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PART 1

INTRODUCTION

AN INTODUCTION OF FMCG INDUSTRY

The FMCG sector is a cornerstone of the Indian economy. This sector can drive
growth, enhance quality of life, create jobs, and support penetration of
technology. A vibrant FMCG sector can boost agricultural product and export.
It contributed to the exchequer significantly disperse technology across the
value and user in the product innovation. This innovation can improve Indian
Health standards. Fast Moving Consumer Good (FMCG) industry has a long
history. However, the Indian FMCG began to take shape only during the last
fifty-odd years today the Indian FMCG industry continues to suffer from a
definitional dilemma. In fact, the industry is yet to crystallize in terms of
definition and market, size, among others. The definitional confusion that has
marked the Indian FMCG industry is getting confounded. Some call it the CPG
industry and some even call it the PMCG industry. The Indian FMCG industry
has suffered because of the confusion. It is an industry which touches every
aspect of human life from looks to hygiene to palate. Perhaps defining as
industry whose scope is so vast is not so easy The Government is at cross roads
knowing how and where slot the Indian FMCG industry and unsurprisingly, the
manner in which it has treated an industry which hold Tremendous promise as
producer as goods that pervade every day life has been only callous. The facts
that the FMCG industry is a noteworthy employer and a major tax payer are
being ignored. The only thing that is cheering the industry is the reforms of the
nineties. Post reforms, the industries is excited about a burgeoning rural
population whose income are rising and which is a willing to spend on goods
designed to improve lifestyle. What is needed now is a change in the mindset of
the mandarins, FMCG industry -friendly legislation are the needs of the hour. It
does not matter whether changes are being brought about by dawning market
realities or the ongoing economic reforms. One thing is certain here: The Indian
FMCG industry has a promising future to look forward to. In term of growth
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potential, the Indian market is a great horse to bet on .With a little help and
understanding from the government, the Indian FMCG can realize its true
potential So for has been checked graph for the MNCs operating in the Indian
FMCG industry domestic companies industry. It has taken tremendous
consumer insight and market savings for the FMCG players to reach where they
are today. But, the journey has only begun.

ABOUT THECOMPANY

The common brand name of the company is PARAG the meaning of PARAG
is the pollen of flower the slogan in the logo is: -

PURE NATURAL & GOOD HEALTH

Parag milk shed is situated in the Sitapur, the District of Uttar Pradesh
since independence it has formed part of the traditional supply line of
agriculture products from the village to the big cities rich in its milk potential
the milk shed has, in the source of last few decades been thoroughly exploited
by small traders and powerful contractors and well organized private dairies.
Thus, while such intermediaries were retaining large profits the rural milk
producers found their position deteriorating day by day in 1950 a co-operative
milk supply union was organized in Luck now. Which stated collecting milk
from village and supplied to Sitapur and local markets .This milk union
continued function for about a decade in the means times Sitapur milk scheme
was established by government of India in 1959-60 to ensure cheaper milk to
the local pollution of Sitapur. The scheme stated through 7 chilling centers in
eastern U.P. The milk was mainly collected through contractors.7 milk unions
were also found almost at the same time, around each chilling center. These
continued functioning in a rather lop-sided manner till 1977. This programmer
was launched in Uttar Pradesh in 1973 and the implementing agency in the was
Pradeshik co-operative dairy federation limited which was framed in the
year. The basic idea was to replicate and pattern societies in Uttar Pradesh. In
august September 1972 organization of societies in Luck now district was taken
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up bar out Sitapur, Laharpur,Biswa, Mahmudabad etc.feeded balancing dairy,


SitapurProducers Co-operative Milk Union Ltd was set up under operation
flood-1 programmer with the specific purpose of supplying milk of local
markets and other districts. Dairies and conversion surplus milk into various
dairy products. This dairy is situated in the middle of Sitapur. The dairy was
commissioned in April 1978 and processed the liquid milk procured from the
then milk shed comprising Sitapur. The purpose of establishing feeder balancing
dairy, Sitapur was to provide remunerative market for milk produced in the milk
shed comprising district of Sitapur; Barabanki, Rae Bareli, Kanpur as envisaged
under operation flood-1 scheme. Thus feeder balancing dairy was blazed to
receive entire surplus milk from the rural areas, through a network of milk coop.
In 1973-2010 the average handing of milk per day at fbd- Sitapur Producers
Co-operative Milk Union Ltd was 49,300kg. With peak handing of 1, 04,950kg
in the feb. As the basic idea of establishing FBD-Luck now Producers Cooperative Milk Union Ltd was to convert surplus milk into various dairyproducts, this activity started in September 1978with manufacture of skimmed
milk powder and ghee. The manufacturing of table butter was started from April
1981.In view of milk production procurement and marketing potential of Luck
now Producers Co-operative Milk Union Ltd and expansion programme has
been undertaken by N.D.D.B. on turn basis. The target set is as under:
Increasing processing capacity from 1 lack to 3.5 liters per day.
Increasing powder plant capacity from 10 tones to 40 tones per day.
Increasing the capacity of ghee plant from 1.m.t. to 4.m.t. per day.
Increasing the capacity of butter manufacturing up to 16.m.t. per day
The work of expansion has been complete in 1989.The work of expanded
dairy started functioning on full capacity in 1991-1993 year. The liquid
milk and products are selling in the market in the brand name of PARAG.
The milk product has been marketed by P.C.D.F. luck now. The sale of
liquid milk has been carried out Luck now Producers Co-operative Milk
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Union Ltd, Lucknow. In the year 1983 P.C.D.F. Ltd. started working
under Operation Flood II (White revolution) scheme;

