500 1000 PPM 5 1 0. gives higher noise level and requires higher maintenance.1 PPM 200 5 0. Instead of air going to the gas. Pilot burners remain lit near the burner.1. flame lift off and high purge requirements. Some of the common features of conventional pipe flares are problem like smoke. 2.5 400 75 0.0 4. having low turndown capabilities. However. Coanda Effect Flares: Skin-adhesion effect. The noise level is also very less due to low exit velocities. Multiple nozzles with several holes. The main feature of this type of flare systems are shorter flame length. Based on specific requirements various flaring concepts have emerged and are being practised. least noisy and with minimum inconvenience to community in terms of radiation and luminosity aspects of flare. The Coanda profile aids in formation of a hollow cylinder of a gas and entrains air upto twenty times the gas volume. proven and suitable for varying loads. which ensures complete combustion.

The use of ground flare requires a clear distance of about 150 M from any processing unit or storage facility. The air is blown with the help of a axial fan. In addition to rendering the flame smokeless. combustion occurs at grade. giving short. having high operating cost and complex controls are required for efficient operation. 5. promoting rapid. thus reducing thermal radiation. Due to high cost and capacity limitations. Ground flare is basically installed for: Concealing combustion of continuous load Small load from cost considerations preferred. invisible and less noisy combustion. 4. Air-Assisted Flares: These flares incorporating special mixing heads that increase gas to air interface. Flaring load is staged and each stage comprises of multiple jets. the problems associated are of having complicated configuration. steam reduces the flame temperature. turbulent mixing with air and thus ensuring smokeless combustion. The disadvantages of this type of flare are. These are provided with wind shielding and hence are less affected with wind velocity and direction.O. Steam Assisted Flares: These flares achieve their smokeless capabilities by mixing steam with the flare gases. smokeless flame and low emissivity. ensuring efficient and improved flame characteristics. these are often used in conjunction with elevated flares. noisily combustion and higher pressure drops. This reduces flame length and thickness while increasing the flame surface and helps air or steam to penetrate the flame easily.air at high velocity. The operating costs are higher due to steam consumption. Air is blown into the central duct allowing unrestricted passage for the low pressure relief gas flowing up the annular duct. stable. The only utility required are power for the fan and fuel gas for the pilot burner. it requires utility source.Inclusion of a rotating equipment to supply combustion air reduces the system reliability. Air assisted flares can handle heavier gases. The flow rates which can be handled by a ground flare are generally constructed of fire brick or of carbon steel lines with refractory material. The steam is introduced at one or several points to induce secondary air and turbulence to improve mixing. However. typically inside refractory lined steel enclosures of circular or rectangular section. The advantages of this type of flares are.0 FLARE SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND CONCEPTS: The essential elements of any flare system are: o Flare header o K. having limited turndown capabilities. gives low radiation and glare and having longer tip life. Steam assisted flares also can handle heavier gases and have longer tip life. Drum o Water seal drum . The steam requirement would depend on flare gas molecular weight. Multi-burner flares: The gas stream is split and burnt in multiple burners installed on common stack.2 Ground Flares: In ground flares. There are essentially designed to dispose off small continuous loads with smokeless.

There is divergent opinion as to the volume of purge gas which may be required.O. The number of flare headers required is decided based on temperature. The flare header collects the material relieved by safety valves for safe discuarge to the flare.O. knock out drum.The maximum allowable back pressure would be: 10% of the set pressure for conventional safety valves 50% of the set pressure for balance bellow type safety valves 70% of the set pressure for pilot operated safety valves (Maximum allowable back pressure and set pressure are expressed as gauge pressures). very low temperature gases from a particular unit is put to a common flare header in offsites due to economic reasons. “As the high temperatures vapours move through the system. Pot is designed for removal of liquid and also adequate space is provided for removed liquid. A water seal drum is provided at or near the base of the flare stack as a safeguard against ingress of air in the flare system.e. C4 the liquid blow down is also sent to Flare I. The use of gas seals installed . The water seal prevents damage to the system upstream of the water seal drum. For protection of flare system downstream of the water seal. Natural gas. This is provided to prevent hazards associated with burning liquid droplets escaping from the flare stack. C2. If there is a possibility of liquid discharge into the flare system a K. entry of air from the flare outlet is prevented by: Continuous purge with oxygen free gas and Use of gas seal. flare stack itself. inert gases and nitrogen are commonly used. i. Considerable quantities of liquids can accumulate in flare systems because of the dew point characteristics of the complex mixture of vapours discharged at high temperatures. There are numerous sources of entry of air to the flare system. For process plant handling light hydrocarbons like C1. properties of hydrocarbon. Calculated volumes of purge gas should enter the flare system to ensure sweeping of the system. continuous purge is maintained. moisture content etc. In case. K. When the flare system is fairly static and flow is either very small or non existent and flares stack is filled with either low molecular weight gases or gases at high temperature the draft would exist at the base of the stack.B. but steam is not at all satisfactory as a purge gas. Drum is provided immediately adjacent to process unit. a flare gas superheater on the low temperature header may be required to heat the gases. liquid droplets are formed. C3.O. Drum is needed near the flare stack to trap any liquid condensed en route to the flare. To avoid a static condition of flow through the flare stack.L.S. Air upon entering the flare system mixes with the combustible gases within the system and mixture may be with in the explosive range resulting in some serious explosion.1. In addition to this a K.o Flare gas seal o Flare tip o Ignitor The basic scheme with components is shown in sketch 5. When these vapours cools to their dew point. there is drop in temperature due to heat loss to system and surroundings. With this state of less than atmospheric pressure with the flare system it is obvious that air will leak into the system if there is opportunity for it to do so. Purge gases may be any oxygen free gas which would not reach its dew point under any condition of flare operation. allowable pressure drop. A suitable Vaporizer Armstong type or indirect methanol is used for vaporizing the liquid hydrocarbon.

the trap forms in the upper portion of the inverted cylinder. Pressure drop through the header is proportional to the square of the mass flow rate and inversely proportional to the density. The molecular seal is heavier and large as compared to the fluidic seal because of the complexity of its internal passage. However for very large diameter flare stacks (48" and higher) there is a belief that molecular seal reduces oxygen ingress in flare stack. For example. it is generally not necessary to assume . 6.0 DESIGN OF FLARE SYSTEM 6. Flare load from one plant: Flare load from one plant is estimated considering: Flare load Temperature and molecular weight of gases Permissible back pressure The load is estimated for various emergencies and to arrive at design flare load. To force the air into the flare stack about 4 to 5 times the pressure of purge gas is required and hence atmospheric air can not enter the stack through the fluidic seal. If the purge gas is heavier than air. is preferred. The molecular seal is shown in fig. This necessitates a stronger and costlier support structure to carry the additional weight and wind resistance. its quantity and is not necessarily the largest number of Kg/Hr. The air thus encounters a trap caused by the difference in molecular weight between air and the purge gas. Flare tip a proprietary item. made of heat resistant alloy steel is specially designed to provide a stable and quiet flame of the desired smokeless capacity. 5. It is also possible that during various emergency conditions different safety valves discharge and hence the back pressure allowable may be different. Fluidic seal due to its simplicity of construction. one emergency is considered at a time in one plant. If the purge gas is lighter than air.immediately below the flare tip are capable to restrict entry of the air into the flare system. A drain is used for water removal.1 Flare Load: There are various reasons due to which hydrocarbons and/or other materials will be relieved to the flare system. Fig . but it is the flow which imposes the greatest head loss while flowing thru the system.5.3. the trap is formed in the lower portion of the outer cylinder. The seal is effective even when nitrogen is used as a purge gas. Various types of seals are available as discussed below: The fluidic seal consists of a series of fixed baffles shaped like open ended cones (Ref. the simultaneous occurrence of two or more unrelated contingencies need not be assumed. Molecular seal operates at reduced efficiency if its baffles are partially filled with water or pieces of refractory from the flare tip.. light weight and lower initial cost.2) within a flare tip. Flare Load for a Complex: To define the system load. but the refractory removal could require costly maintenance. During each such emergency. Each succeeding baffle encountered by waste or purge gas traveling aperture than below it. The purge gas is forced to make two 180 o bends as it flows through the seal. The resultant effect is similar to that of venturi with little drop in gas pressure.

