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Course : Advanced Communication Theory (1411ACT10)

elearning.lspr.edu
Master of Arts in Communication : Corporate Communication Studies

LSPR eLearning Program

Session Topic : New Fields of


Communication Theory

Course: Advanced Communication Theory


By Dr. Rino Boer Ph.D

Content

Part 1

Overview

Part 2

Internet Communication

Part 3

Gate Keeping, Credibility & Media Online

Part 4

Networks, Uses & Gratifications & Diffusion of


Innovations

Part 5

Future research

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Hal 3

Part1: Overview

Topik baru: Kajian teori komunikasi

Beberapa topik baru yang menarik untuk kajian teori


komunikasi,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Internet Communication (today)


Political Communication
Public Relations & Integrated Communication
Health Communication
Feminist Theory & Research

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Hal 5

Marketing Rules: Changing

It was

Its now

Pushing message to client


One way message

Pulling client to the message


Interactive conversation

Business generated content


Interrupt client- direct immediate
action

User generated content

Attention economy
Hard to measure results

Attraction economy
Real time metrics

Coveting information

Sharing information

Charging for entry block entry

Giving free e-books, product

No.
1
2
3
4
5

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Engage, build relationship

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Hal 6

Quote: Rupert Murdoch

To find something comparable,


you have to go back 500 years
to the printing press, the birth of
mass media.
Technology is shifting power away
from editors, the publishers, the
establishment, the media elite.
Now it's the people who are
taking control.
Rupert Murdoch, quoted in Wired, July 2006

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Keith Rupert Murdoch


Chairman & CEO, News
Corporation (19792013)
Executive Chairman of
News Corp (2013present)
Hal 7

xxx: xxxx

Part2: Internet Communication

Internet, Technology: Facts

>Internet : FOURTH TYPE of mass medium selain


print, television, dan radio.
>Teknologi : mengubah 2 hal ini. Bekerja menjadi :
1. Lebih cepat high speed technologytime based!
2. Dapat dilakukan dimana saja wireless internet
connectionlocation based!
Pengguna internet meningkat di seluruh dunia dari
waktu ke waktu.

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Hal 9

Facts: Social Media Transforms - Socialnomics (2014) by Erik Qualman

Marriage: One out of eight couples


married in the U.S. in 2013 met via
social media
Years to reach 50 million users
Radio: 38 years
TV: 13 years
Internet: 4 years
iPod: 3 years
Facebook: 100 million users in
less than 9 months
iPod: application downloads 1
billion in 9 months
LinkedIn.com : Used by 80% of
companies as their primary tool to
find employees

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Hal 10

Facts: Social Media Transforms - Socialnomics (2014) by Erik Qualman

Ashton Kutcher and Ellen


DeGeneres: have more Twitter
followers than the entire population
of Ireland, Norway and Panama

Wiki: Studies show Wikipedia is more


accurate than Encyclopedia
Britannica

Peer vs ads: 78% of consumers trust


peer recommendations, only 14 %
trust advertisements.

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Internet: Penggunaan

Q: Apa yang dilakukan orang dengan internet


?
A: 2 hal,
1. Menjadi sumber berita dan informasi yang
utama.
2. Menggantikan peran media tradisional untuk
kedua hal itu !

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Internet: Sebagai kajian ilmiah

Peralihan pengguna dari media tradisional


ke media internet menjadi dasar dari
banyaknya tulisan ilmiah tentang internet
yang kini dibuat.
Ruang yang ada masih sangat terbuka
untuk mengembangkan teori komunikasi
yang berbasis internet penelitian akan
lebih bersifat eksploratif !

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Internet: Sebagai kajian ilmiah

Beberapa kajian tentang internet yang dibahas,


1. Gate Keeping Challenges
2. Gaining Credibility
3. Media agenda setters
4. Hyperlink networks
5. Revitalizing uses & gratifications
6. Diffusion of innovations* (tidak hanya berlaku
pada internet)

Methodologies akan dibahas di next semester!


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Hal 14

Part3: Gate Keeping, Credibility & Media Online

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1. Gate Keeping Challenges: Background

Salah satu perubahan penting akibat internet terhadap


komunikasi adalah PERUBAHAN MEDIA/ CHANNELS sebagai
pembawa berita/content.
Gatekeeping study
Di mulai oleh Whites (1950) yang disebut sebagai Mr.
Gates.
Studi tentang bagaimana berita/content disaring sebelum
dipublikasikan.
Berbagai studi yang dilakukan menunjukkan hingga tahun
1990-an, fungsi dan peran gatekeeper di media
tradisional tidak tergoyahkan.
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1. Gate Keeping Challenges: Changes

Perubahan terjadi,
Ketika internet mulai dikenal sehingga
kini focus towards the changes of the
entire media environment!
Terutama pada online news, yang
tahapnya dimulai dari:
1. Concern terhadap kecepatan
penyajian dan kelengkapan berita
versi online.
2. Hingga ke bagaimana menciptakan
engagement dengan publik melalui
berita yang dimuat.