PARAG provides hygienic, nutritious milk and milk product. In the year 1983
Operation Flood II scheme was launched, the main objectives of the Operation
Flood were following
To collect the milk directly from the producers (Villagers through society).
To insure the supply of quality milk collected from the villagers which being
sold in the market area of city.
To save the producers, villagers and the customers from the middle man.
The milk is collected firstly to the society level then it comes to D.U.S.S. level
finely it comes under the state level i.e. federation

ANALYSIS OF MILK INDUSTRY

Traditionally, in India dairying has been a rural cottage industry. Semicommercial dairying started with the establishment of military dairy form and
co-operative milk unions throughout the country towards the end of nineteenth
century. In earlier years, house hold owns their own family cow or secured milk
from a neighbor who had one. With the increase in urban population fewer
households could afford to keep a cow for private use and moreover there were
other problems also like the high cost of milk production, problem of sanitation
etc. Restricted the practice; and gradually the family cow in the city was
eliminated and city cattle were all sent back to the rural areas. Gradually
farmers living near the cities took advantage of their proximity to the cities
and began supplying milk to the urban population; this gave rise to the fluid
milk-sheds we see today in every city of our country. Prior to the 1815 most
milk was necessarily produced within a short distance of the place
of consumption because of lack of suitable means of transportation and
refrigeration. The Indian Dairy Industry has made rapid progress since
independence .A large number of modern milk plant and product has since
being established. These organized dairies have been successfully engaged in
the routine commercial production of pasteurized bottled milk and various
western and dairy products. With modern knowledgeoftheprotection of milk
during transportation, it became possible to locate dairies where land was less
expensive and crops could be grown more economically.
In India, the market milk technology may be considered to have commenced in
1950, with the functioning of the Central Dairy of Aarey Milk Colony, and milk
product technology in 1956 with the establishment of Amul dairy, Anand Indian
dairy sector is still mainly and unorganized sector as barely 10% of our total
milk production undergoes organized handling.

Milk Yield Comparison


Country

Milk Yield (Kgs. per year)

USA

7002

UK

5417

Canada

5348

New Zealand

2976

Pakistan

1052

India

795

World (Average)

2021

Source: Export prospects for agro-based industries, World Trade Centre,


Mumbai.

.
Milk production is relatively efficient way of converting vegetable material into
animal food. Dairy animals like cows, buffaloes, goats and sheep can eat fodder
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and crop by products, which are not eaten by humans. Yet the loss of nutrients
energy and equipment required in milk handling inevitable make milk
comparatively expensive food. Also if dairying is to play its part in rural
development policies, the price to milk producers has to be remunerative. In a
situation of increased international prices, low availabilities of food aid and
foreign exchange constraints, large-scale subsidization of milk conception will
be difficult in the majority of developing countries.
The National Dairy Development Board was created to promote, finance and
support producer-owned and controlled organizations. NDDBs programmers
and activities seek to strengthen farmer cooperatives and support national
policies that are favorable to the growth of such institutions. Fundamental to
NDDBs efforts are cooperative principles and cooperative strategies.

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DAIRY DEVELOPMENT IN UTTAR PRADESH


(AT A GLANCE)

U.P. is the highest milk producing State in India having a share of 18% of the
total production of the country. The per capita availability of milk has gone up
to 224 grams. Dairy development programme is being implemented in State
through the following sectors: Cooperative Sector
Private Sector

Cooperative Sector:In the year 1917saw the advent of the First Co-operative

Milk Society at

Katra,LUCKNOWIt was unfortunate that no special efforts were made in this


direction for then exit to decades. It was then in the year 1938

LUCKNOW PRODUCERS CO-OPERATIVE MILK UNIONwas


established. In the coming years Lucknow, Varanasi,Kanpur, Haldwani,
Nainital and Lucknow Milk Unions saw the light of the day.

PRADESHIK COOPERATIVE DAIRY FEDERATIONLIMITEDwas


established in the year 1962. Initially the federation played the role of technical
advisor .As years went by PCDF Ltd. became proficient and was given the
World Bank assisted Operation Flood Programme in the State. Objectives of the
O.FProgramme are:(1) Capturing a dominant share of the urban milk to serve by a multitude small
milk vendors.
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(2) Creating a procurement network to link numerous co-operative producer


societies in different milk shed areas to the organized urban dairy industry.
(3) Upgrading the milk production capacity of Indian bovine stock through a
programme of crossbreeding, veterinary services and auxiliary activities.
TheOperation Flood Programmein the state was being implemented by a three
tier co-operative structure.
(1) Dairy co-operative societies at the village level handling procurement of
milk.
(2) Co-operative milk unions at the district level engaged in processing and
product manufacturing .
(3)

Pradashik Co-operative dairy federation at state level charged with


coordination of marketing.
Operation Flood-I was initiated in 1971 and covered 8 districts of the
Sitapur, Lucknow and Varanasi milk sheds. Besides Cattle Feed Factory
of one handed Metric Tone capacity each at Sitapur were established.
Operation Flood-II started in 1982, wherein coverage was extended to 28
districts.
Operation Flood-III launched in 1987 and included two more districts, so
that of the total 83 districts, was implemented in 30 districts/as of date the
coverage has been extended to 41 districts. The Operation Flood
Programme completed its third phase in the year 1994

Private sector:
Presently 25 registered private dairy are functioning in different districts of the
State, with a total handling capacity of 46.64 lacs liter per day. The Dairy
Development Department is also running some supportive programmes for
dairy development in state of Uttar Pradesh as:IMDP, WDP, RFWP, UPDASP,
SCP, ShwetKrantiYojna
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IMDP Intensive Mini Dairy Project:


The largest employment generation programme named a IMDP under
DeenDayalRojgar Yojna was initiated in the year 1991. The programme was
launched in 17 districts of the Statein the first phase. In due course of time the
scheme at the Government level was renamed asVishesRojgarYojna. For the
year 1999-2000 the total number of mini dairy stands at 18,5000 in 73 districts
of the state.