Facilities that handle only gaseous fluids may be assumed to generate more localized fires than those that handle liquid combustibles.e.) Flare Header: The flare header must be sized so that the built-up back pressure at the outlet of relief valves does not exceed the maximum permissible value. 4) Final header connecting the vapour line to flare stack.( Refer design basis of HPCL Mmbai. a fire could possibly result in a failure of local wiring or instrument air piping. ( Refer section 10.0 ) ( ex. To define the combined relieving loads under fire exposure. . 10% of set pressure in psig for conventional type and 40% for balance type valve. However. the probable maximum extent of a fire should be estimated. 6. under some arrangements of process equipment. The most common basis for analyzing water or steam failure is the failure of one lateral rather than the entire supply. steam supply to col. 2) Subheaders in each area connecting to discharge lines. Where utility sources are believed to be unreliable or are not backed up by a spare unit. Complete failure of electrical power. commonly results in a design based on the failure of one bus. although loss of an entire distribution center or of the incoming line is occasionally used as a basis for design. The capability of steam system to pick up standby turbine loads should be reviewed in conjunction with the overall installed boiler capacity and the normal standby capacity immediately available. consideration of a fire incident is frequently limited to 230 square meters to 460 square meters.2 Flare Load Reduction in a Complex: Flare load in a plant can be considerably reduced based on following concepts: Cooling water segregation in plant so that simaltaneous cooling water failure in different units can be avoided. In the absence of any other governing factors. In some cases if allowable back pressure is governed by less load and for major flare load higher back pressure is allowable then two parallel headers one LP and other HP are run if it is economical. Flare piping system 1) Individual discharge lines from PSVs. When Cooling water failure occurs in a column . with reference to electrical power failure. Sizing Flare Headers 1) Back pressure i. such as power or cooling water. Failure of the power supply to electronic or electrical instruments may also be considered plant wide unless proper standby power supplies are provided.blocked outlets on process systems under fire conditions. Bottom reboiler will stop immediately. This type of study. Segregation of Power Distribution through various Sub-Stations. leading to the closure of valves that block off the process system. considering the location of sources of combustibles. the provision of drainage. or steam to an entire plant should be considered. 3) Main flare header leading to KOD. Particular study is required for cases of failure of major utilities. cooling water. This may be done on the basis of the actual layout of facilities. Instrument air failure is commonly considered to be a plant wide failure unless automatic makeup from an uninterrupted source is provided. and the effects of natural barriers. Each individual contingency should therefore be reviewed for possible resultant effects.) Flare load reduction based on INTERLOCKs. the effect of complete failure should be studied.

Hence one simple approach for flare sizing is described: Height of flare stack depends upon following: 1) Heat released by the flare gas in KW.8 K R = 460+ F In some cases corrosive gases like H2S or explosive gases like acetylene are to be handled which should not be connected to the common header. velocity is limited. Sonic velocity Vc = 223 / KT/M Vc in ft/sec K = Cp/Cv normally T = oR M = Mol.2 . General practice (. 6.The sizing of the flare stack requires the determination of stack diameter. In order to estimate pressure loss through flare headers. A separate water seal drum is provided with separate stack and is joined with the main stack below the gas seal.0.5) Mach number is selected. For such gases a separate header is run to the flare stack area. Sonic velocity is estimated as follows: Sonic velocity = 39. 2) Characteristics of flame and flame length 3) Emissivity of flame 4) Reduction intensity of flare 5) GLC of toxic gases . Generally maximum velocity is (0.g= Acceleration due to gravity 32. This results in drop in flare gas temp due to heat loss to metal and surroundings.4 . split flow arrangement is economical For estimating back pressure at safety valves the following losses are to be added: Stack exit loss Gas seal loss (Take p = three 90 o bends of diameter equivalent to flare stack) Static head due to stack heights Entry loss to stack Entry/exit loss to water sealdrum Seal height in water seal drum Entry/exit loss to K.3 (gkt/M) ½ ft/sec Where. height of stack and flare length..2) To avoid noise problem.2 ft/sec2 K = cp/cv for the flare gases T = Temperature of gases oR M = Avg. Drum Flare header drop The emergency discharge is normally at high temperatures and flare header runs many hundred meters. A check should be made to ensure that the maximum velocity in the flare header is well below sonic velocity. Wt. R = 1. Molecular weight of flare gases.O. the total header length is divided into a number of sections and pressure drop should be calculated for each section separately for each section.3 Flare Stack : Flare stack is located on downwind pile and at a remote place from operating zones.5) of sonic velocity is acceptable. When dia of KOD exceeds 12 ft.

Here. b) The probable timing .23 * 10-5 ( W / ( P2 * d2 )) (Z *T )/ ( K*MW)) 0. Q is calculated as follows: Q = Flow rate x heat of combustion = (W/3600)* ( H) From Fig.0 is taken) P2 = Pressure at the tip d = Flare diameter (m) (inside) K = Ratio of specific heat H = Heat of combustion (Kj per kg) Calculation of Diameter Mach No. Calculation of Required Flare Stack: Basis: See Fig.5 Mach may be permitted for peak load and short term. frequency. although pressure drop should be checked. Sizing of flare stack is based upon the effects of radiation.1 Normal operation . 0. A flare length L (m) can be found out. For low temp system.Radiation Intensity Emissivity valve for peak load . SIMPLE APPROACH FOR FLARE STACK SIZING Basic data Material flowing is HC vapour W = Flow rate (kg/hr) MW = Avg molecular weight T = Temp. Of fluid flowing (K) Z = Compressibility factor (Generally z = 1. which depends on following criteria: a)Volume ratio of maximum conceivable flare flow to anticipated average flare flow. a separate subheader may be required upto the point. C for dimensional reference. The following equation by Hazen and Ludwig can be used to determine min distance from a flare to an object whose exposure to thermal radiation must be limited: . Calculation of flare length The heat liberated. Velocity upto 0. A heat loss of 10 BTU/hr/ft2 may be taken as thumbrule for heat loss calculations. flare subheaders may similarly combined into a single low temp flare headers and piped all the way to flare stack. for high pressure flares. = 3. c) The design criteria adopted for the project to stabilize flare burning. a heat gain calculation is done to find out.5 Flare stack dia is generally sized on velocity basis . can be taken. where the temp drops down to the allowable limit. and duration of those flows.2 Mach is maintained for more normal and possibly more frequent conditions for low pressure flares. whether subheader can be connected to main header or not. a higher Mach no.3 2 2 2 D =x +H x = 20 te 20 ft/s = velocity of escape te = time of escape to a safe location For a high temp system. However .