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1. Gate Keeping Challenges: Contoh & Implikasi

Pemberitaan kasus perselingkuhan Clinton


Lewinsky (1998) menunjukkan gatekeeping
tidak lagi dapat mengkontrol dan membentuk
opini yang berkembang di masyarakat >
media online telah mengambil peran
gatekeeping di media tradisional!
Implikasi lain:
Batasan antara jurnalist profesional dan
citizen journalist menjadi samar !
Kualitas pemberitaan (mungkin) berkurang
Peranan gatekeeping mengatur flow of
news serta mempengaruhi wacana publik
kini telah digantikan oleh citizen journalist!
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1. Gate Keeping Challenges: Ciri

Ciri pemberitaan di media tradisional:


kelengkapan serta kemampuannya untuk
memberikan gambaran objektif tentang
fakta/peristiwa !
Media online: fragmented, (dapat) berubah
setiap saat serta dipengaruhi oleh
pendapat/komentar dari orang lain.

Q: Which sources do you rely for tech-related info,


trends, news, reviews & opinions ?
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1. Gate Keeping Challenges: Fragmented Media Environment U.S. B2B Tech


buyers response

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IDG Research findings of 3000+ B2B U.S. Tech consumers: (in 2012)
Most U.S. consumers choose technology websites for tech news and info (87%)
About half seek out tech-related print media (52%) or tech blogs (49%).
Farther down the list are video-sharing sites and social/business networking sites
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2. Gaining Credibility : Media Online

Media online penuh dengan Hoax dan rumors !


Sebagian orang meragukan kredibilitas berita
online karena hal tersebut.

Hasil penelitian
Johnson & Kaye (1998) > untuk informasi politik,
online berita lebih kredibel daripada media
tradisional.
Flanagin & Metzger (2000) > diantara media
tradisional hanya surat kabar yang masih
dianggap lebih kredibel dari infomasi online.
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2. Gaining Credibility : Media Online

Seiring dengan meningkatnya penggunaan media


sosial (khususnya Blog), kredibilitas informasi online
menjadi lebih besar dibanding media tradisional.
Q: Kenapa berita online dianggap lebih kredibel?
A: Berita online dianggap memberikan greater diversity of
information dan persepsi tentang netralitas yang lebih baik!
Dari hasil studi terhadap pemberitaan media online saat
perang Amerika di Irak.

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3. Media Agenda Setters: Penelitian

Berbagai penelitian tentang media massa menyimpulkan


bahwa jurnalist di media tradisional tidak hanya kehilangan
perannya sebagai gatekeeper, tetapi juga perannya sebagai
pembentuk agenda publik!

Q: Mengapa media online mengambil alih peran


gatekeeper di media tradisional?
A: Studi Tremayne (2007) > Media sosial memberikan
pengaruh yang besar ketika ia mampu menciptakan BUZZ
atas berita yang dimuat didalamnya!

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3. Media Agenda Setters: Beberapa kajian menarik!

Perlmutter & McDaniel (2005): Blog khususnya telah


mengubah fokus penelitian yang semula fokus pada the
sexy dan hot aspek dari perkembangan teknologi
mediakepada fungsi blog sebagai sumber pemberitaan
kepada publik.

Song (2007): Ada interaksi antara media tradisional


dengan media online ketika berita di media online
kemudian dapat diolah oleh gatekeeper menjadi
pembentuk agenda setting di media tradisional. Atau
ketika terjadi hal sebaliknya.

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Hal 24

Part4: Networks, Uses & Gratifications & Diffusion of


Innovations

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4. Hyperlinking Networks: Kekuatan media online

Kekuatan media online adalah dalam penciptaan BUZZ serta


pembentukan agenda publik yang pada akhirnya dapat berpengaruh
pada pemberitaan di media tradisional.
Contoh di beberapa kasus:
Prita Mulyasari - Omni International Hospital, Tangerang, west
Jakarta (2008)
Bibit-Chandra (2009) sebagai komisioner KPK,
Penggalangan dana buat Satinah, TKW yang dihukum mati di Arab
Saudi
menunjukkan kebenaran statement di atas.
Karakteristik penting yang membuat semua itu bisa terjadi adalah
aspek INTERACTIVITY yang ada di media online.
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4. Hyperlinking Networks: Kasus Prita Mulyasari (2008)