WDP-WOMEN DAIRY P ROJECT

In its effort to remove gender basis the state government has initiated WDP
though government of India, where in part of the programme is being funded
under step programme of the State Government. The progress as on date reflects
2096 women societies with a membership of 80345

RFWP Rural Family Welfare Programme :Under the agencies of SIFPSA


a family welfare project of running at present . It is an ideal programme for
family welfare though dairy co-operative society . It is currently operating in13
districts. Further 3 new districts will be added U.P.

UPDASP Uttar Pradesh Diversified Agriculture Support Project:


A World Bank assisted Project it is operative through the following
components:- PHAP -Public Health Awareness Programme. The programme is
operational in 15 districts of the State for a period of MRCB Milk Recording
& Conservation of Breed. The programmeisoperational in 07 districts of the
state for a period of Special Achievements/Initiatives The highest ever Milk
Procurement in a single day that touched the magical 13.58 Kgs Mark. Efforts
are on to bring in our Major Dairies under the ISO 9002 fold, wherein
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LucknowDairy &Parag Dairy have already been awarded the ISO 9002
Certification. To fulfill the vision and the dream of strengthening the Federation
of that it is able to meet the ever increasing competition on all fronts an
SatatSudharYojna has been initiated. Total NMG supplies 3.20 lac liters/day

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OBJECTIVES OF COMPANY

OBJECTIVES
PCDFS front-end objective was to see that there was enough milk for everyone
in town. Marketing is simply the PCDFS tool to achieve their ultimate
objective and delivering the pure parag milk to every home.

PURPOSE
PCDFS aims to build a system to ensure that individual farmer got a fair price
for the milk he sold.

MISSION
PCDFS mission is to become the strongest marketing organization by
2005.PCDFS came in to existence in 23rd march 1938,with thesimple intension
of ensuring a fair return to the producers. Which was implemented in UP is the
year 1983-1984 provided the much needed impetus to co-operative. The mission
was to develop a product mix that would not only promote sustained growth but
also help member union to develop adequate Production and processing
facilities. It also aimed to offer quality products at fair price, and to do so by
achieving economies of scale and costs. And this mission gave birth to brands
like parag and Amul.

VISION
To increase its number of Parag milk customers and its turnover to 50 crores by
2005 by product diversification.

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PRODUCT PROFILE
MILK PRODUCTS
(1)Butter
It contains less than 80% milk fat and more than 15% moisture and high acidity.
It is prepared exclusively from milk cream of curd of cow or buffalo milk
without the addition of salt, color or any preservative and is intended for
cooking or for preparation of Ghee.
(2)Ghee
About 43% of total quantity of milk produced in India is manufactured first into
butter and then converted into Ghee. Bulk of Ghee is derived from buffalo milk
because it is richer in fat that cow milk . In Parag surplus Butter muttedin steam
jacket kettles. Which are equipped with mechanical stirrers and heated with
steam till the moisture is removed.
(3) Paneer
In Parag, Paneer is produced by the traditional method in which citric acid is
added to the boiled milk and the milk immediately gets adulterated and water is
separated and paneer is obtained. It contains less than 50% frat of more than
60% moisture.
(4) Others
Skimmed milk powder, cake and khoya are other products produced by Parag.

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Future Products
Some new products like coffee powder, ready to make ice-cream powder, baby
food and other milk drinks are in the testing stages.
PARAGS MILK PRODUCTS:Butter available in 20 gm., 100 gm., and 500 gm. packs.
Pure Ghee available Kg.
Paneer - vailable in 100 gm.
Skimmed milk powder - in 500 gm. cartons & 200 & 500 gm. plastic bottles

PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY


1. Liquid milk (Packed)
a) Parag Gold (full cream milk)
b. ParagTaaza (toned mikl)
c. Parag liter (skimmed milk)
d. Double Tonned Milk
2. Standard Loose Milk
3. Paneer
4. Butter
5. Parag Ghee
6. ParagPeda
7. ParagDahi
8. Parag Flavored Milk
9. ParagMattha
10. ParagChavalKheer
11. ParagChhenaKheer
12. ParagBesanLaddoo

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QUALITY CONTROL
Quality control is an essential and most important department for any
manufacturer. Today every organization has efficient quality control system.
Quality control is depend upon only practical (Survey Analysis and Right
Procedure).InS.D.U.S.S. Ltd. SITAPUR at reception point of milk from
different societies (Producers Villagers) Milk is collected and basic test are
carried out quickly after cleaning it is send for further processing. Finally after
pasteurization three type of milk obtain that is full cream milk, Toned
Milk,,Janta Milk.
Milk procedure out through some stages:1. ORGANO LEPTIC TEST
It passes through three stages this is the first type of testing milk.
Seeing
Smell
Testing

2. CLOT ON BOILING TEST


After testing, checking is done between good and pour milk.
Formalin test
Soda test
Urea test
Sugar test
Caustic test

These tests are based on clot on boiling test

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3. S.P.C. (Standard plate count) TEST


In this type of testing not more than 25000 Bacterias should be present in one
ml of milk.
4. CLR (Correct Lacto Meter Reading) Test
In this type of testing is done to find out quantity of water in milk.11%, 135%
should be is LATIC ACID in the milk.
5. M.B.R.T. (Methyl Blue Reduction Test)
M.B.R.T. test is done for milk pasteurization. Heating temperature should be 72
80Degree centigrade. Chilled temperature should be 5 degree below
6. S.N.F. Test (Solid not fat)
S.N.F. test is based on lactometer test.
S.N.F.=CLR/R x .2 X fat %+.29 (this formula is used for Big lactometer)
S.N.F.=CLR/4 x .2 x 5%+.50 (this formula is used for small lactometer)
AFTER STERILIZATION NUMBER OF VITAL TEST ARE EXECUTED

