OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
Of
by
ANAND VIJAYKUMAR
03BME018
VIT
UNIVERSITY
(Estd. u/s 3 of UGC Act 1956)
www.vit.ac.in
APRIL, 2007
Dedicated to
Shraman Goswami
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank my Institute, Vellore Institute of Technology for providing me with
the opportunity for carrying out my project in the area of Turbo machinery and providing
me with the necessary guidance and infrastructure through which I could make this
project a grand success. I would also like to thank- Honeywell Technology Solutions Lab
for giving me this unique opportunity for carrying out my academic project in their
esteemed organization and providing me with all the guidance and support which are
needed at this level. I would also like to thanks my mentor at VIT, MR. D.R.S
Raghuraman who, with his immense experience and technical know-how provided me
with valuable inputs and guidance which made my project a truly valuable learning
experience. I would also thank my guide at Honeywell, MR. Shraman Goswami who in
spite of his busy work schedule took time off to guide me and played a very inspirational
role and help me understand the nuances of the subject with his highly technical expertise.
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis titled Design Methodology for Aerodynamic Design
of Centrifugal Compressors is submitted by Mr. Anand Vijaykumar, 03BME018 to
the School of Mechanical and Building Sciences of VIT University, Vellore for the
award of the degree in B.Tech Mechanical Engineering is a bonafide record of work
carried out by him under supervision. The content of this thesis, in full or in parts
have not been submitted to any other institute or University for the award of any
degree or diploma.
Guide
Dean
Internal Examiner
External Examiner
ABSTRACT
The project presents a one dimensional (mean-line) design methodology for a
medium pressure ratio Centrifugal Compressor. A computational procedure for
design of a Centrifugal Compressor is established. The numerical model is based on
the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation and has
been utilized to predict the operational and aerodynamic characteristics of a small
centrifugal compressor as well as determining the performance and geometry of
compressor blades, both straight and backswept. The design code provides a basis
on which the design of the Compressor can be modeled by varying the key
parameters which include both aerodynamic and geometric details. The code shall
then predict and give a first cut solution, which will further help in zeroing on to a
particular design for the given requirements. The design which models the flow in
an Impeller, Diffuser and an annular bend takes into consideration various loss
models occurring in the complex flow of a Centrifugal Compressor. It makes use of
a Jet-Wake Model i.e. it splits the flow into Primary and Secondary zone and
performs a Mixed flow Analysis. The Design also performs an inverse flow analysis
where in we get the geometry by specifying aerodynamic details. The design has
been exhaustively validated by using a number of Test Compressors from NASA
test reports. Based on the geometry computed by the code, an impeller model is
generated using ANSYS BLADEGEN-Tool.
CONTENTS
Page No
Acknowledgement.4
Abstract..5
List of Tables.7
List of Figures/ Exhibits/ Charts8
Nomenclature.9
1
INTRODUCTION13
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
General Introduction.13
Background Information...14
Introduction to Project..14
Introduction to Design Process.17
Literature Review..20
DESIGN PROCEDURE
DESIGN VALIDATION
5.1 Compressor Design Validation- Test Compressor-1.......60
INVERSE DESIGN
6.1 Approach...63
6.2 Methodology 64
6.3 Other Modes of Operations...67
ANSYS BladeGen..69
7.1 Introduction to BladeGen...70
7.2 Using BladeGen.....70
CONCLUSION..76
9.1 Conclusion..76
9.2 Towards Better Design...77
9.3 Scope for Future work....78
APPENDIX.80
A.181
A.281
A.382
A.483
A.584
A.685
A.786
A.887
A.988
BIBILOGRAPHY/REFERENCES.90.
LIST OF TABLES
Table No
Title
Page No
2.1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
LIST OF FIGURES/EXHIBITS/CHARTS
Figure No.
Title
Page No
1.1
1.2
1.3
Activity Chart..................................................................................12
Meanline Diagram of the Centrifugal Compressor.......16
Meridional view of impeller..14
2.1
2.2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4.1
6.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8
A.9
Nomenclature
2b
bt
c
Cd
ct
cm
Cpi
Dhyd
DF
i1, h
r1, t
r1, h
LC
mf
M
N
nrdb
Po,P
p
r
T
To
w
W
zb
Suffix
t
h
m
tip
hub
meridional component
Constants
k
cp
gamma
specific heat
10
R
Re
RECIRCULATION LOSS
INCIDENCE LOSS
No
station name
12345-
impeller inlet
impeller exit
vaneless diffuser exit
vaned diffuser exit
bend exit
11
12
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introductory Remarks/Outline
GENERAL INTRODUCITION:
Over the past decade , there has been a growing interest and need for miniature energy
conversions systems, such as portable power generation for consumer electronics and
propulsion for micro fuel cells and handheld analytical instruments, as well as miniature
cooling units for electronics. Meeting this need requires the implementation of traditional
thermodynamic cycles at small scale, along with required machinery. Among the core
energy conversion technologies common large scales, compressors, pumps and turbines
are often used to convert fluid power to mechanical used for high power density and
reliability as illustrated by its prevalence in aerospace (aircraft gas turbines engines) and
power generation industries. But fabrication of such complex machines at millimeter
scale can however prove to be challenging and expensive.
The objective of current work consists of creating a knowledge base for design and micro
Turbo Machinery with special emphasis on Centrifugal Compressors Compressors.
This project focuses on the design process of single stage micros scale turbo machinery
along with CFD predictions of the key aerodynamic performance parameters required in
the design process. This work focuses on unique and unexplored design space defined by
the small scale and planar geometries characteristics of turbo pumps, compressors, gas
turbines and steam turbines, or other turbo machinery-based Microsystems.
Correlations are proposed for the loss coefficient, based on laminar- turbulent flow theory.
