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The direction of North America SPEC

Contents
1

Overall Transmission Diagram

Transmission Standard

DTV Standrad

MPEG

DDC 4 AT Group
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1.Overall Transmission Diagram


Video(ISO/IEC13818-2)

MPEG-2
V Encoder

ES
Packetizer

PES

Audio(ISO/IEC13818-3)

AC3 Audio
Encoder

TS

Packetizer
Mux

PSIP ( ATSC A/65-A )

PSIP
insert tool

Packetizer

DSMCC(ISO/IEC13818-6)

Table
Structure

Data
Service

PSTN

Transport
Encoder

Channel
Coding &
Modulation

RF
Amplifier

MPEG System(ISO/IEC13818-1)
MODEM
Data
Decoder

P U S H

Video
Decoder

Demux

Transport
Decoder

Channel
Decoding &
Demodulation

Tuner

Audio
Decoder
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VSB-8

2. Transmission Standard
VSB-8

TS

Digital

Analog(RF)

Transmitter => Receiver


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2. Transmission Standard

Randomizer (Scrambler)

1) Basic Circuit

TS[7:0]

OUTPUT[7:0]

2) Use : Sync, Cryptographic.

Transmission

Clk

Clk1
Random Serial Data

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Phase
Converter

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LPF

VCO

Clk2

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Transmission Standard

Reed Solomon Encoder

1) RS-Encoder Polynomial

Transport stream is add 20byte error code


result of possibility error restore MAX 10Byt

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Transmission Standard

Interleaver

1) Fundamental notion

In channel burst error

After transmitter RS data frame

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In channel burst error

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A prior to receiver data frame

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Transmission Standard

Trellis Encoder

1) Block diagram

%Repetition Convolution, That is error revise according to the time


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Transmission Standard

Segment & Field Sync

1) Data Frame

- MPEG-II TS MAX Data Rate = 19.39Mbit/sec


- Trellis Out put = 32.28Mbit/sec
- Symbol rate = 32Mbit/3 = 10.76Million symbols/sec(1 Symbol=3 Bit)
- According to the Nikist theory Possession bandwidth 1/210.76MHz = 5.38MHz
- ATSC Channel allotted bandwidth : 6MHz
-Surplus bandwidth : 620kHz
Compare : Max of QAM 256 Data Rate = 55Mbit/Sec
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Transmission Standard

Pilot

1) Fundamental notion

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Transmission Standard

VSB Modulation

1) Fundamental notion

In this case phase45 degree Detection its possible to include


4bit information by double

QPSK

VSB process : Data is size Vector


QAM process : Data are size and Phase
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3. DTV standard

Packet Multiplexing

At transmission division used PACKET transmit


Video, Audio and others information put into Transport Stream and its transmit through transmission division to digital reciver.

Audio 1

Video 1

Audio 2

Video 2

AUX 1

Video 3

PACKET
Multiplexer

Video 4

AUX 2

PES Packets

Video 1

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Video 2

Audio 1

Video 3

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Audio 2

AUX 1

Video 4

Aux 2

TS Packets

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3. DTV Standard

Packet Demultiplexing

. In digital TV from channel part transmission TS stream separation of Video, Audio, anther information again
. For separation again must be need information PID can be distinction Packet

AUX 2

Video 4

AUX1

Audio 2

Video 3

Audio 1

Video 2

Video1

Audio 2

PACKET
Demultiplexer

Video 4

AUX 2

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Audio 1

Video 3

Video 2

Video 1

AUX 1

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3. DTV Standard

Transport Packet Structure

A regular Header is construction 4Byte


But Adaptation Field Control first bit is 1 than Adaptation information was include Header by optionally.
Used Flags can be add optional information.
188 Bytes
Header

Sync

error
indicator

unit start
indicate
1

priority

PID

13

adaptation discontinuity
field length
indicator

PCR

8
90KHz

PCR_Base
33

Payload

scrambling adaption
control field control
2

randam access
indicator

PCR

OPCR

splice
countdown

42

42

Adaptaion
Field

elementary stream
priority indicator

continuity
counter

5 flags

Optional
Field

stuffing
bytes

27MHz

RePCR_
served extension
6

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private
data length

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3. DTV Standard

Program Clock Reference(PCR)

Ref_clk
Sys_clk

transmission
Sys_clk1

Ref_clk

Ref_clk

A phase
comparator

LPF

VCO

Sys_clk1

Down

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3. DTV Standard

Packet
Start Code
<24>

Stream ID
<8>

PES(Packetized Elementary Stream) Structure

PES Length
<16>

PES Header
Option
and Stuffing

PES Packet Data

0x000001

b10

Scramble Control
<8>

Prior Data Align Copyright Org/Copy


<1>
<1>
<1>
<1>

PTS/DTS
<33>

ESCR

ES Rate

7 Flags
<8>

PES Header
Length<8>

Option Fields
Length<8>

DSM
Addition PES CRC
uickmode<8> CopyInfo
<32>

PES Ext
Optional

MPEG-2 Video, Audio is transmission.