Prita Mulyasari is an Indonesian housewife and mother of two who


in 2008 was a patient at Omni International Hospital, Tangerang,
West Jakarta, for an illness that was misdiagnosed as dengue
fever, whereas she actually had mumps.
Her complaints about her misdiagnosis started as a private email
that went viral and she was jailed after losing a civil defamation
suit taken by the hospital in 2009.
Support from a group on MySpace attracted considerable
support as well as Indonesian blog sites
The case brought attention to clauses of the Indonesian Information
and Electronic Transaction Law, are currently being challenged
and questioned as a result of Prita Mulyasari's case
Prita was fined 204 million rupiah (US$ 20,500), causing support
for her to grow stronger.
A mailing list and Facebook group called "KOIN UNTUK
PRITA" started raising money from people throughout Indonesia.
People started collecting coins to help Prita to pay the fine.
Seeing the huge support for Prita, Omni International Hospital
dropped the civil lawsuit.
The Indonesian Supreme Court in June 2012 overturned Prita's
conviction and jail sentence.

Source: Wikipedia (2014)


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4. Hyperlinking Networks: Kasus Bibit-Chandra KPK (2009)

In September 2009, two KPK deputy chairmen Chandra Hamzah


and Bibit Samad Rianto, who had been suspended in July 2008,
were arrested on charges of extortion and bribery.
The two men denied the charges, saying they were being framed
to weaken the KPK.
There were demonstrations in several cities in support of the men
and a support campaign on the Facebook social networking site
gathered one million members.
On 2 November 2009 president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
established a team to look into the allegations.
The following day, during a hearing at the Indonesian
Constitutional Court, dramatic tapes were played of bugged
phone conversations apparently revealing a conspiracy to
undermine the KPK.
The names of businessman Susno Duadji as well as Deputy
Attorney General Abdul Hakim Ritonga and a businessman,
Anggodo Widjojo, were mentioned in the tapes.
Bibit and Chandra were released later the same day.

Source: Wikipedia (2014)

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4. Hyperlinking Networks: Kasus Satinah (2014)

Indonesia paid $1.8m (1m) in blood money to prevent an


Indonesian maid being executed in Saudi Arabia.
The maid, known as Satinah, was due to be beheaded in April
2014 after being found guilty of murdering her female employer
seven years ago.
A campaign in Indonesia by the 41-year-old's family and
supporters had raised some of the money needed to compensate
the victim's family.
The Indonesian government decided to provide the rest.
Satinah hit her female boss, Nura al-Garib, in September 2007.
Her employer fell into a coma and died later in hospital.
After the attack, Satinah fled with nearly 40,000 riyals
($10,700), but was caught.
In her defence, she claimed that her employer had treated her
badly. Satinah said she had only hit her boss because she had
grabbed her hair and banged her head against a wall.
The campaign to raise the blood money in Indonesia involved
politicians, celebrities and civil society organisations.
The victim's family reduced the amount needed but, just days
before the execution was due to take place, not enough had been
raised

Source: Bbc.com (2014)


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4. Hyperlinking Networks: Interactivity

Interactivity
Definisi: Sistem yang membuat setiap pola penggunaan
media online dapat dilakukan dengan mengambil bentuk
tertentu.

Hyperlink menghubungkan berita online dari satu


website dengan berita online dari website yang
berbeda sehingga secara keseluruhan akan membentuk
jaringan melalui internet.

McMillan (2006) :understanding interactivity is central to


developing theory and research about new media.

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4. Hyperlinking Networks: Fasilitas

Keberadaan fasilitas hyperlink dan interactivity di


media online akan membuat perbedaan pengaruh
yang ditimbulkan oleh media online tersebut.

The Death of traditional media?


Media tradisional,
memiliki kemampuan untuk menyesuaikan diri
dengan perkembangan di media online dengan
mentransformasi dirinya mengikuti
perkembangan teknologi yang terjadi di media
online.
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5. Revitalizing Uses & Gratifications (U&G) : xxxx

Kehadiran media online mengubah konsep uses &


gratifications theory seperti yang disampaikan pertama
kali oleh Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch (1974).
Kelahiran kembali konsep U&G theory ini mengubah
fokus dari yang tadinya fokus pada siapa yang
menggunakan media internet menjadi lebih ke arah
mengapa mereka menggunakan media ini? (Kaye &
Johnson, 2004)
Kelemahannya adalah kesulitan untuk mendapatkan
data sesungguhnya tentang alasan people menggunakan
media internet.

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5. Revitalizing Uses & Gratifications (U&G) : Dimensi kepuasan

Studi Charney & Greenberg (2002) menemukan 8


dimensi kepuasan orang ketika menggunakan media
internet:
1. Keeping informed
2. Diversion/entertainment
3. Peer identity
4. Good feelings
5. Communications
6. Sights & sounds
7. Career
8. Coolness
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5. Revitalizing Uses & Gratifications (U&G) : Keeping informed

Penelitian yang dilakukan terhadap pengguna


internet itu, juga menemukan data bahwa alasan
yang paling dominan mengapa menggunakan
media internet adalah for keeping informed!