A critical Reynolds no is also identified, below which adjacent boundary layers merge,
inducing sharp increase in loss and deviation. This imposes practical limits on the
miniaturization of such microturbomachinery.
13
The objective of the project is to design and eventually develop a Centrifugal compressor
of medium to high pressure ratio for a Micro Jet Engine (Small Gas Turbine Engine).
The project deals with the design methodology for the design of a Centrifugal
Compressor. The 1D design gives an initial design solution on the basis of which it can
be decided if a complete CFD analysis of the compressor is required.
14
Fabricate an in house
Centrifugal Compressor
1
The Project deals with the design, development and testing of a Micro jet engine which is
a Small Gas Turbine Engine. The possible application of the Micro jet engine could be
for a mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). It could also be used as a land-based
generator with suitable modification included.
15
The Micro jet is designed for a thrust of 100N. The engine consists of a centrifugal
compressor, reverse flow annular combustor; radial turbine and exhaust system.
16
17
The modeling is for a compressor which features an impeller with radial blades or
backswept vanes at exit, a vaneless or vaned diffuser and a 90 degree annular bend.
18
19
20
CHAPTER-2
2.0 DESIGN PROCEDURE
WORK PLAN FLOW CHART
Start
OD design or
Thermodynamic Design
Are results
validated correctly?
No
Yes
Stop
21
Impeller Design
Aerodynamic Inputs
Po1, To1, N, m, blade no,
Geometrical Inputs
Rt, Rh, R2, Clearance,
Incidence angle, backsweep
OUTLET CALCULATIONS:
U2= (2*pi ()*r2*N)/60
ct2=U2+Cm2m*tan2b
=U2 since 2b=0 (radial outlet
=1-(cos 2b) 0.5 /z 0.7 using Wiesners Correlation
ho =U2*ct2
T02m=T01+(k-1)/(kR)* ho
Po2/Po1= (1+ (nrotor *ho)/(Cp*T01))^k/ (k-1)
cm2m and M2m are calculated as before.
W2m= (U2-ct2m) ^2+cm2m
2m=-cos-1(Cm2m/W2m)
2m= tan -1 (Ct2m/Cm2m)
Calculation of rotor
efficiency
Aerodynamic Inputs
mf3=mf2=mf1
Geometrical Inputs
d3=d2*1.08 m
Assumptions
DF1=1.1, Cd3, LC1, C3=C2/DF1
No
Error in C3<0.001
22
A
LC2 is determined from table-1
Reference-1
LC2=Cpi-Cp
Cpi=1-1/AR2
Aerodynamic inputs
mf4=mf3=mf2, alp4 (absolute)
Geometrical inputs
Nrdb, d4, bt4,
Assumptions
Cd4, LC2, DF2=2.2, C4=C3/DF2 (initial)
No
Error in C4<0.001
Bend Design
Aerodynamic inputs
mf5=mf4=mf3=mf2, Ho5=H02,
Geometrical inputs
d5, b5, d5 (outlet), d5 (inlet)
Assumptions
LC3, Cd5, DF3=1.1,
Bend Calculations:
ct5=d4*ct4/d5
c5 = c4*DF3 (initial)
h5 = ho5 - 0.5*c5*c5
a5 =sqrt (k5*R*T5);
m5 = c5/a5;
P5= Po5/pow ((1+ (k5-1.)/2*M5*M5), (k5/ (k5-1)))
5 = P5/R/t5;
cm5 = mf5/( 5*Af5);
c5new=sqrt (ct5*ct5+cm5*cm5)
No
Error in C5<0.001
END
23
24
25
Table No: 2.1- gives the Impeller Exit conditions by Performing 3 design iterations.
26
Analysis of impeller boundary layer was done with use of calculations. This program
computed the characteristic parameters of two dimensional boundary layer including
compressibility effects and heat transfer to the wall.
The following sections discuss the preliminary and detailed design of the compressor
together with the methods of calculation and assumptions used in the compressor
design. Design point velocity diagrams and state conditions are given for various
stations throughout the stage. The velocity diagrams are deduced from the effective
flow areas dictated by assumed loss at various stations. Blade and Vane geometry and
surface velocity distribution are given for impeller channel diffuser, and bend.
27
28
29
which provides a necessary stabilization of the flow. The flow through the Vaneless
diffuser follows the conservation of mass and momentum equations
2.3.2 Channel Diffuser
The primary considerations in the detailed design of the channel diffuser were
incidence for adequate surge margin and throat area required for the design mass flow.
The wall spacing was equal to the impeller exit blade height plus the axial clearance
at impeller exit. At low flow rates the stream tubes diverge providing increased
available flow area, and diffusing flow field results. At high flow rates however due
to acceleration in the inlet region is sufficient to overcome most of diffusion in the
subsequent passage portion, and thus is hard choke and diffuser works like a nozzle.
The static pressure recovery in the Vaned diffuser section is a function of the diffuser
AR (Area Ratio) and throat blockage which measured by the boundary layer
thickness.
2.3.3 Turning Duct
The turning duct geometry is completely specified by two circular surfaces of
revolution, the inner wall radius and outer wall radius. The inlet annulus is specified
at a radial distance from the axis of rotation. Inlet static conditions are those which
correspond to exit of channel diffuser. A particular degree of swirl still remains in the
flow just inside the channel diffuser exit. Rapid expansion, assumed to occur at
constant total pressure, around the channel diffuser trailing edges result in a absolute
flow angle measured from radial direction.
Angular momentum remains relatively constant throughout the turning duct although
the slight increase in the duct streamline radius. The flow solution for the turning duct
was computed using the meridional plane analysis.
30
2.4 METHODOLOGY:
A C-language program for calculating the off-design performance of centrifugal
compressors with vaneless, channel diffuser and bend is presented. Use of the program
requires complete knowledge of the overall impeller and diffuser geometries.