Stream ID : As transmission ES(elementary stream) information for the type.
PES Header Option and Stuffing : Timing information.
- PTS : Presentation Time Stamp
- DTS : Decoder Time Stamp

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3. DTV Standard

PSI/PSIP/SI
PSI: ATSC, DVB common use

Program Specification Information

PSIP: ATSC(USA / Korea) standard

m Program Association Table(PAT): PID of PMT


m Program Association Table(PAT): PID of PMT

SI: DVB(EU) Standard

m Program Map Table(PMT): Each Program PID of Elementary Stream


m Program Map Table(PMT): Each Program PID of Elementary Stream
m Conditional Access Table (CAT): a charge of broadcasting reception and relation information
m Conditional Access Table (CAT): a charge of broadcasting reception and relation information

Program and System Information Protocol

Service Information
m Network Information Table(NIT): about physical transmission channel
m Network Information Table(NIT): about physical transmission channel

m System Time Table(STT): DAY and time information.


m System Time Table(STT): DAY and time information.
m Rating Region Table(RRT): For information about watching level
m Rating Region Table(RRT): For information about watching level
m Master Guide Table (MGT): All of PSIP table in version number, length,
m Master Guide Table (MGT): All of PSIP table in version number, length,

PID
PID,value
,valueexclusive
exclusiveofofSST
SST
Virtual
VirtualChannel
ChannelTable(VCT):
Table(VCT): Choosing
Choosingbroadcasting
broadcastingand
and
all
allofofrelation
relationinformation
information
m Event Information Tables(EIT): Broadcasting schedule and sum up in
m Event Information Tables(EIT): Broadcasting schedule and sum up in

broadcasting
broadcastingcontents
contents
m Extended Text Table (ETT): EIT Table and so on text description information
m Extended Text Table (ETT): EIT Table and so on text description information

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information and information for tuning


information and information for tuning
m Bouquet Association Table(BAT): one of the broadcasting
m Bouquet Association Table(BAT): one of the broadcasting
about information of broadcasting
about information of broadcasting
m Service Description Table(SDT): Broadcasting Station name
m Service Description Table(SDT): Broadcasting Station name
Broadcasting dealer
Broadcasting dealer
About broadcasting System
About broadcasting System
m Event Information(EIT): Broadcasting schedule
m Event Information(EIT): Broadcasting schedule
And summary of broadcasting contents
And summary of broadcasting contents
m Time and Date Table(TDT): Time and a date information.
m Time and Date Table(TDT): Time and a date information.
m Time Offset Table(TOT): The equation of time information.
m Time Offset Table(TOT): The equation of time information.
m Running Status Table(RST): condition of event (running/ not running)
m Running Status Table(RST): condition of event (running/ not running)

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PSIP intro.

3. DTV Standard

MPEG-2 Video, AC-3 Audio method is standard , EPG(Electronic Program Guide : Broadcasting information guidance) and
the other service can be possible so as to be in ATSC make standard north America DTV transmission Protocol
Program and System Information Protocol
ATSC (ADVANCED TELEVISION SYSTEMS COMMITTEE) make standardization and December twenty-third 1997 years
ATSC all member are approved .
Go after ISO/IEC 13818-1 (MPEG-2 Systems) and ATSC A/55(EPG:Electronic Program Guide) + A/56(SI: System
Information) are combination and ATSC document A/65 standardization for channel tuning, Broadcasting information
guidance service are possible.

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3. DTV Standard

TABLE ID IN ATSC(a-65)

1) Table ID

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PSI/PSIP Parsing

3. DTV Standard
13818-1
PAT

MGT

PID Selector

Video
Decoder

Audio
Decoder

13818-1 Descriptor
ATSC Descriptor
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Program Number : 2
PMT PID 0x20
Program Number : 3
PMT PID 0x30
Program Number : 4
PMT PID 0x40

Table_Type
{ VCT, EIT, ETT, RTT }
Table_Type_PID

EIT0

Program Number : 2
PCR PID 0x21
MPEG2 Video PID 0x21
AC-3 Audio PID 24 (KOR)

Major_channel_number
Minor_channel_number
Program_number
ETM_location
Source_Id

EIT1

PMT

VCT

EIT127

EIT

Source_ID
Event_ID
Start_time
ETM_Location
Title_text{}

Source_ID
Event_ID
Start_time
ETM_Location
Title_text{}

Source_ID
Event_ID
Start_time
ETM_Location
Title_text{}

ETT

ETM_ID
Text_Message()
For EIT0

ETM_ID
Text_Message()
For EIT1

ETM_ID
Text_Message()
For EIT127

Control
Block

ETM_ID
Text_Message()
For VCT

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3. DTV Standard

PAT ( Program Association Table) In 13818-1

1) Program Association Section

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3. DTV Standard

PMT ( Program Map Table) In 13818-1

1) Program Map Section

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3. DTV Standard
1) Terrestrial Virtual Channel Section