D = ( *F*Q / (4* *K)) D = min distance from the mid point of flame to object being considered (in meters) = fraction of heat intensity transmitted F = fraction of heat radiated Q = heat release (lower heating value) (KW) K = Allowable radiation (KW/m2) For initial calculation may be assumed 1. B Y/ L & Y/L can be estimated Where L is flame length From Hazen and Ludwig equation . For peak flare load F = 0.79 ( 100 / r ) 1/16 (30. Flow in (m3/s) Can be estimated based on ideal gas law: U = Wind velocity Uj Flare tip velocity Uj = Flow (m3/s) (( *d 2 )/4) Another method to calculate the tip exit velocity sonic velocity = 91. U j = jet Mach no. H . 5 . The lateral wind effect can be estimated from Fig. use of the fraction of heat intensity transmitted. * sonic velocity From Fig. to correct the radiation impact. D is calculated. = 0. Measurement of radiation from frames indicate that the fraction of heat radiation (radiant energy per total heat of combustion) increases towards a limit.5 / D) 1/16 = fraction of heat intensity transmitted through the atmosphere.0 According to Brzustowbsui & Summer.2 ( k* Tj / M j ) 0 . The F factor allows for the fact that not all the heat released in a flame can be transferred by radiation. C) Above equation satisfy most of flare gases except H2 & H2S which burn with little or no luminous radiation. similar to the increase in the burning rate with increasing flame diameter. stack height. Now corresponding to desired Mach No. r = relative humidity.3 Estimate flame length from Fig A indicates flame radiation center being at the flame mid point. is calculated as follows: H’ = H+½ Y .B which relates horizontal and vertical displacement of flame center to the ratio of lateral wind velocity to stack velocity. percent D = Distance from flares to illuminated area (m) ( see fig.1 normal flare load F = 0. A flame under influence of wind will tilt in the direction of wind is blowing. Flame length varies with emission velocity and heat release.

This corresponds to maximum allowable radiation K at particular distance from flare stack. (kilograms per cubic meter) C = drag coefficient (see Figure 20).4 Sizing a Knockout Drum Sizing a knock out drum is generally a trial and error process. The vertical velocity of the vapor and gas should be low enough to prevent large slugs of liquid from entering the flare. Liquid particles will separate (a) when the residence time of the vapor or gas is equal to or greater than the time required to travel the available vertical height at the dropout velocity of the liquid particles. The basic equation is widely accepted for all forms of entrainment separation. However. The first step is to determine the drum size required for liquid entrainment separation. From above equations H is calculated. Since the flare can handle small liquid droplets. Particle diameter. This liquid may result from (a) condensate that separates during a vapor release. it would usually not be necessary to consider the following volumes relative to vapor disengaging in the following situation that in which the knock out drum is used to contain large liquid dumps from pressure relief valves from other sources where there is no significant flashing and the liquid can be removed promptly. . 6. The second step in sizing a knock out drum is to consider the effect any liquid contained int he drum may have on reducing the volume available for vapor/liquid disengagement. the allowable vertical velocity in the drum may be based on that necessary to separate droplets from 300 micrometers to 600 micrometers in diameter. (9. or (b) liquid streams that accompany a vapor release. (in meters) density of the liquid at operating conditions. and (b) when the vertical gas velocity is sufficiently low to permit the liquid dropout to fall. Any accumulation of liquid retained from a prior release (from pressure relief valves or other sources) should be added to the liquid indicated in items () and (b) to determine the available vapor disengaging space. The dropout velocity (9) of a particle in a stream is calculated using Equation 30 as follows: Uc = Uc g D p1 = = = = 1.R’ = R-½ x D2 = (R’) 2 + (H’) 2 R is estimated as per design basis.8 meters per second per second). This vertical height is usually taken as the distance from the liquid surface. (meters per second) acceleration due to gravity. The volume occupied by the liquid should be based on a release that lasts 20 to 30 minutes.15 {g D( l - v )}/ ( v *C) dropout velocity. (kilograms per cubic meter) Pv = density of the vapor at operating conditions.

The inlet stream should be baffled to direct the flow downward. b.O. A horizontal drum with the vapor entering at each end on the horizontal axis and a center outlet.eG) /eG ft/sec. The blowdown pumps selected should have minimum NPSH requirement and KOD should be elevated suitably to meet the NPSH requirement.eG)* M*P/ T ]½ where.D. The calculations for items d and e would be similar. d. Wt. A practical formula for the vapor velocity is: V = 0.0m and the KOD shall be elevated at . W = lbs/hr of vapour eL = liquid density lbs/cu ft eG = gas density lbs/cuft M = mol. D = drum diameter in fit Similar expressions are available for vertical knock out drums.Economics of vessel design in selecting a drum size.5 BLOWDOWN PUMP A blowdown pump is provided to transfer liquid from K. The condensate in the KOD should be considered as subcooled for the NPSH (available) calculations. e. Of the vapor T = temperature of the vap in oR. The normal calculations would be used for item c and d will not be duplicated here. which may influence the choice between a horizontal and a vertical drum. A combination of a vertical drum in the base of the flare stack and a horizontal drum upstream to remove the bulk of the liquid entrained in the vapor. a horizontal drum is often more economical. Drum. with one-half the flow rate determining one half the vessel length. The pump capacity is put equal to the maximum possible condensation rate during peak flaring. The various designs include the flowing: a. Items a and b. 6. the differences are mainly in how the path of vapor is directed. The following sample calculations have been limited to the simplest of the design.4 * (eL . A vertical drum with the vapor inlet nozzle on a diameter of the vessel and the outlet nozzle at the top of the vessel’s vertical axis. A horizontal drum with the vapor entering one end of the vessel and exiting at the top of the opposite end (no internal baffling). Typical NPSH (available) for the condensate pump is 2. When large liquid storage is desired and the vapor flow is high. f. P = psia.O. the minimum pump capacity should be 5 m3/hr. A vertical vessel with a tangential nozzle. c.5m (min) from the grade. Although horizontal and vertical knockout drums are available in many designs. This combination permits the use of large values for the numerical constant in the velocity equation. However. The following formula can be used for sizing horizontal drums for separation of 400 particle: W = 360* D2 [ (eL . The pump should have provision to start and stop automatically through level switches on K. A horizontal drum with vapor entering in the center and exiting at each end on the horizontal axis. Higher elevation of .