Individual losses are computed using analytical equations and empirical correlations
which relate loss levels to velocity diagram characteristics and overall geometry. At flow
rates between surge and choke, individual efficiency decrements, compressor overall
efficiency and compressor total pressure ratio are tabulated.
An example case of performance comparison with a compressor built by a commercial
engine manufacturer is presented to demonstrate the correlation with limited
experimental data.
2.4.1 off Design Characteristics
The off-design performance characteristics of centrifugal compressors are of interest
because of the large effects that compressor component performance has on overall
cycle performance and because the compressor is required to operate at off-design
conditions much of the time. These losses become more pronounced at part-power
settings. In addition to good performance at off-design flow rates it is important that
the compressor operate stably over the range of flows and speeds required by the
engine operating envelope.
The usable range of the compressor pressure ratio-mass flow characteristic is
bounded by the surge and choke mass flow rates. Operation at flows less than the
surge point flow should be avoided because of potentially dangerous vibrations
induced by the intermittent flow reversals and power loss. Operation with the
compressor choked is generally avoided because of the poor compressor
efficiency and pressure ratio at the choke point. The problem undertaken in this
analysis is to determine the centrifugal compressor performance characteristics
over a range of rotative speeds and flow rates and predict the usable range of flow
rates at which the compressor can operate.
31
The method of analysis uses the loss correlations and surge and choke criteria
added to predict compressor operating range.
The program predicts centrifugal compressor performance through utilization of
empirical correlations which are related to the compressor geometry and velocity diagram
characteristics.
A complete knowledge of the compressor overall geometry and working fluid inlet total
conditions is required for its use. Working fluid state conditions and flow properties are
calculated using a mean streamline one-dimensional analysis.
The program is limited to centrifugal compressors with channel diffusers operating up to
their choke point. A comparison of calculated and experimental performance is given to
demonstrate the correlation with limited experimental data.
The experimental data presented for comparison were obtained from a compressor
developed by NASA Research Centre refernce [].
Shock losses in the rotor are neglected. Clearance losses are considered to be inherent in
the impeller losses since good performance correlation is achieved on compressors
operating with reasonable clearances.
32
Blade loading loss - Boundary layer growth in the impeller is highly dependent on the
diffusion of the working fluid internal to the impeller itself. Equation for calculating the
diffusion factor of the impeller based on a uniform velocity loading along the blade chord.
This equation is used to calculate the impeller diffusion factor for impellers without
splitters. A modified form, with reduced penalty due to aerodynamic work input, is used
for impellers which have a set of splitter blades. With the diffusion factor calculated by
these methods the blade loading loss was expressed
Skin friction loss - In addition to the losses resulting from the aerodynamic loading
Of the impeller blades, the impeller incurs losses due to skin friction of the impeller
and shroud wetted areas. Developed an equation for this loss based on fully
Developed turbulent pipe flow. In the case of impellers with splitter blade rows, the
Empirical constant appearing in the equation is modified to account for the higher mean
Channel relative velocity caused by the addition of splitters. The general equation used
For skin friction loss is
Where KSF = 5.6 for conventional impellers and KSF = 7.0 for impellers with tandem
Blades.
33
Disk friction loss - The specific loss due to windage on the compressor back face
is calculated using the equation
Recirculation loss - Losses resulting from work done on the working fluid due to
Backflow into the impeller are expressed as
34
Calculation of Compressor choking Flow Two criteria are used in the prediction of
compressor choking flow:
(1) Inducer choke.
(2) Vaned diffuser choke.
Vaned diffuser choke is predicted from one-dimensional continuity using the computed
Values of weight flow, total temperature, total pressure, aerodynamic blockage, and the
geometric throat area. The maximum value of the one-dimensional weight flow function
is calculated from the equation
Calculation of Surge:
The vaned diffuser is assumed to be the component which governs the location of the
compressor surge point. Based on a database of a number of compressors covering a
range of pressure ratios indicates that the compressor flow range can be expressed as a
function of vaned diffuser leading edge mach number.
35
CHAPTER-3
Location
impeller
inlet
impeller
inlet
impeller
impeller
inlet