1. TOTAL SOLID TEST


2.ACIDITY TEST
3.SUCROSE TEST
4.TEXURE TEST
5. MILK FAD TEST
Milk fat test is used in GURBUR MACHINE and ACID.
FAT = 5 ML (Sulfuric Acid) + 10 ML Milk + 1 ML (Ethyl Alcohol)
This mixture is rotated in GURBUR MACHINE and quantity of fat in milk is
seen. The most important test i.e. phosphorous test and Methyl test Blue
reduction test.
1. Phosphorous test is user for confirm the pasteurization of milk
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2. M.B.R.T. (Methyl Blue Reduction) test is used for maintaining appropriate


quality of milk in every half in hour. It is done with full responsibility and
care so that the offered product to the consumer could be reached with
appropriate CALORIFIC VALUE.

THE MAJOR PRIVATE COMPANIES ENTERING THE DAIRY


SECTOR ARE:-

(1) Milk specialties in Punjab.


(2) Amrutha Foods & Beverages at Bhubaneshwar,Orissa.
(4) J.K. Dairy & Foods of J.K. Industries atMuradabad in U.P.
(5) Khaitan Agro in Buland-Sahar in U.P
(6) Modern dairy in Karnal, Haryana
(7) Thapar Agro in Alvar, Rajasthan
(8) Gyan Dairy atLucknow U.P
(9) Gokul Dairy atLucknow U.P.
(10) Heritage foods in Chittor , Andhra Pradesh.
(11) Dhara Dairy at Kanpur U.P. The Dairy sector now processes in compelling
competition from private quarters; in order to survive the co-operative
sector now has to undergo a phase of corporate restructuring& up gradation
of product to live up to ultimate health & hygienic conditions.

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INNOVATIONS TO BE MADE
Potential for Process Innovations
The modernization of the manufacturing process of traditional dairy products is
long overdue. But, there is no need to reinvent the wheel because some of the
food processing method savailable in the west can be usefully adapted to massproduce traditional products. Some process modifications may, however,
become necessary.

Pioneers in the field


1. In recent years, process innovations have been initiated at the National
Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and the National Dairy Research
Institute (NDRI) for theassembly-line production of burfi, dahi, kheer,
shrikhand, gulabjamun, rasagollas, mishtidoi and the like, by adapting the
Western tools and technology. The use of western products like
concentrated and dried milk powder for making chhana and khoa needs to
be adopted in modern dairy plants, as also at the halwai level.

2. An outstanding example of Western technology adaptation is the


manufacture of shrikhand on a large scale, using basket centrifuges, quarg
separators and planetary mixers, used by bakeries. Today, the volume of
shrikhand manufactured by the organized sector exceeds that of
processed cheese sold in India.

3. The most modern plant associated with the manufacture of traditional


dairy products isthe Baroda District Cooperative Milk Producers Union
Ltd. (Sugam Dairy) at Vadodarain Gujarat. It markets its products
through a large network of 150 retail outlets in the city. The Sugam Dairy
uses the traditional grocery/generalstores that have a refrigerator to
market its products. The product range includes shrikhand, gulabjamuns,
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pedas and lassiapart from flavored milks. The dairy has the highest
turnover of a single unit, marketing traditional dairy products
The Mother Dairy in Calcutta markets mishtidoianddahiin a similar
fashion.Dairies in Punjab and Haryana market paneerandkalakand (also, lately,
milk cake).
Cooperative dairies in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka alsosellmak
khan( butter), khoa, peda(a form of sweetmeat) and kulfi. Warana and
Mahanand dairies in Maharashtra are also marketing shrikhand through
their sales outlets.

Potential for more


The manufacture of khoa, using roller dryers and other scraped surface heat
exchangers,is instance of the use of the Western technology.
UF/RO technologies can also be used for the making of chhana and
concentration of milk for many indigenous dairy products.
The use of meat ball forming machines and potato fryers for manufacturing
gulabjamun on large scale is a good example of integrating modern technology
with the traditional process.
The packaging of these products can also follow a similar approach.
In Italy, Mozzarella cheese balls are being packed in whey in consumer packs.
This can be tried to market rasagollas and gulabjamuns.Chocolate and candy
packaging lines can be used to pack burfiand peda. Tetrapaks can be used to
pack lassi, basundi, kheer and sevian
An example of this technique is the process by which the Japanese manufacture
Tofu,which resembles paneer.
The modernization of this sector will also result in energy savings.While
manufacturing sweets in the traditional manner, a lot of heat energy goes
wastewhich can possibly be recovered in a modern plant. Evaporation of milk in
a karahiconsumes five times more energy than in a vacuum evaporator. Whey is
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being drained, today, from the small scale manufacture of paneer and chhena.
This causes pollution anddegradation of the environment. Most of the whey in a
modern plant can be recovered for the manufacture of lactose/lactates. Then,
India need not import some 5,000 tonnes of lactose annually. Rather, it may be
in a position to export it.
The preparation of these products by traditional methods needs to be studied
and welldocumented on a scientific basis. The technological parameters,
biochemical changes and the perishability of these products should be further
researched to develop unit processesrequired for the large scale manufacture.