Since the principle means for suppression of smoke involves the various chemistries associated with reaction of water vapours with the components of the flared gas stream. Refer attached fig. To be safer side it is recommended to use purge gas to have 0. Seals are two types Liquid seal Gas Seal Liquid seals are further classified a Seal Drum & Seal pipe.7 Water Seal Drum Seal is provided at the base of flat stack to prevent any flash back. The quoted values of the minimum required purge gas velocity vary from as low as 0. The purpose of seal drum is to maintain a seal of several inches on inlet flare header. PURGE GAS REQUIREMENT It is essential to prevent air ingress into the flare system.10 ft/sec.1 ft/sec Without seal 1 ft/sec 6.8 SMOKELESS OPERATION OF FLARE Because of increasing stringent air pollution laws.6 6. The most acceptable safety measure is to ensure a positive flow thru flare system. Due to this reason steam is almost universally used for suppression of smoke in flare operation. These gases are referred to as purge gases. smokeless flare operation is process plants has been preferred in the interest of good public relations. Use of steam increases the burning rate by the creation of turbulence in the . In seal drum liquid seal is located. thus increasing the system costs. it may cause back pressure on KOPD. Shell method is used. For designing water seal drum. there is general agreement that a commercially available gas seal installed immediately below the flare at the top of the stack establishes perfect safety to the flare system when the purge volume admitted is capable of maintaining stack velocity from 0. stack velocity. There have been numerous approaches to the problem of smokeless burning of waste process gases.05 to 0. Pipe is an integral part of the stack. In the flaring of gaseous hydrocarbons. the tendency for smoke production as the gases burn is governed by the weight ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the gases but is not directly proportional to the H/C ratio by weight. not exceeding six inches otherwise. It is normal practice in industries to supply gases to the flare system constantly to avoid a static condition of flow. There has been certain limited success with water injection for smoke suppression due to the great nuisance of a spray of unvaporized water to grade in normal operation of the flare.1 ft/sec. However. 6. In absence of seal a continuous entry of gas may be bled to flare.the KOD results in increased elevation of the flare header.06 to 3 ft/sec. Water is normally used on sealing liquid in cold climate some extra provision is needed either water is heated or water is replaced by alcohol. Purge gas requirement in the flare header: With seal 0. kero etc. there have been various schemes for delivery of the water to the burning zone as either steam or as water spray in one form or another.

Maximum fire load comes from CT-1 failure. 1.10. Soot formation is also reduced by the water gas reaction C = H2O = CO + H2. promoted by the addition of steam.wk4 Stack dia calculation . For any other situation which involves prolonged flaring. The amount of steam for smokeless operation can be computed from: W steam = W HC (0. In a large chemical plant or Refineries having a very reliable power supply. 8. So far design of flare header & stack maximum load corresponding to CT-1 is the governing load. Cooling water failure mostly governs the maximum flare load. system has been segregated into two parts. According to governing load. Cooling water failure is the governing case in each unit. Normal flaring loads 2. U-03. as the steam rates would be prohibitively high. 7. or 3.wk4 Pressure profile calculation T_drop. Cooling Tower one supply CW to U-01. Designer may refer to various packages available on PRODES. The manufacturer should be consulted on the minimum necessary steam rate. Flares for suppression of smoke are commercially available of proprietary designs.8/M) Where W steam = Steam rate lbs/hr W HC = Hydrocabron rate. Name of file Function stak_cal. Total flare load is sum of governing loads from different units based on governing factor of respective units. . Various headers & sub-headers sizes are optimized meeting the unit back pressure requirement. press drop from flare tip to main KOD Horizontal KOD sizing p_drop. flare stack dia and KOD have been sized. Profile calculation Apart from above programs. Start-up or shutdown of a process plant. located at the ground level. Accordingly.wk4 Temp. thereby reducing the formation of soot. lb/hr M = Molecular weight of hydrocarbon It is normally not possible to attain smokeless operation of flare at peak flaring loads.. U-02. U-04 and CT-2 supplies to U-05. In the following example.wk4 kod_cal. U-06. U-08.0 INHOUSE SOFTWARE AVAILABLE FOR FLARE SYSTEM SIZING Following programmes are available in LOTUS-123 in dir D:\FLR_MAN for variouscalculations.reaction gases and the inspiration of air. The stem for smokeless consumption can be put through a manual remote control valve or through an automatic smoke detector.68 . sending signal to the steam control valve. unit back pressure is calculated moving from KOD to individual units. The normal practice is to design the flare system for smokeless operation for any of the following reasons.0 Sample Calculation seets are attached herewith. Individual unit location is specified based on plot plan.

Allowable back press at PSV outlet = 0.9.0 kg/cm2g Max allowable back pressure = 1. Governing load = 457 TPH Maximum allowable back pressure at unit B/L = 0.71 kg/cm2g Flare header 48" (after WSD 54") Stack height = 100m Smokeless flaring capacity = 2 Tons/hr MRPL-II For main flare header sizing and flare stack design. Max allowable back press. Only single largest local power failure is considered for checking the Governing load = 449 TPH flare header sizing. At unit B/L = 1.2 kg/cm2g Flare Header 54" Flare header 54" Stack height = 100m Stack height = 100m Length of Flare header= 3m Smokeless flaring capacity: Smokeless flaring capacity = 110 TPH .7 kg/cm2g at PSV outlet Max allowable back press at PSV outlet=1. general electric power failure is considered. Governing load = 750 TPH.0 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FLARE SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENT REFINERIES HPCL (M) IOCL (Panipat) Power substation Cooling water failure is the MSS-5 failure is the governing governing case for flare case for Flare system design.61 Max allowable back pressure kg/cm2g = 1.5 kg/cm2g at unit B/L Max. header sizing.

Horizontal water seal drum separate from flare stack.15% of maximum load Water seal drum is an integral part of flare stack. . Water seal drum is an integral part of flare stack.

6 63.6 4.37/ 8/4.8/3.Plant Total governing load Temp o C Stack Dia/Ht (m/m) WSD L/Dia.2/2.000 133 1.7/100 8.37/100 7.5 15.8/3.2 -do- 457323 80 1 37/100 NA/4.5 13.5/4.5 100 112 1.4/2.5/4.6 MW Remarks MRPL-II 750.4 7.8 43 Ref.6 449100 50-100 1.5 34 -do- 43300 50 0.61/100 7.0 BPCL(M) IOCLPanipat CRL (DHDS) .2/4. attached DB for details MRPL-I 284733 12.8 HPCL(M) 10. (M/m) Main KOD L/Dia (m/m) 23/5.


- Cooling water failure - General electric failure - Fire case Blocked outlet - Reflux failure . following cases are studied. toxic or corrosive vapors safely which is discharged during startup. FLARE SYSTEM 10. normal operation and emergency cases.1 System Configuration Two flare collecting systems are provided.10. Sour flares released from the following units are discharged to the sour flare header. - Amine treating unit Sour water stripping unit Sulfur recovery unit These two flare headers are connected at main flare knockout drum which is located near the flare stack.2. (Note): CDU/VDU/NSU Visbreaker unit Merox units Hydrocracker unit Hydrogen unit GO-HDS unit CCR/NHT unit (future) HP flare from Hydrocracker unit which is discharged independently in phase I shall be integrated with main (LP) flare header in phase 2. Hydrocarbon and sour flares released from the following units are discharged to the main (LP) flare header.2 Design Flare Load For flare system design. One is main (LP) flare header and the other is sour flare header. shutdown. 10.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATION 10. Dedicated flare system for Phase-2 is provided.2.1 INTRODUCTION Flare system shall be installed to burn the flammable. Flare load for the various cases is summarized in the attached sheet. 10.