Value
impeller
impeller
inlet
impeller
inlet
impeller exit
impeller exit
impeller
impeller exit
50
101.3 kpa
288.166 K
21789 rpm
4.391
0.105 m
0.041 m
0.216 m
0.017 m
15 blades , 15 splitters
0.00023 m
Location
impeller
inlet
impeller exit
impeller
impeller
inlet
impeller
impeller exit
Value
impeller exit
0.919
0.3
500
0.86
0.392
0.918
0.6
37
Calculations:
Impellor inlet mean diameter
= D1
= 0.146
= D2
= 0.432
= W2
= 0.017
= N
= 21789
RPM
= PR
= 4
Compressor efficiency
= 0.859
= Zb
= 30
= bt
= 0.001
= mf1
= 4.391
kg/s
= Po1
= 101300
Pa
= To1
= 288.166
= 500
= ho1
= 288577.2993 J/kg
= h02
= 467329.6959 J/kg
Discharge coefficient
= Cd
= 0.97
P02
b2
P01*(1+(nrotor*ho)/(Cp*T01))k/(k-1)
= 467.253
Pa
= 0.0228169
b2)
m2
m2
h = h02 h01
= 175894.318
U2 =
J/kg
*D2*N/60
= 2* *0.216 * 21789 / 60
38
= 492.280
m/s
h = U2 * ct2 U1 * ct1
h = U2 * ct2
ct2 = 356.888
m/s
cos (
b2)
/ 2*Zb*(1-
= 0.926
ct2i = ct2 / SF
= 372.445 / 0.926
= 385.408
m/s
mf2 =
2*
m/s
Ae2 * Cm2
cm2 = mf2 /
2*
Ae2
m/s
c2 = ( cm22 + ct22)
= (84.21552 +356.882)
= 366.51
m/s
h2 = h02 - c22 /2
= 467329.6959-(366.51^2/2)
= 400164.9059
Static temperature at rotor exit (t2 ) = 395.148
CP2 = 1011.2866
2
J/kg K
K
J/kg K
= 1.391
m/s
39
2 -1)
= 269154
Pa
= P2 / R t2
= 260968/ 287 *397.498
kg/m3
= 2.37334
2 = tan-1 (ct2 / cm2)
=
= 76.842
2
( 2
is
negative
)
40
Location
vaneless exit
vaneless exit
vaneless
entry
value
d2*1.08=0.46656 m
b2*0.98=0.01666 m
mf3=mf2=mf1
Location
vaneless exit
vaneless exit
vaneless
entry
value
d2*1.08=0.46656 m
b2*0.98=0.01666 m
mf3=mf2=mf1
41
Calculations:
W3= width at the vane less diffuser = W2*0.98
exit
= 0.017
Pa
h02
= 467329.6959
J/kg
m/s
h3 = h03-c32/2
= 467329.6959 348.9902/2
= 406432.6859
t3 Static temperature at vane less = 400.4606
diffuser exit for h3
CP3 = 1011.99
3
J/kg
K
J/kg K
= 1.395
m/s
42
0.873
P03 / (1+ (( 3-1) M32 /2))( 3/
3 -1)
= 276769
3
Pa
= P3 / R t3
= 2.4081
Area3 =
kg/m3
*D3*W3
= 0.0237
m2
ae3 = Area3* Cd
= 0.02377
From continuity equation,
mf3 =
*ae3*cm3
cm3 = 4.391*0.0237*2.4081
= 79.1624
m/s
ct3 = ct2*D2/D3
= 339.894
m/s
mf2 = mf3
ALPHA3 = tan-1 (Ct3/Cm3)
= 76.7703
Angle of radial diffuser blade = tan-1(cm3/ct3)
leading edge for zero incidence ( 3)
= 13.11
43
dp
f * cosec(a) * sec(a) * M * M * dr * P
g * h * R * T * r * r * (1 (U *U ) /(2 * g * cp * T )) * cos B
Location
Value
vaned diffuser
vaned diffuser
vaned diffuser exit
width (w4)
vaned diffuser
vaned diffuse exit
vaned diffuser exit
24
0.038 m
0.72644 m
w3=w4 (no
pinching)=0.01666 m
mf4=mf3=mf2=const=4.391
kg/s
39.5 calculated from paper
0.193
44
Assumptions:
Name
loss coefficient (LC2)initial
coefficient of discharge
Location
Value
0.2
0.97
mm
mm
mm
kg/s
Pa
J/kg
c4 =
= 82.1176 (iterated)
m/s
h4 = h04 - c42/2
= 467329.6959 82.11762/2
= 463958.0458
t4 Static temperature at exit for h4 = 453.537
J/kg
K
a4 = ( 4R t4)
=
45
= 453.53
m/s
= 407393.91
4
4 -1)
Pa
= P4 / R t4
kg/m3
= 3.12
Area4 =
*D4*W4 nrbd*W4*bt4
m2
= 0.0228
ae4 = Area4* Cd
m2
= 0.02216
Cm4 = mf4 /
ae4
m/s
m/s
46
3.3.1 Best Combination of No of diffuser blades, blade width, flow angle to get
highest Pressure Ratio.
The table below gives the combination of diffuser blades (nrdb), blade width (w) and flow
angle (alpha) for the maximum rise in static pressure ratio in radial diffuser and the compressor
as a whole.
No of
blades
24
24
24
24
No of blades
18
20
22
24
No of blades
18
18
18
18
No of blades
18
blade width
(m)
0.038
0.038
0.038
0.038
blade width
(m)
0.038
0.038
0.038
0.038
blade width
(inch)
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
blade width
(inch)
1
Alpha
(alp4)
30
40
50
60
alpha
(alp4)
30
30
30
30
alpha
(alp4)
30
30
30
30
alpha
(alp4)
30
p4/p1
4.23132
4.22382
4.21508
4.20478
p5/p1
4.28715
4.278
4.26732
4.25476
p4/p1
4.24827
4.24225
4.23517
4.22677
p5/p1
4.30782
4.30051
4.29186
4.28159
p5/p1
4.30782
Best Combination
Table No: 3.10- Best Combination of Blades, Width, and Flow Angle for Maximum
Pressure Rise in a Vaned Diffuser
47
Table No: 3.11-Estimating the Value of Vaned Diffuser Static Pressure Rise Coefficient
by interpolation and Approximation.
48
location
bend
bend exit
bend
bend
bend exit
bend
bend exit
value
0.01673606 m
d4+0.05*2+w5/2*2 m =0.809 m
0.389001
0.40432736
mf4=mf3=mf2
h05=ho2
0.147
location
bend exit
value
0.25
bend exit
0.97
mm
kg/s
m
J/kg
Pa
ct5 = ct4D4 / D5
= 50.3971
m/s
49
m/s
h5 = h05 c52/2
= 463390.1126
T5 Static temperature = 454.817
corresponding to h5
CP5 = 1020.55
5
J/kg
J/kg K
= 1.3933
a5 = ( 5R t5)
=
= 426.14
m/s
M5 = c5/ a5
= 0.147
P5 =
= 414861.891
5
Pa
= P5 / R t5
kg/m3
= 3.178
Area5 =
*D5*W54
m2
= 0.0386
ae5 = Area5* Cd
= 0.0386 * 0.97
m2
= 0.037
cm5 = mf5 /
ae5
= 37.4127
c5new
62.7661 (iterated)
m/s
m/s
50
4W4
/ tan (ALPHA4) =
5W5/
tan (ALPHA5)
Since W4 =W5
ALPHA5 = tan-1(
4*
tan (ALPHA4))
= 39.0501
Table No: 3.14- Bend Design Calculations
Velocity triangle at bend
51
CHAPTER-4
Secondary Flow analysis:
Secondary flows are undesirable in centrifugal compressor as they are a direct cause for
flow (head) losses, create non uniform meridional flow profiles, potentially induce flow
separation/stall, and contribute to impeller flow slip; that is, secondary flows negatively
affect compressor performance.