Foreseeable Advantages of Process Innovation


Many ingredients used in the preparation of traditional dairy products are
adulterated. In fact, many food colors used in these products may actually be
carcinogenic. Branding of these products will lead to the use of pure ingredients
as the manufacturers would make serious efforts to protect their brand names.
The

Bureau

of

Indian

Standards

(BIS)

has

now worked out standard specifications for the quality of khoa, shrikhan,burfi,
rasagollas and gulabjamuns. This is encouraging, and the quality standards
should be specified for all other important traditional products.
Large scale manufacture of these products will also open possibilities for trying
out newer ingredients. The processed food industry in the United States has
emerged as the larges user of corn syrup solids and high fructose corn syrup.
These sweeteners add to the moisture retention properties of many foods apart
from adjusting the sweetness to a desired level. These are exciting possibilities
that can be explored to the advantage of the processors and consumers.
The production of traditional products through modern technology can ensure
utilizinglarger quantities of milk during the flush season, thus helping in
stabilizing farmer prices. The technology of recombining milk constituents can
also help in making these products available in the lean season,.and in far-off
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places. Shrikhand is being manufactured in the winter for consumption in the


summer months, reducing the pressure on limited milk supplies during the lean
period. Khoa has also been stored at low temperatures for use in the summer.
The consumer will ultimately decide how far these modifications will be
accepted. The advent of convenience foods and their increased acceptability will
further support the modernization in this sector. While some attempts have been
made to strengthen the R&D base for indigenous dairy products, very little use
of modern technologies is being seen in the market place. A focused attempt is
needed in this direction

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PART 2
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


The most important objective of the project is that it is obligatory on the part of
the student of M.B.A. Programme to undergo the convention of the business
administration in the partial fulfillment of M.B.A. degree besides, project study
is a sort of practical training of eight weeks thus the student are benefited by
undertaking such a study as it helps organization in over coming administrative,
financial, marketing and other problems what ever they may be interested in for
the sake of simplicity the objectives of this study can be classified under three
heads:

PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE
To find out the various strategies to be adapted by Parag to counter milk
sales of Amul in Lucknow .
To find various ways to increase Parag milk sales in Lucknow.
To discover the various factors which hurdles people to take Parag milk.
To identify various factors which motivates people to use Parag milk.
To discover the main reason beyond shifting of customers from Parag
milk to Amul milk.

ANCILLARY OBJECTIVE
To appraise the level of penetration of the brands of Parag.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The study is confined to finding various strategies to be adapted by Parag to
encounter Amul sales only in Lucknow.
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FIELD WORK
Interview with the distributors, retailers, and customers to ascertain brand sales,
market share, brand awareness and performance of competing brands is tried to
fill up questionnaire before the customer of all levels.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research:The study of research method provides you with the knowledge and skills you
need to solve the problem and meet the challenges of the fast- based decision.
Marketing environment we define Business Research as a systematic inquiry
whose objective is to provide information to solve managerial problem..

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:1. Market research process


2. Statement of the problem
3. Research objectives
4. Preliminary investigation
5. Focus of the study
6. Study design
7. Sampling
8.Nature of data
9. Means of data collection
10. Survey is torment
11. Process of data collection

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Marketing Research progress


Marketing research is the systemic design collection analysis and reporting of
data and funding relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company.

Marketing Research progress


Define the problem and research objective

Develop the research plan

Collect the Information

Analyze the Information

Present the findings

Make decision

Step 1: Define the problem & the research objectives


The 1 step in research is formulation a research problem. It is most important
stage as poorly defined problems will not yield useful results also the marketing
management must be careful not to define the problem to broadly or too
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narrowly. In order to identify the research problem, 3 categories of symptomatic


situations, namely, overt difficulties, latent difficulties and unnoticed
opportunities should be studied over difficulties are those which manifest them
selves. Latent difficulties are those which are not so apparent and which, if not
checked, would soon become evident unnoticed opportunities indicate the
potential for growth in a certain area of marketing. Such opportunities are not
clearly seen and done effort is required to explore them.

Step 2: Develop the research plan


Designing a research plan calls for decision on data sources, choice of research
design, research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan and contact
methods.

Step 3: Collect the information


I have collected the information over a period of 45 days and from various
locations in Meerut region.

Step 4: Analyze the information


After the process of gathering information completed I tabulated the data and
extracted the finding from the survey
.
Step 5: Present the finding
Finally findings is to be presented along with was recommendations

Step 6: Make the decision


The last step is of making the decision

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:


The present paper aims at finding the institutional consumer behavior. The
research problem investigated here in has been precisely defined as Strategies
to be adopted by Parag to counter Amul milk sales in SITAPUR.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:
To find out the various strategies to be adapted by Parag of milk Sales
Promotion in Sitapur.
To find various ways to increase the sales of Parag milk in Sitapur region.
To discover the various factors which hurdles people to take Parag milk.
To identify various factors, which motivates people to use Parag milk.
To discover the main reason for shifting of customers from Parag milk to
others.

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATON:
After getting through of the research objective I go through step of the
preliminary investigation to find out the necessary information to fill out the
objectives of the study. The information expected to be collected on the basis of
the preliminary investigation are:1. The strategy of company for competing with the other company.
2. To find variousaysto increase the sales of Parag milk in Sitapur region.
3. The main reason for shifting of customers from Parag milk to others.

FOCUS OF STUDY:
This study mainly focuses on:1. The satisfaction level of consumer and retailer. The study based on the
feedback collected from the filled questionnaire.
2. Whether the retailer and consumer satisfied with the supplied product or not.

35

3. If customer is satisfied up to what extent & if is not satisfied why, what is the
reason behind this.

Sampling:
I used Random Sampling because from finite population refer to that method of
sample selection which gives each of possible sample of combination
probability of being picked up and each item in the entire population to have an
equal chance of being included in the sample.