3 Knock Out Drum Five (5) Nos. general electric power failure case is considered. 1. (General electric failure) VBU - As per Phase-I (Reflux failure) CCR + NHDT - General electric failure GO+HDS - Fire case + Emergency depressure MEROX - Fire case HCU - As per Phase-I (Fire case + Emergency depressure) ATU - Fire case SWS - General electric failure SRU - As per phase-1 (Fire case) Hydrogen - As per phase-1 (PSA trip case) Pressure profile and velocity for the flare header design shall be as follows. Of Flare Knock out drums are provided in phase-2 as per following groupings: 1) Knock out drum in VBU area is receiving flare gas from - VBU VBU/BLENDER MEROX . - 0. CDU/VDU - As per EIL Package. 0.4. Pressure profile for the main (LP) flare header at general power failure case and for the sour flare header at ATU fire case is shown in the attached sheets.3 kg/cm2g at main flare KO Drum located near flare stack.2 kg/cm2g at each SV back pressure - Velocity is less than Mach No.2. Individual flare outlet from each units are sized as listed below.- Emergency Depressure For the main flare header sizing and flare stack design. 10.0 kg/cm2g at each unit BL 1.

Wt. Temp.4 General power failure For HCU 108180 8.8 303 In SWS area 86600 50 123 Fire + Emergency depressure Fire case in ATU Main knock out drum 741274 43 133 General power failure 10. Diameter and height of the flare stack shall be determined considering the ground level heat intensity in accordance with API RP 521.4 Flare Stack Flare stack shall be designed based on the general power failure case of 750 t/h.Sour flare header .54 175. Maximum heat intensity at ground level shall be less than 4.- GO-HDS NHDT CCR 2) Knockout drum in CDU/VDU/NSU area 3) Knockout drum for HCU 4) Knockout drum in SWS area is receiving flare gas form - 5) ATU SWS SRU Main knock out drum is receiving flare gas from all of above knock out drums. 10.Flare stack : : : : Stress relieved killed carbon steel with 6mm CA Stress relieved carbon steel with 3mm CA Stress relieved killed carbon steel with 6mm CA Stress relieved killed carbon steel with 6mm CA and : Stress relieved carbon steel with 3mm CA .Water seal drum epoxy cement coating .2. oC Case In VBU Area Flow rate kg/hr 189684 37.000 kcal/m2. Flare knock out drums are sized as per API RP 521.Main (LP) flare header .hr excluding solar radiation.All the knockout drum . Design load for each KO drum is summarized as below: Knock out drum Mol. Flare tip shall be designed considering smokeless capacity of 110 t/h which is corresponding to 15% of maximum flare load.3 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION .


89 4 140.01 0 205 427 27.43 5 12.21 4 8.0 28 50 99 Capacity s 162 344 Capacity s 60.00 0 132 212 - 145/ 133 12. 30 3 Tem Rate p o C kg/h 122 248.40 8 5 139 M W 68 Tem Rate p o C kg/h 207 19.0 02 MW Tem Rate p o C kg/h 72 129 23.680 18 156 132 212 117 1.6 03 10.1 70 4 149 .00 0 - 145/ 133 23.6 69. 280 6 Gener al Electr ic Failur e Tem Rate M p W o C kg/h 81 283. 50. M VDU & N CDU According 007) 61 284 61 284 48. 4 27.0 00 10.31 6 2. 4 17.680 18 156 12.1 146 M W Tem Rate p o C kg/h M W Tem p o C Eject steam kg/hr 100 oC. Unit (#411000) Visbreaker Unit (#41200) Visbreaker Unit (#51200) Sulfur Recovery Unit (#41400) Sulfur Recovery Unit (#51400) LPG Merox (#41500) Kerosene/Jet Merox (#41600) Hydrocracker (Rx Sect) (#42000) Cooli ng Wate r Pum ps Rate M W Kg/h 207.FLARE LOAD SUMMARY (PHASE-II REFINERY) Unit Name Crude Distillation Unit (#41000) Vacuum Dist.6 03 117 1.43 5 12.21 4 19.

4 00 32 117 45415 77. Pre estima 97. 7 118 42.00 0 73 150 17.73 4 180 427 86.37 4 3308 7 57.6 190 20.60 7 18 25.78 1 8.7 71 73.4 04 19. 1 157 119 Naphtha Merox (#45700) Naphtha Hydro-treater (#41700) CCR Platformer (#42400) 25. 5 106 150 27.249 kg/h General Power failure 741.00 0 52.274 kg/hr MW .46 6 10 0 227 109.500 kg 40.85 4 142 317 47.Hydrocracker (Frac. 3 14.60 0 50 123 2.5 236 Pre estima for future 42.10 0 26.6 60 Pre estima Depress.8 179 Preestimat for future External Fire Total 937. 9 102 Based on P Based on P PSA trip c 41.4 50 49 18 71 222. 1 71 59.2 51 30.9 49 45.08 3 39.0 00 4.9 23 26.102 18 140 48.59 8 13. 6 157 87.Sec) (#42100) Poly Arom Adsor ) #42200) Amine Treating (#42200) Sour Water Stripper (#42600) Hydrogen plant (#42300) Gas Oil HDS (#45500) 17.2 32.

0 133 oC CW failure total 314. .212 Local power failure of HYC 288.349 kg/h Temp.43.


normal operation or in case of an emergency such as: o o o o o o o 9. 12. BBU 0.2 Cooling water failure Power failure Combined cooling water and power failure Instrument air failure External fire Blocked outlet/an open inlet Any other emergency UNIT CAPACITY The flare loads from the following plants have been considered for the design of flare system: Process Unit Capacity.7 4.5 7.0 2. CRU 0.3 3.7 0. VDU 3. shutdown. 11. H2 UNIT 6. OHCU 1.FLARE SYSTEM 9. FCCU 5. 13. VBU 8. Kerosine Merox SR LPG Merox FCC LPG Merox FCC Gasoline Merox Sulphur Block . 10.038 0.5 9.4 0.1 INTRODUCTION The flare system will be provided for safe disposal of combustible. CDU 6. MMTPA 1. toxic gases which are relieved from process plants and offsites during start-up.

67.9 196 These loads have been taken from the package.08 Temp o C 141 .9. 65.04 Temp o C 81.09 Load kg/hr 501600 Mol wt.2 OHCU The flare loads for this unit is given below: Fire Case (Atm col+ Stab + MTO strip Ref Drum) Load kg/hr 112447 Mol wt.1 CDU/VDU For this Unit the flare loads are given below: Cooling Water System Load kg/hr 207280 Local Power Failure Mol wt.3.3 FLARE LOADS 9.3. Temp o C 85. 9.

9 98. o wt C 55.46 427 The loads given above are taken from safety valves relief summary for the OHCU given by UOP.4 Genera l Electri c Failure Load Mol kg/hr wt 33414 56.62 2 Fire Case (Separator + Flash Drum) Tem Load o C kg/hr 55 110585 Mol wt Temp o C 186.25 7 Tem o C 240 Emerg ency Depres surizati on Load Mol kg/hr wt 12661 3.Coolin g Water Failure Load kg/hr 69872 Mol Tem. .