Strong Circulatory secondary flows (Vortex flows) are observed in mixed-flow impellers
such as Centrifugal pumps and Compressors. These vortex flows are undesirable as they
are responsible for head losses, flow no uniformity and slip.
To reduce secondary flows and slip, turbo machinery designers often employ flow
guiding/disruptive elements like splitter vanes and other hardware modifications (which
themselves negatively effect the efficiency of the machine)
4.1 Secondary Flow Regime (Two Step Approximation)
The general characteristics of core flow diffusion process have been described for the
HPCC compressor. The complete description of the flow process , on an one dimensional
basis, in terms of basic governing equations involve a conceptual representation of the
tow zone model, or two step approximation.
It shows a regime designated as primary flow and another regime designated as
Secondary flow. The modeling indicates that there is an isentropic core flow and
that there is an average of all non isentropic stream tubes which is represented as
a single state , known as Secondary flow regime.
This gives a two step approximation, in strong contrast to the single step approximation
represented in the equations above. With a shrouded compressor rotor, it is easy to
distribute losses realistically (even though quantitative estimation may be difficult).In
that situation the rotor flow passages are fully enclosed by rotating walls, on which
boundary layers can be deemed to develop according to the local surface relative velocity
distribution. Between the rotating shroud and stationary casing there is a clearance gap,
leading to two effects. First of these is the type of friction associated with zero through
flow, which is similar to that on the rear face of the rotor, the friction loss of a fully
enclosed two-sided disc is then representative.
52
Second is the leakage loss referred to as "recirculation", which exists where there
is throughflow, whereby a small proportion of the fluid returns from rotor outlet
to inlet. When there is no rotating shroud, cataloguing of losses becomes much
More confusing. A similar recirculation path exists as mentioned above and also
similar "disc-friction on the rear face (only) of the rotor. But it is no longer
obvious how to treat the remaining effects. Growth of a boundary layer on the
outer side of the flow passage combines in some manner with the zero-through
flow friction on the casing, and additional loss takes place due to peripheral
leakage around the blade tips. The latter is primarily associated with blade loading
and hence with through-flow, so that as noted earlier, tip leakage and
recirculation losses could not readily be distinguished in any experiment.
53
passage within the rotor. This violates the normal adiabatic state during compression
upon which conservation of rothalpy is based, and leads to a stagnation temperature rise
unmatched by any increase in Euler work additionally there is a quasi-instantaneous
increase in rotor inlet enthalpy due to cooling of recirculation fluid.
4.3 Impeller Boundary Layer Control:
Analysis of the impeller boundary layer was accomplished through the use of a
calculation method. A program computed the characteristics parameters of a two
dimensional boundary layer including compressibility effects and heat transfer. Both
laminar and turbulent flow was handled by the program as well as prediction of
transitions from laminar to turbulent boundary layer conditions. The basic program
required specification of free stream velocity as a function of flow path length. Flow
separation was predicted by a rapid drop off in friction coefficient with length. A wide
variety of test data was used to check program results and agreement in all cases was
excellent.
When examining the impeller, several boundary layer conditions had to be considered.
In the neighborhood of the shroud, a shroud boundary layer was calculated based on the
mean absolute velocity component and corresponding path length. Relative velocities
along the suction and pressure surface at impeller tip were used to define tow additional
boundary-layer conditions along the shroud. In the hub region, suction and pressure
surfaces as well as the mean relative velocities were employed in boundary layer analysis.
The boundary layer on the impeller tended to migrate to the tip and then to the shroud
wall as a result of centrifugal forces. Therefore flow separation on the pressure surface of
the impeller tip would extend into the shroud region and possibly trigger flow separation
across the entire area between blades.
54
0.7
reference []
The slip factor decreases with flow rate. However, the measured and calculated values a
show a contrasting effects which was explained by Eckardt(1980) on account of inertia
effect. i.e. blade design of the impeller, guides the flow nearly to the radial direction until
the backsweep starts downstream between the planes. The increased inertia of a high flow
rate keeps the flow to maintain the strength of the secondary flow up to the impeller exit.
Therefore, the effects of the backsweep on the flow at high flow rate become small. The
deviation angle reduces at impeller exit and the slip factor increases with flow rate.