Sample:The data has been collected by selecting a sample size of 100 sellers and 250
consumers, and various sampling techniques has been used to collect data.
Sampling techniques which has been used in data

COLLECTION OF DATA
Secondary data has been collected from
Secondary data is what the researcher collects from different sources . It also
helps me to getelaborate information to do my research.
Books
Magazines
Internet
Company annual reports
Research papers
Govt. Publications
Past Records And Files
Journals and periodicals pertaining to different brands and segments of
milk.

36

PRIMARY DATA
The primary data have been collected with the help of a questionnaire, prepared
specially for the retailers and consumers to be administered for their responses
Questionnaire
Direct Interview.

Advantage of sampling over complete census


The main advantage of sampling technique over the complete enumeration
survey may be out line as fallow.
Less time.
Reduced the cost of survey.
Crate accuracy of the result.
Creator scope.
Both primary as well as secondary data has been used in study.

Research Design
Since the basic solution of the problem lies in the undertaking the human
behavior and processing numeric figures. Therefore the following research
design and techniques has been used to carry research.
Qualitative research.
Quantitative research.
Depth interview.
Indirect research. (used in need)

Marketing Mix:In market as there many types of products are available so it becomes difficult
for the markets to peruse the right segment market so that they can position their
product effectively to target customer. In order for this they use mix of tools of
37

marketing, which is, know as marketing mix. Marketing mix is a set of


marketing tools that the firm uses to peruse its marketing objectives in the target
market. Theses tool s can be classified broadly into four Ps of marketing:Product, Price, Place, and Promotion.

DISRIBUTUION CHANNEL
In todays economy, most producersdo not sale

goods

directly

to

final

consumer. But between them and final consumer their stand host of marketing i
ntermediaries such as Brokers, Distributors, retailers, sales agents searching of
customers and may negotiate on behalf of the producers and do not take the title
of

the

goods

these

are

what

called

middleman

A distribution channels performs the works of moving goods from the


producer toconsumers. It overcomes the line, place and increases the utility of
goods and services.

38

Collection of Milk Process InParag


TARGET MARKET
FARMERS
Village CooperativeSocieties (with Chilling Units) Village Cooperative
Societies (without Chilling Units)Local Restaurants/Others Milk Related
Business Milk Sold to Village and Local Residents Milk Processing Union&
Ware houses GDUSL Ware houses Ware houses and C & S Chilling Plants
Home Delivery Contra ctors Retailers Network Services Veterinary Services.
Animal Husbandry, Animal Feed Factory, Milk CanProducer.Agriculture
University RuralManagementInstitute.TruckingFacilities
DISRIBUTUION CHANNEL
In today s economy, most producers do not sale goods directly to final
consumer. But between them and final consumer their stand host of marketing
intermediaries such as Brokers, Distributors, retailers, sales agents searching of
customers and may negotiate on behalf of the producers and do not take the title
of the goods these are what called middleman a distribution channels performs
the works of moving goods from the producer to consumer. It overcomes the
line, place and increases the utility of goods and services.

39

40

DATA ANALYSIS
SitapurDugdhUtpadaksahakariSangh Ltd. Sitapur:(Civil Line and AwasVikas,Lalbag, Arya Nagar Shyamnath etc.)

Agents Survey Report:I Have meet with around 100 sellers of milk and found the following
information fromthe agents answer of the relevant questionnaire. These charts
are made according tothe found data during summer training on 100
questionnaires.

Product
Parag
Amul

No. of Agents
60
40
No. of Agents
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Parag

Amul

INTERPRATAION- Here I have taken sample size of agents is 100


to understand the total market share of milk brand. There for we can
see that shop parag is more than Amul only 40% shops sale the Amul
out of 100% and Parag shop is 60%.
41

Q. 2- How Much Crates you sold in a day?

Product
Parag
Amul

No. of Agents
790
748

INTERPRATAION
Sale of milk per day, of parag is 790 crates per day and sale of amul milk is 748
crates per day. Sale of Parag milk is better than Amul

42

Q.3- Are the availability of Parag milk is sufficient?


Response

Percentage

Yes

80%

No

20%

INTERPRATAIONIn my survey 80% agents satisfied with the availability of milk and 20% agents
are not satisfied the availability of the milk.

43

Q.4- Are you satisfied with product delivery time?

Response
Yes
No

Percentage
53%
47%

INTERPRATAION 53% of agents said that delivery time of product is good and47% agents said
that is bad.

44

Q.5- Margin of Sales is sufficient or not?


Response

Percentage

Yes

30%

No

70%

INTERPRATAIONMost of the agents said that margin of sale is not sufficient and few agents said
that margin of sale is sufficient

45

Q.6- Behavior of driver is?


Response

Percentage

Excellent

56%

Good

24%

Average1

2%

Bad

8%

INTERPRATAIONIn my survey 56% agents said that the behavior of driver isexcellent 24% agents
said that it is good, 12% agents said that it is average and 8% said thatis bad.

46

Q.7- Quality of Parag is


Response

Percentage

Excellent

33%

Good

46%

Average1

13%

Bad

8%

INTERPRATAIONDuring the survey 33% agents said that the quality of parag isexcellent, 46%
said good, 13% said average and only 8% said that the quality of parag is bad.

47

Q.8- Customer purchase milk because of


Factor

Percentage

Taste

23%

Quality

54%

Availability

15%

Others

8%

INTERPRATAION In my survey agents said that 23% customer purchase parag due to price, 54%
due to quality, 15% due to availability and 8% due to others reason

48

Report of Consumer
Q.1- Which Brand do you use?
Product

Percentage

Parag
Amul
Others

47%
33%
20%

ITERPRATAION:
During my survey it was observed that 47% consumers consumeParag milk,
while 33% consumers consume Amul milk and 20% consumers consume
other Milk brands including loose milk supplied by milkmen

49

Q.2. How do you know about Parag Milk?