5 CRU The data for the following contingencies is taken from the package: Cooling Water System Load Mol kg/hr wt. Temp o C The flare load for different contingencies shall be updated when data from the hydrogen unit licensor M/s. 70000 23.5 Temp o C 74 Local Power Failure Load kg/hr 105000 Fire Case Mol wt.0 Temp o C 110 Local Power Failure Load kg/hr 90000 Fire Case Mol wt. 376 Temp o C 427 The flare loads are taken from the preliminary estimates available form the licensor.9. Cooling Water Local Power Fire Case .65 Temp o C 50 Local Power Failure Load kg/hr Fire Case Mol wt.8 133 Load kg/hr 51710 Mol wt.3. 40 Temp o C 105 9. Cooling Water System Load Mol kg/hr wt.3.3. Temp o C Load kg/hr Mol wt. HTAS is available.6 VBU The following are the flare loads given for Visbreaker Unit and are taken from the process package. 40000 40. 9. 61231 13. Temp o C 50 210 Load kg/hr 40000 Mol wt. Temp o C 83.3.3 FCCU Cooling Water System Load Mol kg/hr wt. 9.4 H2 UNIT The loads given below are taken from hydrogen unit flare load summary for GHP and the flare loads are prorated..

3. Cooling Water System Load Mol kg/hr wt.System Load kg/hr 8940 Failure Mol wt. Hold Temp o C Local Power Failure Load kg/hr Hold Fire Case Mol wt.3.7 BBU The offgases from this unit shall be incinerated in the incinerator provided near the unit. Temp o C 9.8 9.0 SWS Unit Temp o C 150 Local Power Failure Load kg/hr Hold Fire Case Mol wt. Temp o C 58 199 Load kg/hr 23960 Mol wt. 64 Temp o C 125. 25000 20. The estimated flare loads are as follows: ARU. This unit shall not be connected to the flare system. SWS unit and sulphur unit). Temp o C .9 SULPHUR BLOCK The flare loads given below for this block for different contingencies are as per the estimates available for this block (consisting of ARU. The flare load for these units will be furnished when data from the respective licensors are available.3. 9. Temp o C Load kg/hr Hold Mol wt. The flare gases from the block shall be routed to the sour flare.8 MEROX These unit are not considered to add-on to the flare load in the contingencies considered above. Cooling Water System Load Mol kg/hr wt. Temp o C Load kg/hr Hold Mol wt.5 Load kg/hr 17100 Mol wt. 44 Temp o C 79.

85 Local Power Failure Load kg/hr 13250 Fire Case Mol wt.01 160 Load kg/hr 5685 Mol wt.2 Temp o C 140 Sulphur Unit The unit shall have its own incinerator and shall not be connected to the flare header. 46. 1284.Cooling Water System Load Mol kg/hr wt. . Temp o C 18.23 Temp o C 86.2 24.

Emergency Depressurizati on 7. ARU 25000 20 150 HOLD HOLD SWS 13250 18. OFFSITE 62400 S (Note-1) 9. 85. VBU 8940 79.4 S.9 Load kg/hr CDU/VD U OHCU Cooli ng Water Failur e Load kg/hr 20728 0 69872 128.08 Tem p oC 141 Mol wt Tem p oC 2.0 4 55. CRU 61231 13.4 Load kg/hr 50160 0 15787 0 Mol wt. Mol wt 65.5 10500 0 17100 58 199 23960 64 125.6 5 70000 23.01 160 5685 Sulphur Unit 10. FCCU 40000 40.2 24. 8 50 55 46.0 110 90000 30 210 40000 376 427 4.5 83. TOTAL(2) 45732 -34 -80 3 Figures in this block represents governing flare load from the respective units.8 133 51710 40 105 6.8 5 SRU down .9 Temp o C 196 Load kg/hr 112447 Mol wt 67. LPG Sphere 1284.4 6 427 12661 2 3.4 234 110585 186.N o FLARE LOAD SUMMARY Tem p oC 81. H2 Unit 50 5.9.2 140 1.62 55 3.2 3 86. Unit Local Power Failure 44 74 Others Contingency Fire MEROXE S 8.0 9 98.

Note 1: In case of fire at MT bullets or Hydrogen bullets they shall also discharge to flare. .

releasing high load. Type of instruments will be decided during P&ID stage.7 EIL had suggested routing all H2S bearing streams to the sour flare but IOCL decided to route only the Sulphur block reliefs to the sour flare header. The length of this flare header is ~3 KM.5 kg/cm2g at unit battery limit shall be considered for sizing the flar header.2 Only single largest Local Power failure shall be considered for checking the flare header sizing. 15% of 12. 9.5. 9. However this load is not governing.6 THE SYSTEM The main flare header shall collect the emergency hydrocarbon reliefs from all the equipments (except equipment discharging to the sour flare header) and shall route it to main flare stack. To keep the height of flare header within reasonable limits and to reduce the cost of associated flare header structure.5 A maximum allowable back pressure of 1. 9. The flare stack diameter shall be 54" and height 100m. . it is proposed to have one knock out drum enroute flare stack. 9.8 Smokeless Capacity: The flare shall be designed for a smokeless capacity equivalent to 15% of maximum anticipated fuel gas production (i. The only exceptions are OHCU and CRU.3 TPH mol wt. Main flare. One carrying the discharges from equipments handling high H2S contents hydrocarbons i.2 TPH. however for Local power failure case and fire case a back pressure of 1.5. However a maximum allowable back pressure of 9.e.1 fps in respective unit headers with fuel gas.5 FLARE PHILOSOPHY 9. To take care of the short term H2S rich reliefs the flare header shall be post weld heat treated and hardness of 200 BHN maintained.3 For different units the General electric failure shall not be considered as governing load as the feed to the furnace/feed pumps shall also cease leading to a low flare load. 9. 8. Sour flare header (carrying reliefs from the sulphur block) and the second one carrying rest of the hydrocarbon reliefs i.1 The cooling water failure becomes the governing load for the flare header sizing.4 There shall be two separate flare headers.5.7 kg/cm2g shall be considered at PSV outlet.95) i.6 For sour flare a maximum allowable back pressure of 0.5.5.e.10 For monitoring flare losses. metering instrument will be provided in each unit block area and also on the main flare header. 9.5 kg/cm2g shall be considered at sulphur block battery limit. This Flare system shall have its own dedicated set of flame front generators and flame pilots. 9.5 kg/cm2g shall be considered at Sulphur Block battery limit for SRU down case.9 Flare header shall be purged by all units maintaining a purge velocity of 0.5. The knock out drum shall be located .e. The size of this flare header works out to be 54".5. 9. 9.e.5.

This flare header shall have a KOD near flare stack. It is not possible to take water seal drum under maintenance without shutdown of entire complex. The gases will then be routed to the flare area.near BBU. The water seal drum is an integral part of the flare stack. The sour flare header shall have a knock out drum in the Sulphur block. Sour flare header shall be post weld heat treated and shall have minimum 200 BHN hardness. A vertical water seal drum shall be provided at the bottom of the stack. . separate Flame Pilots shall be provided for this flare. This will not have any water seal drum. Thus to avoid any such situation all the internals of water seal drum shall be of SS-304. It shall have second knock out drum near flare stack. A separate fluidic seal. A schematic for flare gas collection header is given under Annexure 1. The flame front generators shall be common for two flares. The gases shall be burnt alongwith the main flare gases through a separate header near the tip of the main flare.