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VCT ( Virtual Channel Table) In ATSC


2) Cable Virtual Channel Section

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3. DTV Standard

MGT ( Master Guide Table) In ATSC

1) Master Guide Table Section


Table_Type

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3. DTV Standard

EIT ( Event Information Table) In ATSC

1) Event Information Section

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3. DTV Standard

ETT ( Extended Text Table) In ATSC

1) Extended Text Section

ETM_ID

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3. DTV Standard

STT( System Time Table) In ATSC

1) System Time Section

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3. DTV Standard

13818-1 Descriptor

1) Core Descriptor

2) ISO_639_Language_Descriptor

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3. DTV Standard

ATSC Descriptor

1) Core Descriptor

2) Service location Descriptor

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4. MPEG

MPEG Video

MPEG-1
11172-1("System"): video/audio signal Sync/Multiplex
11172-2 ("Video"): Mainly "Video-on-CD target progressive scan video
11172-3 ("Audio"): Three Level compatibility formation
11172-4 ("Compliance Testing"): compatibility test research/decode
11172-5 ("Software Simulation"): Application S/W Technical report

MPEG-2
13818-1/ITU-T H.222 ("System"): video/audio signal sync/multiplex
13818-2/ITU-T H.262 ("Video"): interlaced scanning normal video coding
13818-3 ("Audio"): MPEG-1and compatibility multiplex channel and not compatibility high summarization
13818-5 ("Software Simulation"): About application S/W technical report
13818-6 ("System Extensions - Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC)"): client-server protocol
13818-7 ("Audio, Non-Backwards-Compatible (NBC) - Coding"): improvement multiplex channel audio coding formation
13818-8 ("Video, extension to 10-bit input samples"): deleted
13818-9 ("Real-Time Interface Specification for Low-Jitter Applications"): Its define about Real time transmission
MPEG-2 timing.
138 18-10 ("Conformance Extensions - DSM-CC"): Add to 13814-4

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4. MPEG

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Codec(Compression/DECompression)

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4. MPEG

DCT(Discrete Cosine Transform)

Time Domain => Freq Domain

Fourier Transform

?
t

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4. MPEG

DCT( Discrete Cosine Transform )

8x8

Image
Low frequency

2DCT

High frequency

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4. MPEG

Quantization

DCT value of data

Brightness quantizing table

Quantization ()

IQ

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4. MPEG

ZigZag Scan
ZigZag scan table

After ZigZag Scan

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4. MPEG

VLC(Variable Length Code) Using Huffman


Average length

Ex1)

2bit

Binary scale(00,01,10,11)

Ex2)

Data

Out break probability

Code

Code length

1x0.6 + 2x0.2 + 3x0.1 + 3x0.1 = 1.6bit

Summarization rat

34/(8x8x8) = 1/15

Huffman coding

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4. MPEG

Mpeg Encoder

Input

Output

frame

Bit Stream

Buffer

quantizing

Reverse

Video

quantizing

Display

Compensation

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Motion Estimation

4. MPEG

MCP(motion-compensated predictor)

Used interrelation deduce x,y angular

a) Before Frame

b) Now Frame

c) Simply move difference

d) Compensation after move

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Picture

4. MPEG
A type of three Basic picture

I-Picture(Intra picture) - its picture that dont reference another picture. Its offer access location when encoding sequency
starting incoder (standard picture)
P-Picture(Predicted picture) - its reference the past I-Picture or P-Picture and use to motion compensated prediction
So its have more high summarization (same to I-Picture its standard picture)
Because all of information is no need summarization and its only need to variation video.
B-Picture(Bidirectionally-predicted picture) - Which of the three item, it has highest summarization ratio but its not
standard picture
Under the three picture indicate connection of pattern .
Forward prediction

7
B

Bidirectional prediction

Transmission Order : 1 5 2 3 4 9 6 7 8
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4. MPEG

Bit Rate Control

Quantizing step size

Bit ratio control

Quantizing

Buffer condition
Buffer

Output

Reverse quantizing

Look toward upkeep the output fixed.

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4. MPEG

MPEG Data Structure (layer)

ES
One GOP ~ one movie

Sequence Header layer

common Pictures between previous I and current I ,


MAX 1024 picture possible

GOP(Group of Pictures) layer


Picture layer

One Picture frame

Slice layer

N MB

MB(Macroblock) layer
High layer

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16x16 image

Block layer

8x8 image

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4. MPEG

.The SNR profile adds support for enhancement layers of DCT coefficient refinement
.Spatial scalability is characterised by the use of decoded pictures from a lower layer as a prediction in a higher
layer
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