Medium

Percentage

Advertisement

53%

Shopkeeper

32%

Others

15%

INTERPRETATION:When customers were asked that how do They came to know about Parag milk
53% of customers replied through advertisement, 32% of Customers replied
through their local shopkeepers and 15% Of customers replied by other means

50

Q.3- Quantity Consumed by you?


Quantity

Percentage

3 Litre

30%

2 Litre

45%

1+ Litre

13%

1 Litre

12%

INTERPRETATION:
I found my survey that 30% consumer consume 3 liter milk per day , 45%
consumer consume 2 liter milk per day & 13 % consumer consume 1+ liter per
daywhile only 12% consumer consume 1 liter of milk per

51

Q.4- Why do you choose a particular brand?


Reason

Percentage

Home Delivery

10%

Easy Availability

23%

Price

22%

Quality

45%

INTERPRETATION:
It was observed during survey that different person consume a particular brand
because Of many factors. 10% of consumers consume a particular Brand
of milk because of Home Delivery, while 23% of consumers Consume a
particular band of milk because of Easy availability and 22% of consumers
consume a particular brand because of Price, 45% of consumers consume a
Particular brand because of Quality of the product provided to them by
the company

52

Q.5- Why are you using Parag Milk?

Reason

Percentage

Home Delivery

5%

Easy Availability

28%

Price

16%

Quality

51%

INTERPRETATION:
When the customers using Parag milk where asked that they UseParag milk the
5% of customers replied with the answer Because of Home Delivery of the
Milk , 28% of customers replied with the answer because of Easy Availability,
while 16% of customers replied with the answer that Because ofParag Milk
price is very good and rest51% replied with that the quality of parag milk is
very good
53

Q.6- Why are you not using Parag Milk?


Reason

Percentage

Home Delivery

47%

Easy Availability

18%

Price

9%

Quality

26%

INTERPRETATION:
When customers not using Parag milk were asked reason for notusing the Parag
milk many reasons were found . 9% of the customers do not prefer
Parag because of its high price,18% of consumers do not consume Parag milk
because

of

non-availability of

the

Parag milk

at their

earnest shopkeepers, while 47% of customers do not use Parag milk because
of no home delivery service , 26% of consumers do not prefer Paragmilk
because of Low Quality of Parag milk which they found in parag as their
consideration.

54

Q.7- How do you Purchase Milk?

Medium

Percentage

Yourself

83%

Home delivery

17%

INTERPRETATION:
When customers were asked that How do they Purchase the milk than 83% of
customers with the Answer themselves and 17% of the customers responded
with the answer Home Delivery.

55

Q.8- Do you want home delivery facility?


Response

Percentage

Yes

88%

No

12%

NTERPRETATION:
When customers were asked that do they want home delivery of Parag milk,
88% of customers with the Answer yes and 12% of the customers responded
with the answer no.

56

Q.9- Do you want home delivery facility regarding extra charge?


Response

Percentage

Yes
No

75%
25%

INTERPRETATION:
When customers were asked that do they want home delivery with extra charges
of Parag milk, 75% of customers with the Answer yes and 25% of the customers
responded with the answer no.

57

Q.10- What type of Parag Milk do you used?


Type Of Milk

Percentage

Standardized

37%

Full Cream

33%

Toned Milk

20%

Loose Milk

10%

INTERPRETATION:
When customers were asked that what type of Parag milk do they use more 37%
of customers replied with standardized milk,33% answered Full Cream, Toned
Milk 20% and 10% preferred loose milk

58

Q.11- Are you change from one brand to another brand?

Response

Percentage

Yes

53%

No

47%

INTERPRETATION:
When customers were asked that were they change from one brand to another
brand, 53% of customers with the Answer yes and 47% of the customers
responded with the answer no

59

Q.12- Overall Experience with Parag?


Response

Percentage

Excellent

10%

Good

61%

Fair

22%

Poor

7%

INTERPRETATION:
When customers were asked that what is the overall experience with Parag then,
10% of customers replied with the Answer excellent, 61% customers replied
good, 22% customers replied fair and 7% of the customers responded with the
answer poor.

60

FINDINGS
There are many competitors in Sitapurlike Amul, Mother Dairy, Paras and
private milk product. Among all these Amulisthe strongest Competitors in the
field of butter while Anik and PARAG sell ghee but in The field of packed milk
PARAG is leading brand. If brands like Amul, Mother Dairy, Aras are not taken
seriously definitely after few span of Time they can take much share
of PARAG. So PARAG should take seriously this matter. The supply of private
milk product is not constant
FINDING OF RETAILER SURVEY
Amul is offering more incentives than Parag.
Amul has started to offer chilling equipments.
Most of the retailers associate themselves with Parag milk.
Parag products are sold more than others.
Retailer if provided more cooling equipment promises to stock more
Parag products.
Retailers have problem of advertising material, schemes related material
of Parag.
Retailers are more interested in products of those companies, which
offers moremargins to them.

FINDINGS OF ADVERTISEMENT
Mainly Parag inSitapur is not making advertisement through.
Media of advertise.
Stickers, Bunting, dangles
Dealers brand.
Hoarding.
61

Glow sign.
Poster
Television Advertising
Newspaper and magazines
Wall painting.

FINDING S OF PRICE
Price is charged same as is charged by Amul, and rates are almost same
everywhere except in cinema Halls, Restaurants, Railway stations and hostels
where products are sold at higher price. Price ranges from Rs.12.50 per liter
& Rs.25 per literate Most of them vanish in the summers. But PARAG and
Mother Dairy can compete future.