The existing flare system is incapable of handling this additional load. Notes: 1.3 70 150 - FR-APS 272 70 150 - FR-VPS 7.5 31.7 37 75 - Hydrogen 19.5 65 Lean oil failure SWS* ARU* SRU* * Sour gases being routed through a separate acid header.8.Mumbai.0 FLARE SYSTEM 8.5 125 - T-701 (PG VPLG) 52 70 150 - DHDS 2.8 20. 8.5 70 100 - T-1701 27.5 11.2 50 50 77.1 INTRODUCTION At present several safety valves from existing units are venting to atmosphere. For Blocked outlet/fire case flare load details refer flare study report (dated Sept 1996) submitted to HPCL . .5 68.2 FLARE LOADS Safety valve discharges for cooling water failure case from various units are given below: Units FRE APS 220 70 150 - FRE VPS 7.2 12.32 35 - 3.8 20.5 22.3 150 - FCCU 139 70 100 - Propane Unit 35 50 32.2 T-802 (Debut) 85 50.3 150 - HMU 36.7 - T-801 (Deeth) 5.6 15.1 - MEA Regeneration* 4. A new flare system is envisaged to handle safety valve reliefs from the existing units presently connected to flare as well as venting to atmosphere and DHDS block.

3 GOVERNING FLARE LOAD Power is distributed in different units in the fuel refinery & FR cooling towers through various substations viz. After MS maximisation. FR VPS. MSS-4 & MSS-5 failure are as follows: MSS-1 FAILURE MSS-1 supplies power to FR APS. T-701 (PG VLPG) units & 3 pumps of FR cooling tower. Therefore. total flare loads envisaged for MSS-1.8. MSS-1. MSS-4 & MSS-5. Since there is only one common CWE supply header from FR cooling tower. UNITS (oC) LOAD. Remarks FRE CT Not affected FRE APS affected FRE VPS - Not Not affected HMU affected T-701 (BH VLPG) affected FR CT Not Not . due to trip of three CW pumps the pressure in the header will be so low that the other pumps will also trip leading to FR cooling water system failure. (TPH) MW Temp. MSS-1 failure will result the power failure in the above said units & three FR cooling water pump trip.

5 MEA REGEN.7 failure PROPANE UNIT 5.5 150 Both CW & Unit power failure*.5 70 93 CW 77.6 50 50 T-801 (DEETH) 15. failure 4. Total (for HC flare) 307.2 32.1 CW 22.7 Lean 68.2 oil failure T-802 (DEBUT) 85 50.8 .5 125 T-701 (PG VLPG) 51.FR CWS will trip FR APS Both CW & unit power failure FR VPS -doFCCU 139 43.5 35 50 11.

MSS-4 FAILURE MSS-4 supplies power to FR APS. Therefore MSS-4 failure will result in power failure in the above said units & FRE cooling water system failure. (TPH) MW Temp.3 70 150 -doFR CT Not affected FR APS affected Not . UNITS (oC) LOAD. FR VPS. HMU. MSS-1 failure will result the power failure in the above said units & all pumps in FR cooling tower. Since only one pump in FR cooling water system will trip it will not affect the FR cooling water system. Remarks FRE CT FRE CWS will trip FRE APS Both CW & Unit power failure FRE VPS -doHMU 100 70 100 -doT-701 (BH VLPG) 27. one pump in FR cooling tower. Propane units. T-1701 (BH VLPG). Therefore.

Not Not Not - Not affected T-701 (PG VLPG) Not affected Total (for HC flare) 127.FR VPS - Not affected FCCU affected PROPANE UNIT T-801 (DEETH) affected T-802 (DEBUT) affected MEA REGEN.3 .

MEA Regenerator & Two pumps of FR cooling water system. Therefore. UNITS (oC) LOAD. T-802 (Debutaniser).MSS-5 FAILURE MSS-5 supplies power to FCCU. due to trip of two CW pumps the pressure in the header will be so low that the other pumps will also trip leading to FR cooling water system failure. MSS-5 failure will result the power failure in the above said units & two FR cooling water pump trip. Since there is only one common CW supply header from FR cooling tower. Remarks FRE CT Not affected FRE APS affected FRE VPS - Not Not affected HMU affected T-701 (BH VLPG) - Not Not affected FR CT FR CWS will trip FR APS 272 . (TPH) MW Temp. T-801 (Deethaniser).

2 77.1 Both CW & Unit power failure* MEA REGEN. over pressurisation will be there.5 35 50 11. . Therefore load should be considered.6 50 50 T-801 (DEETH) 15. It is evident from the above load distributions that MSS-5 failure is the governing case for flare design.5 68.2 32.5 T-701 (PG VLPG) 52 70 150 CW failure Total (for HC flare) 449.3 150 CW failure FCCU - Both CW & Unit power failure PROPANE UNIT 5.70 150 CW failure FR VPS 7.5 22.5 12.1 *Since steam will be on in the reboiler.7 Lean oil failure T-802 (DEBUT) 85 50.8 20. 4.

4.9 A 36" H/C flare header is taken from FRE Unit.5 A vertical water seal drum (88-D-09) for H/C flare will be provided. This is joined by a 30" H/C flare header from LEU.4. 8. Sour flare header will be steam traced. After KOD the line runs upto the top of the flare stack through fluidic seal.4. 8.8 Hydrocarbon flare stack will have a molecular seal and sour flare riser will have a fluidic seal. UPPC .8. The flare header runs upto sour flare KOD. 8. DHDS Unit (By licensor) and Hydrogen Unit (By licensor). Combination Unit (88-D-02).1 Hydrocarbon & sour flare headers will be segregated. It exits the KOD as 54" header before it enters the water seal drum. 8. A 24" H/C flare header from DHDS Block is joined to the 48" main header running upto main flare KOD. 8.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM 8.4. 8. which will be connected to the 10" sour flare header from DHDS unit. Refer flare system P&IDs for detail.4.4.3 A main H/C flare KOD (88-D-07) will be provided at flare stack area.4. 8.4. LEU (88-D-03). A 10" sour flare header will be provided from LEU.7 Flare stack will be mounted on water seal drum.6 No water seal drum is provided for sour flare to avoid corrosion problem caused by moist H2S/NH3.2 Separate H/C flare KODs will be provided for FRE Unit (88-D-01). A 42" H/C flare header is taken from combination unit which expands to 48" just before the joining of 36" H/C flare header from FRE Unit to it.4. 8.4 A common sour flare KOD (88-D-08) will be provided at the flare stack area.AURAIYA CASE STUDY .