55
56
87.5684
Ct2s=u2-(cm2s/tan(cos2b)-(1-sf)*u2
364.65
Sqrt((u2-ct2s)^2*cm2s^2)
155.25
hT+ disk friction loss
hT2s-(2s^2/2)(2^2/2)
406919.964
h2s/Cp
402.29
p2/R/T2s (iterated)
=
W2s =
=
hT2s =
hs2 =
=
T2s =
=
row2snew =
=
= 2.332
2s = cos(cm2s/w2s)
C2s
m/s
m/s
m/s
Joules
m/s
m/s
Kg/m3
J/kg K
= -55.665
deg
= sqrt(cm2s^2+ct2s^2)
=
To2s =
=
po2s =
=
375.01
T2s+(c2s^2)/(2*cp2))
471.81
p2*(To2s/T2)^(g2/(g2-1))
496215.63
m/s
J/kg K
m/s
pascal
57
= Row2*1.2 (initial)
Ct2m = (((m-ms)*ct2)+(ms*ct2s))/m;
= 366.2681
m/s
cm2m = m/(ae2*row2m)
= 86.44
m/s
p2m = p2+((((m-ms)*cm2)+(ms*cm2s)(m*cm2m))/(area2))
c2m=
sqrt (pow(ct2m,2)+pow(cm2m,2));
=
To2m
376.33
m/s
(((m- ms)*cp2*To2)+(ms*cp2*To2s)+
((diskloss+recir)*ms))/(cp2*array[11]);
T2m
= 469.44
= To2m-(pow(c2m,2)/(2*cp2))
=
row2mnew =
=
po2m =
=
=
=
=
=
sf =
=
399.44
p2m/R/T2m (iterated)
2.3491
p2m*pow(To2m/T2m,(g2/(g2-1)));
sf=pnunew*((lamdanewtan(array[7]*torad))/lamdanew);
475814.99
ct2m/cm2m
4.23
ct2m/u2
0.74
*(( -tan(cos2b)/ );
0.9521
58
The mixing process has been realistically computed in order to deduce the levels of
discharge mixing losses and to have basis upon which one can estimate the loss in kinetic
energy due to formation of secondary flow.
The above two equations give the description of impeller flow process on a two zone one
dimensional basis. Computing the mixing process is important. It provides a closure to
the system of equations. Based on the mass averaged total pressure entering the mixing
control volume and the mixed-out total pressure leaving the control volume gives a
measure of the mixing loss. Secondary flow has been modeled as a low momentum or
wake-flow, and its presence at a relative velocity less than isentropic core flow relative
velocity implies a loss in kinetic energy on formation of secondary flow.
59
CHAPTER-5
DESIGN VALIDATION
5.1 Compressor Design Validation:
The geometric input for the impeller is taken from HPCC input. The incidence angle at
the inlet is kept constant at -5 (deg) from which blade angles are determined.
The Mach no is initially assumed as 0.3 at inlet and 0.6 at exit and iterated to get the
correct value of Mach no.
Impeller efficiency is determined by calculating losses and by subsequent iterations.
Validation Results: Comparison of CFD results with 1D design for HPCC
Reference-[ ]
1
impeller
inlet
2
impeller
exit
101.3
467.253
453.386
418.062
414.862
4.09
(CFD)
Total Temperature
To (K)
30 blades (1D
calculation)
101.129
458.936
445.861
420.949
414.328
4.097024592
288.166
462.115
460.626
456.847
456.747
1.5850
(CFD)
Static Pressure p
(Kpa)
30 blades (1 D
calculation)
288.22
453.91
453.93
454.03
453.99
1.575150926
91.0855
269.154
276.769
407.394
408.661
4.48656
89.767
272.875
293.038
397.862
400.453
4.461026881
Temp Ratio
279.52
395.148
400.46
453.537
454.817
1.627
278.382
392.117
402.448
446.718
449.68
1.615334325
0.392
0.919
0.87124
0.193
0.147
0.421
0.89
0.805
0.273
0.214
Total Pressure po
(Kpa)
30 blades (1D
calculation)
(CFD)
Static Temperature
T (K)
30 blades (1 D
calculation)
(CFD)
Mach No
(M)
30 blades (1 D
calculation)
(CFD)
3
vaneless
diffuser exit
4
vaned
diffuser exit
5
bend
Pr Ratio
Temp Ratio
Pr Ratio
Table No: 5.1-Comparision of CFD results With 1D code for Test Compressor-1
60
Table No: 5.2-Comparision of CFD results With 1D code for Test Compressor-2
61
Table No: 5.3-Comparision of Test Data Results with Results from 1D code for
Test Compressor-3
62
CHAPTER -6
Inverse Design for Centrifugal Compressor using Meanline
6.1 Approach:
This approach is used for determining the optimum geometric parameters of centrifugal
compressor stages given specific performance requirements. This is commonly known as
inverse design approach.
The opposite process, which of calculating the performance parameters based on
geometric details is usually called analysis, or direct calculation. An algorithm and
computer code implementing the inverse approach is described.
As an alternative to commercially available inverse design codes, this program
uses a trusted database of loss models for individual stations, such as impellers,
vaned diffusers, etc.
This algorithm extends applicability of the inverse code by ensuring energy
conversation for any working medium, like imperfect gases. The concept of loss
coefficients for rotating impellers is introduced for improved loss modeling.
The governing conservation equations for each component of a stage are
presented and then described in terms of an iterative procedure which calculates
the required one-dimensional geometry.
A graphical user interface which facilitates user input and presentation of results
is also described. The visibility and re-usability of the code is highlighted as a
platform which easily provides for maintainability and future extensions.
The one-dimensional codes for centrifugal compressor stages have typically solved the
problem of analyzing geometry rather than doing inverse design. Furthermore, many of
these codes have no generalized loss models, but have instead past compressor
performance data tabulated to indicate performance of the machine under study. This
technique works for all cases where the new design is similar to an existing one, but
poorly when the new design differs significantly.
63
6.2 Methodology
These codes are used for the design in an iterative manner, that is, the designer inputs the
geometry and sees if the code predicts the desired performance. A final design is thus
arrived at when the desired performance is arrived at. A more direct route to the final
design was thus desired.
These codes use a generalized set of loss models; it was desired to incorporate the basic
idea of these codes with the specific loss models capabilities.
Po2
Kpa
P2 Kpa
To2 K
T2 K
alpha2 deg
rotor
Efficiency
M2
M1t
0.0265
368199
224121
444.544
386.048
65.89
0.8755
0.82745
0.822
0.027
376191
228825
445.463
386.774
66.4131
0.876255
0.8391
0.722
0.0275
379951
231036
445.891
387.111
66.65
0.876615
0.844575
0.658
0.028
381841
232144
446.133
387.286
66.7694
0.876
0.8472
0.607
0.0285
382593
232586
446.21
387.63
66.8164
0.87688
0.8483
0.567
0.02886
382645
232619
446.228
387.379
66.82
0.876885
0.84845
0.541
0.02886
396248
240552
447.644
388.461
67.6323
0.8783
0.8676
0.541
Table No: 6.1-Variations in Impeller Exit Conditions as a Function of Impeller Inlet Tip
Mach number.
