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University of British Columbia

EECE 365 Winter 2013

Elec Machines & Electronics


Lecture 5: Energy

Energy in Magnetic Circuits


Consider the Inductor

Begin with the classical equation for

W=
Use that F =
Gives:

is the equation for force on a charged particle

W = F dL =
Consider that current, i , is equal to the rate of change of charge
That is: i =

dq
q=
dt

( )

W = E idt dL =
Next, if we are considering the electric field around a loop (or N loops),
then

can be used:

E dL = N dt BdS

This gives

W = i(

Nathan Ozog

)dt

Page 1 of 6

University of British Columbia


EECE 365 Winter 2013

Elec Machines & Electronics


Lecture 5: Energy

Finally, N B dS = N =
Gives:

d
d
W = i N dt = i
dt =
dt
dt
This is the stored energy in a magnetic circuit
We see that if we take the derivative with respect to time, we get stored
power

P=

dW d
d
= id = d i
=
dt
dt
dt

gives the well known relationship

P=
Therefore, if a voltage and current are being applied across an
magnetic circuit,
is being injected
That energy is being converted from
energy to
energy
Non-Linear

Linear (Assumed)

i1
2

W = id
1

i2

i
2

Li 2

Li1

W = id =

id ( Li ) =

=
W =

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i2

i1

L 2
i =
2

Page 2 of 6

University of British Columbia


EECE 365 Winter 2013

Elec Machines & Electronics


Lecture 5: Energy

Energy Density (Energy per unit Volume)


d

Return to W = i N B dS dt
dt

We know B is constant over Ac , so


d

d
W = i N B dS dt = i N
dt

dt

dt =

i N

d
dt = Ac
dt

We also know that we can relate Ni to H by N i = H dL , so

W = Ac NidB = Ac H dL dB =
So

B
B2

HdB

is the energy per unit volume in a magnetic circuit

B2

B1

B1

H2

H1
B2

W = lc Ac HdB
B1

H2

H1
B2

B2

W = lc Ac HdB = lc Ac
B1

B1

dB =

lc Ac
(
)
2
Vol 2 Vol
W =
B =
H2
2
2
=

Nathan Ozog

Page 3 of 6

University of British Columbia


EECE 365 Winter 2013

Elec Machines & Electronics


Lecture 5: Energy

Electrical Model
The electrical model for this can be represented simply as an inductor

Stores energy according to

W =
We can get the well known voltage versus current relationship by
considering Faradays law:

V=

d
=
dt

V=

Nathan Ozog

Page 4 of 6

University of British Columbia


EECE 365 Winter 2013

Elec Machines & Electronics


Lecture 5: Energy

Core Losses
Hysteresis Losses
The
of dipoles causes mechanical resistance
Results in losses
As we trace the hysteresis curve this is evident

Nathan Ozog

Page 5 of 6

University of British Columbia


EECE 365 Winter 2013

Elec Machines & Electronics


Lecture 5: Energy

Eddy Current Losses


Electric circulating currents can be induced in the iron itself

E dl =
C

d
B da
dt S

This is remedied by
the core
Laminations are separated by insulating material

Model
We can model these losses with a parallel resistor

Nathan Ozog

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