Hasil penelitian ini sejalan dengan berbagai


penelitian khususnya di bidang politik, yang
menunjukkan bahwa informasi online menjadi
panduan penting dalam menentukan sikap politik
seseorang (Kaye & Johnson, 2002, 2004).

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5. Revitalizing Uses & Gratifications (U&G) : Penelitian

Penelitian2 berikut ini menghubungkan antara penggunaan


media tradisional setelah mengenal media online:
1. Tewksbury & Althus (2000)
Pembaca media online (khususnya The New York Times)
menjadi kurang peka terhadap isu-isu publik yang ditulis
Lay out media online membuat pembaca melewatkan
berita-berita penting sehingga menjadi kurang informed
tentang berita itu dibanding pembaca di media
tradisional.

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5. Revitalizing Uses & Gratifications (U&G) : Penelitian

2. Lin, Salwen & Abdulla (2005) :


Menemukan hasil yang berbeda dari Tewksbury & Althus
(2000),
kepuasan yang didapat pembaca ketika melakukan
scanning terhadap berita online jauh lebih besar
daripada ketika scanning ini dilakukan pada media
tradisional.
3. Dimmick, Chen, & Li (2004) :
Pembaca media tradisional telah mengurangi jam mereka
menonton TV atau membaca surat kabar ketika mereka
telah mendapatkan informasi melalui media online.
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6. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: Background

Main developer: Everett Rogers (1962)


Adapted from: Gabriel Tarde and the
Hybrid Seed Corn Study (Ryan & Gross)
Usage. This theory has been used and
studied across many fields:
Rural sociology,
Medical sociology,
Anthropology,
Economics,
Marketing

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Everett Mitchell Rogers


PhD (1931-2004)
Communication scholar,
sociologist, writer, and teacher

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6. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: Innovation

Innovation: An idea, practice, or object perceived as


new by an individual or other unit of adoption
The Diffusion of Innovations Theory.
Mencoba memprediksi proses perubahan yang
terjadi.
Teori ini menemukan bahwa pola perubahan itu
mengikuti bentuk S curve/ kurva yang
mempunyai bentuk seperti huruf S.

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Hal 38

6. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: The Classic S-Shaped Adoption Curve

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Hal 39

6. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: The corresponding Classic Bell-Shaped


Adopters Curve

Terdapat 5 kategori respon orang terhadap perubahan yang terjadi


dengan kecenderungan jumlah persentase seperti yang ada pada
gambar di atas.
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Hal 40

6. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: The corresponding Classic Bell-Shaped


Adopters Curve

Many studies have looked at how these groups differ:


Innovators are highly cosmopolite and open to new things.
Early adopters tend to be opinion leaders.
Early majority provide legitimization of the innovation.

Late majority are skeptical.


Laggards put trust in the status quo.
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Hal 41

6. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: Spread of products into U.S. households

Source:
AOL News (2010)
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Hal 42

6. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: Spread of products into U.S. households

Source: Bureau of the Census (2001)


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Part5: Future research

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Future research suggestions: Collaborative info & New gatekeepers

Terkait dengan penelitian yang dilakukan terhadap media online,


maka ada 5 karakteristik penting yang akan mendasari
penelitiannya,
1.Collaborative information
Contoh: penelitian terhadap wiki yang merupakan karya
bersama dari seluruh penduduk dunia.
2. New gatekeepers. Peran,
Gatekeepers akankah digantikan dengan collective information
yang didapat melalui internet?
Search rankings akankah menjadi gatekeepers di masa depan
?

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Future research suggestions: Hyperlinking & Intermedia sourcing

3. Hyperlinking as agenda setting


Koneksitas antar berita online via hyperlink akankah menjadi,
a new way of gatekeeping atau
intermedia agenda setting device?
Content of media sebagai faktor penting yang memberikan
pengaruh/efek akankah digantikan oleh link from one medium
to other medium?
From content to medium aspects?
4. Intermedia sourcing. Bagaimana,
Kaitan antara berita di media online kemudian dapat
menciptakan buzz di media tradisional?
Satu medium kemudian dapat menjadi sumber bagi medium
lainnya?
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Future research suggestions: Mainstreaming internet formats

5. Mainstreaming internet
formats
Munculnya internet
format yang dominan:
facebook, blog, twitter
dll.?
Serta perkembangan
teknologi tentang
medium yang dapat
melakukan fungsi
tertentu, persuasi
misalnya ?
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Closing remarks

For knowledge, the

Sky is the Limit

as long as You are

willing to think
!
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Hal 48

Course : Advanced Communication Theory (1411ACT10)

elearning.lspr.edu
Associate Partners :

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