64
6.2.2 The plot below shows the variation of impeller inlet tip radius Vs impeller
efficiency
Based on the plot below we can make a reasonable estimate of how much we can twitch
the inlet radius (reduce space) without causing much reduction in efficiency
rotor efficiency
0.027
0.0275
0.028
0.0285
0.02886
Fig: 6.1-Variation of Rotor Efficiency with Impeller Inlet Tip Mach number
6.2.3 The plot below shows the variation of Impeller inlet tip radius as a function of
impeller inlet tip mach no.
The radius at tip should be varied in such a way that the tip mach no at inlet does not go
beyond a critical value of 0.7
0.027
0.0275
0.028
0.0285
0.02886
Fig: 6.2- Variation of Inlet Tip Mach number with Impeller Inlet Tip Radius
65
6.2.4 The Table Below shows the variation of losses as a function of Imepeller Inlet
Tip Radius.
skin loss
(joules)
R1 tip
Recirculation
(joules)
blade loss
(joules)
Disk friction
loss (joules)
incidence loss
(joules)
0.0265
19036.4
4151.99
5959.91
2828.17
524.681
0.027
17512.1
4254.82
6116.82
2882.39
145.212
0.0275
16641.1
4344.69
6274.48
2907.88
22.9929
0.028
16072.7
4429.19
6440.35
2920.69
0.69
0.0285
15690.2
4510.3
6612.34
2925.82
30.1134
0.02886
15495.8
4567.22
6739.52
2926.2
72.3906
0.02886
11838
4608.42
7013.33
3017.84
533.209
Table No: 6.2-Various Losses Tabulated as function of Impeller Inlet Tip Radius.
6.2.5 The plot below shows the variation of impeller losses as a function of impeller
tip radius
The loss distribution can be seen and its variation and dependence on the geometry is
clearly visible
Impeller Losses
Skin Loss
Recirculation
Blade Loss
Incidence loss
66
67
For the impeller the user chooses either the diameter or the work input coefficient,
either the diffusion factor or outlet width, and either the mass flow rate or the
outlet blade angle. Of the latter, the user may choose both, but doing so is
equivalent to setting the slip so it will not be computed by a slip model.
For a vaneless diffuser, as discussed, the user may choose any tow of outlet
diameter, width, or diffusion factor. For a vaned diffuser any three of diameter,
width, diffusion factor, or outlet angle are chosen.
The basic conservation equations shown above naturally do not change when
code is run in various modes. The iterative algorithm does not change, however,
and must take into account the great many combinations of inputs the user may
wish to run.
68
CHAPTER-7
ANSYS-BladeGen
7.1 Introduction to ANSYS BladeGen
BladeGen is a component of ANSYS Blade Modeler. The Blade Modeler software is a
specialized, easy to use tool for rapid 3D design of rotating machinery components. The
software is used to Design mixed flow and radial blade components of Compressor and
Diffusers.
BladGen with its rich set of tools and functionalities for designing a turbo machinery
blade from scratch, using industry-specific tools, workflow, and language that the blade
designer expects.
With BladeGen, the user can re-design existing blades to achieve new design goals or
create completely new blade designs from scratch. Re-designing or evaluating existing
blade design, BladeGen facilitates the import of blade geometry interactively or through
user supplied files.
Blades were created using Angle-Thickness view and by choosing a radial blade
impeller. Input geometric details were provided in a radial vs. axial plot.
BladeGen allows sculpted or ruled element blades with linear or compound lean
leading or trailing edges.
Over/Under-Filing can be applied and leading and trailing edge shapes are easily
specified as a full radius, an ellipse ratio, or a simple cutoff. BladeGen allows
sculpted or ruled element blades with linear or compound lean leading or trailing
edges. Over/under-Filling was applied and trailing edge shapes are easily
specified at full radius, and ellipse ratio, or a simple cutoff.
With its provision for seamless path to both structural and fluid analysis, which enables
the user to efficiently transition from preliminary blade design, to full 3D viscous flow
analysis, and finally to users native CAD system.
69
Three Views are made available of the blade generated using BladeGen:
Figure 1
The left most section shows the blade profile and in the blade to blade view. The
Shape and the NACA thickness distribution is clearly visible.
The middle section shows the meridional view of the impeller blade in a
R (radial) Vs (Axial Plot).
The last section shows the Grid View of the Compressor- impeller. The hub and
shroud are clearly visible In this view.
Figure 2
This view shows the impeller in the Grid Form.
Figure 3
This gives the shaded view of the Impeller Blades.
70
71
72
73
CHAPTER-8
Compressor Performance Based on impeller Geometry
8.1 Plots showing Loss Distributions as a function of Geometry.
impeller exit
backsweep angle
(deg)
skin
Loss
Recirculation
loss
(joules)
disk friction
loss
(joules)
blade loading
loss
(joules)
incidence
loss
(joules)
(joules)
20
13245.6
5093.72
3075.67
9114.72
72.3906
25
13829.3
4932.69
3036.26
8370.47
72.3906
30
14604.1
4753.58
2985.6
7560.05
72.3906
35
15621.8
4541.79
2917.67
6630.04
72.3906
40
16962
4274.74
2822.77
5519.8
72.3906
45
18761.7
3899.83
2675.54
4097.11
72.3906
50
21311.9
3244.59
2392.66
2057.2
72.3906
Table No: 8.1- Variations of Impeller Losses with Impeller Blade Backsweep
The plot below shows the Variations of individual losses as a function of impeller blade
backswept angle.