The estimated flare load due to pressurization is 2 T/Hr. During power failure. The shutdown valve will actuate during power failure due to low low pressure in the suction side/high high pressure in the discharge/high high temp in the discharge.86 TOTAL LOAD 470748 33. The details are as follows: Two quick shutdown valves (one redundant) on inlet feed gas to UPPC. Intermediate Flare Header 68855 42. For flare design. Low temperature flare header 86503 28. conservative figure of 5 T/hr has been considered. o 1. o o o LLD/HDPE Flare load summary by licensor proposal is as under Kg/Hr 1. kg/Hr MW Temp. An attempt has been made to reduce the load.08 3. Shutdown valve upstream of GSU absorber to close during power failure due to tripping of lean amine pump. The detailed analysis for the controlling case has been done with respect to instrumentation provided and rationalization of flare loads in event of simultaneous release from several columns in a unit. There is a remote possibility of failure of all shutdown valves to actuate during power failure situation.75 2. The flare load for the controlling case i. The gas will be diverted to lean gas despatch header.Main Flare System The flare load for various units is enclosed as Annexure-1. total flare load has been considered for the design of flare system. C Hot/Wet flare header 315390 33. Still the possibility of pressurization upto 14 kg/cm2a has been considered. cooling water & power failure is 777 T/hr. Comonomer Column 2.e. The details are as under: GCU As per SWEC flare load during electrical power/cooling water failure is as follows: Flare load. Actuation is due to high high/low low pressure and power failure. CSU/C2-C3 Uunit: Control scheme has provided a number of shutdown valves at different locations to close during power/cooling water failure. For lean gas suction line normal operating pressure is 12 kg/cm2a and PSV is set at 15 kg/cm2a.67 Being a complex unit with inbuilt margins for instrumented trips. GSU shutdown valve shall close and this in turn will close the feed gas shutdown valve due to upstream line pressurization. Shutdown valve in C2/C3 plant on suction line of lean gas compressor. High boils column 159849 149690 .

0 3.46 . LB Column 6424 58. With the limited steam holdup the simultaneous release of hydrocarbons from various columns is not envisaged.0 4.6 2. HB Column 14969 108.3. kg/Hr MW Temp. Supply of steam to unit reboilers shall be limited to the system hold up/surge available.9 89.1 138. During complex power failure.4 241. FE Column 485 58. steam generation/. Low boils columns 64242 4. 54. o C 1. For the flare design the single largest PSV release from CM Column and 10% of balance PSV release has been considered as follows: Flare load. CM Column 159849 51.1 Total 181727 Avg. FE column 4850 TOTAL 378631 The flare load from various columns is for the conditions when unit power has failed but steam/BFW is continuous.BFW shall also trip.1 146.

Use GHP flare system for GR atmospheric vents etc by following the philosophy of single cooling water failure at a time. MTBE unit and Butene1. DHDS. Several alternatives were studied. GREP and GRSPF in a single flare system due to separate dedicated cooling water systems. GR flare is connected to GHP for flexibility of using GHP flare system when GR flare is under maintenance. H2 Unit and sulphur block can be considered separate from existing AUI. AU-II. DHDS. . incorporating new units viz AU-V. Use of shell philosophy by considering tripping of source of heat whenever pressure of cooling water supply header is very low. The least cost option has emerged by considering the following basis: Stagger GR cooling water system with dedicated substations so that cooling water failure of AU-V. CRU. Sulphur block . H2 Unit. Recently IOCL has given a study to connect atmospheric vents of various crude units. PDF and Food Grade Hexane unit.GUJARAT REFINERY FLARE SYSTEM The existing flare system of Gujarat Refinery is integrating GR. Provision of GHP to GR side flexibility to take GHP flare system under maintenance. GHP is having its dedicated flare system.

designed system should maintain the integrity of existing flare lines/flare stack system. No valves automatic or manual should be place din the flare lines to divert gas from flare stack to compressor. Such mechanical devices can fail to operate when required during emergency. silencers are installed at both the suction and discharge ends of the compressor. Design of suction and discharge knock out drum and also of after cooler are simple and will not pose any problem due to fluctuation in flared gas composition and temperature. DESCRIPTION OF RECOVERY SYSTEM Typical recovery system is shown in figure-1. For noise suppression. flare system must be left as it had been. Experience shows that they will fail eventually then we will have no operable emergency system.2 11.11. The liquid condensate if any is removed in the knock out vessel. Umoe’s concept for Flare Gas Recovery .3 12.0 FLARE GAS RECOVERY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Excess hydrocarbons being wasted to flare system can be recovered by using a simple but effective flare gas recovery system. these are cooled in the compressor after cooler before being led to the fuel gas header. suction pressure of the compressor is maintained with compressor capacity control backed up by discharge recycle control. For this. The knock out drum is provided with mist eliminator to allow only liquid free gases to compressor suction. To achieve this.1 11. The objective of the system is to recover excess hydrocarbons being flared and also reduction/containment of radiation. smoke and noise in the adjoining areas.0 11. light and glare. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Flare gas recovery system in its most basic form is simply a compressor to compress the flared gases for its subsequent use at fuel gas in the refinery/petrochemical complex. Critical area of the flare recovery system is the selection of compressor and the scheme to maintain suction pressure. As the gases get heated up in the compressor. The critical aspect of the system is selection of appropriate capacity for compressor and to set its operating specifications so that it can safely and efficiently handle as wide a range of possible compositions and rates as practical. Apart from this. Recovery system should be controlled so that it does not lower flare system pressure to that level at which air could ingress into the system. Part of flared gases from main flare header downstream of stack area flare gas knock out drum are diverted to compressor through a compressor suction knock out drum to prevent any liquid which may condense in the intake line or entrained liquid from being pulled into the compressor.

Experience shows the gas is ignited by 9 out of 10 pellets. However. Launching medium N2. This technology has been installed in several projects in Norway and patented by M/s. 2) The flare gas is not ignited. Scenario (1) has an extremely low probability of occurrence. For safety reasons a bursting disc is installed in parallel with the isolation valve. The flare line is closed during recovery of the flare gas by means of a on/off valve installed downstream of the flare knock out drum. The total hydrocarbon gas is recovered from the flare system and routed to the fuel gas header after compression. When hitting the target plate. Standard launching range 125m. with a spare capacity to manage smaller releases form blowdown valves/PSVs.43 gram). During large releases the valve in the flare line will open (typically. System Failure Scenario The following two main safety scenarios need to be considered: 1) Both the flare valve and the rupture disc fail to open. Muzzle velocity 430 m/sec (free) / 320 m/sec (guided). This new concept of flare gas recovery reduces the emission of Nox & CO2 to a large extent. the pellet will explode and generate a shower of sparks. In case of malfunctioning of the valve in flare line. UMOE Oil & Gas. the opening time for the valve is less than 2 secs) and the recovering equipment will be isolated. should be made. Scenario (2) is not much different from a continuously burning flare where a sudden emergency release or strong winds can extinguish the flame. In addition a target plate is located below the flare tips to ignite the specially designed ignition pellet being automatically launched from the launching unit. the safety of aviation traffic should be considered particularly and procedures in this context. The flare gas ignition system consists of a compressed nitrogen driven launcher contained in a stainless steel cabinet at the deck level.The new concept of flare gas recovery eliminates the need of continuous flaring of gas. the rupture disc will open and the gas will be flared. . The system launches two pellets. each igniting along its entire path. ignition pellet dia 20 mm/wt .Two rupture disc in parallel can be used to lower its probability further. sufficiently low to be ignored. the first 15 seconds and the second 30 seconds after the opening of the valve in the flare line. The flare gas ignition system will ignite the flare gas. The compression facility is designed to handle normal gas leakage rates.220 bar. Launching pressure 150 .