Impeller Losses
(Enthalpy loss)
25
30
35
40
45
50
Recirculation Loss
Incidence Loss
74
Table No: 8.2- Values of Stagnation Pressure are tabulated for Variations in Blade Backsweep
Impeller exit
Stagnation Pressure
Ratio
25
30
35
40
45
50
Blade Backsweep
75
Impeller Exit
Stagnation Pressure
200000
100000
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
76
CYCLS CODES
Gas Turbines, Compressors
Operational Database
Synthesis-(8)
Compressor
Meanline
Design
Optimization
-(7)
3D Geometry
Generation and
Through Flow
Analysis-(6)
CFD
Preprocessor-(5)
(9)
ComponentDevelopment-1
Product Development-2
Electronic Laboratory-3
Designers
Rapid Prototyping
-(10)
Numerical M/c
Casting/Molding
3D flow
Modeling-(4)
CFD Post
Processor-(3)
Computer
aided
Drafting(1)
Rotor
Dynamic
Seals
Bearing-(2)
77
CHAPTER-9
9.1 CONCLUSIONS:
The present 1D code correctly predicts the pressure ratio, total temperature
increase and efficiency of centrifugal compressor impeller over a wide range of
operating conditions.
The loss models used are generalized and can be applied to a number of
compressors with out modifications.
The flow in the Vaneless, Vaned Diffuser and Bend has been modeled based on
Certain Values of Loss Coefficients which have been obtained from Experimental
Plots and Empirical Correlations and hence may not be very accurate.
The Design Validation successfully suggests that the design process has reached
reasonable levels of accuracy but has scope for improvements like the
implementation of Shock Losses when Mach No reaches values > 1.2.
The predicted flow development through the impeller is in good agreement with
the measured data.
The code reasonably simulates the evolution of secondary flow in the impeller
which affects the jet-wake formation and location. The core of wake region at the
impeller exits near the suction side for the near stall flow rate, and the
shroud/suction side corner for the design and near choke flow rates.
The predicted values of slip factor increase with the flow rate for backswept
Eckardt impeller and are in good agreement with measured values.
The mixed out velocity vectors are in good agreement with the values obtained
from code except for small differences in the calculated total conditions at the
vaned and Bend exit.
The Generalizations of the correlations imposes restriction on the robustness of
the code, as the generalizations make reasonable assumptions and hence the
accuracy of the code may be affected slightly.
The exhaustive Testing of the design using Test Compressors from Open
literature implies that the code is robust and generalized and can be used for a
wide range of compressors.
78
APPENDIX-A
SNAPSHOTS:
The following figures show how input is fed on a text file which is read by the Impeller
and Compressor Code:
A.1 Impeller Inputs
The input details to the Impeller are fed in Impeller_inputs.txt. The impeller code reads
the details from this file and performs iterations. The results of the impeller code are
written into a file impeller_diffuser_micro.txt.
80
81
82
A.4 Figure below shows the code written of hub-tip and mean conditions at inlet
Impeller inlet.
Fig: A.4- Source Code For Calculating Conditions at Hub, Tip and Mean
83
A.5 Figure below shows the code written for Loss Calculations:
84
A.6 Figure Below shows the Code for Vaneless diffuser Design:
Fig: A.6- Source Code Showing Correlations For Vaneless Diffuser Design
85
A.7 Figure below shows the code for Vaned Diffuser Design:
Fig: A.7- Source Code Showing Correlations For Vaned Diffuser Design
86
SNAPSHOTS OF OUTPUT:
A.8 Impeller Output
87
Fig: A.9- Output of Vaneless Diffuser, Vaned Diffuser and Bend Design Code
88
Reference:
1) Analytical correlation of centrifugal compressor design geometry for maximum
efficiency with specific speed by Michael R Galvas, Lewis Research Centre ClevelandOhio, March 1972, NASA
2)Coordinates for High Performance 4:1 Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor Ted F
McKain, Greg J Holbrook, Detroit Diesel Allison, Lewis Research Centre NASA, July
1997
3) Microjet_design_document, compressor_code-Honeywell
4) Introduction to Turbo machinery- David Japikse, Nicholas C.Baines.
5) Centrifugal Compressor Surge and Speed Control- Jan Tommy Gravdahl, Member,
IEEE, and Olav Egeland, Member, IEEE, 5th sept, 1999
6) Method of Performance Prediction for Centrifugal Compressors-M.V HerbertNational Gas Turbine Establishment.
8) Laser Anemometer Measurements of the Flow Field in a 4:1 Pressure Ratio
Centrifugal Impeller-G.J. Skoch U.S. Army Research Laboratory Lewis Research
Center Cleveland, Ohio, June 2-5, 1997
9) Michael R Galvas , A Fortron Program for predicting the Off Design Charactersitics of
a Centrifugal Compressor, November 1973,Lewis Research Centre and US Army Air
Mobility R& D Laboratory Cleaveland, Ohio
10) Dr. C.A Bryce, J.R. Ervin, Dr E.L. Nelson, Dr. R. K .Tu, Small High Pressure Ratio
Compressor Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design, NASA Lewis Research Centre
NAS3-14306
11) David Japikse (1994). Centrifugal Compressor Design and Performance, Concepts
ETI, Inc
12) David Japikse (1994). Introduction to Turbo Machinery, Concepts ETI, Inc
13) Dr . R. K. Bansal (Edition-2002). Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, Laxmi
Publication (P) LTD.
14) SM Yahya. Turbines Compressor and Fans, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company
Ltd.
15) Yuri Biba and Peter Menegay, Inverse Design of Centrifugal Compressor Stages
Using a Meanline Approach., June 2002, Aerothermo Design Group,Olean, New
York,USA.
89
90
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