62

LIMITION OF STUDY AND DIFFCULTIES ENCOUNTERED


Nothing in this universe is free from Limitations and present project
is not an Acceptation to it. Due to certain restrictions on the part of
potential customers as well as actual customers and Suppressed and
based responses from them,appropriate Figure for relevant data and
their interpretation Precisely this has been my personal experience
while Carrying out the present study. Some of the limitations I found
and difficulties encountered can be enumerated as under: Annual
reports and journals in the company was not readily available. Due to
time and budgetary constraint, the sample size was restricted. The
salesmen at the outlets showed their discontent with the tight
schedule. Most of the retail respondents showed their discontent with
the company for its unsystematic distribution, replacement, short
supply, incentives margin and so they were reluctant total about the
company.
People of the region were not conscious about the survey, so
they were not much supportive.
Near about 30% population of the city takes the service of
servants to bring their milk from market and reason for their
brand selection was not known.
Parag should change the packing of as it is not attractive and do
not seems to be standard and hygienic.
Parag should make 24hour availability of milk In the market in
order to improve their Sales.
63

Parag should offer home delivery services to Increase sales


Parag milk should be kept available at every shop.
Parag should offer refrigerators On installments to retailers.
Parag should give emphasis on Punctuality and regularity in the
Supply of milk.
Parag offer promotional schemes to retailers as is done by Amul.
Parag should offer some extra benefit to his customer and
supplier.
Parag should provide chilling equipments to their retailers at
low cost for storing their products.
Parag should give emphasis on Punctuality and regularity in the
Supply of milk.
Parag offer promotional schemes to retailers as free sample, gift
packs etc.
The organization should proper arrangement of milk at the time
of festivals etc.
Parag should provide home delivery facility to their consumers.
Parag should launch some new products also.
Parag should emphasize on provide better quality than others
instead of increasing the sale.
Parag should increase the number of retail shops, where the
retail shops of parag is not available.
Parag should emphasize on advertisement also

64

SUGGESTION &RECOMMENDATION
Parag should change the packing of as it is not attractive and do not
seems to be standard and hygienic.
Parag should make 24hour availability of milk In the market in order to
improve their Sales.
Parag should offer home delivery services to Increase sales
Parag milk should be kept available at every shop.
Parag should offer refrigerators On installments to retailers.
Parag should give emphasis on Punctuality and regularity in the Supply
of milk.
Parag offer promotional schemes to retailers as is done by Amul.
Parag should offer some extra benefit to his customer and supplier.
Parag should provide chilling equipments to their retailers at low cost for
storing their products.
Parag should give emphasis on Punctuality and regularity in the Supply
of milk.
Parag offer promotional schemes to retailers as free sample, gift packs
etc.
The organization should proper arrangement of milk at the time of
festivals etc.
Parag should provide home delivery facility to their consumers.
Parag should launch some new products also.
Parag should emphasize on provide better quality than others instead of
increasing the sale.
65

Parag should increase the number of retail shops, where the retail shops
of parag is not available.
Parag should emphasize on advertisement also

66

CONCLUSION
After detailed survey of Market I have reached to the following
conclusions: -No doubt PARAG holds a Market share of 85% in
case of milk in Sitapur. But at the same time
PARAG should not forget that AMUL is very old company and
has created an image of trust and faith in the minds of people,
and

in

the

near

future

there

could

very

strong

competition between the two companies, keeping that in view I


suggest PARAG to adopt following strategies to encounter
AMUL sales:
Parag has to maintain quality of the milk and try to improve it.
The organization has to work in such a way so as to reduce the
cost of milk which in turn will result in reduction in price.
Price should be reduced at least one rupee as compared to Amul.
The packing of the product should be more attractive as
compared to Amul, because during survey it was observed that
packing attracts many customers.
The milk should be available for 24 hours.
Parag should give their retailers refrigerators on installments for
which many of the retailers are ready to pay; many of retailers
are not keeping refrigerators because of unavailability of
refrigerators.
67

Possible to ensure 24hour milk availability in market, which not


found in moat cases.
Steps should be taken to ensure 24hour availability of milk.
At many locations there is unavailability of milk, retailers
should be motivated to work with parag
.Amul is using more advertising measures than parag; parag
should also make use of advertisement.
Amul is offering verity of milk like tone milk, pasteurized milk,
milk powder and many.
Other, parag should also offer more verities.
The poly bags used by parag are less attractive and many written
things are in visible as many customers complained that the poly
bags used by parag seems substandard, unsecured and
unhygienic. Therefore parag should mostly change packaging of
milk.

68

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCESBOOK REFERRED
1: Collis J & Hussey R, Business Research (Palgrave,2003)
2:Beri G C -Marketing Research (Tata McGraw-Hill ), 1993,2ndEdition
3 : Philip Kotler Marketing Management ( Pearson Edition ), 12th Edition
4 : Kothari C R Research Methodology (New Luck now, Vikas Publication
House) 11thEdition
NEWS PAPER
(1)The Hindu
(2) Times of India
(3) Dianek Jag ran
(4) Business Standard
WEBSITE
www.indiandairy.com
www.amulindia.com
www.indiainfoline.com
www.webindia123.com

69

CONSUMAR CONTACT DESCRIPTION

PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS ASKED IN THE QUESTIONAAIRE


ANDSEEK FOR HELP IF ANY THING IS NOT CLEAR OR UNDERSTOOD
TO YOU.
NAME OF CUSTOMER:.
OCCUPATION: ______________________________________
ADDRESS: ______________________________________
MOBILE NUMBER: ______________________________________
No. OF FAMILY MEMBERS :
1 to 3( )
3 to 5 (

More than 5 ( )
MONTHLY INCOME:
BELOW 5000 ()
15000 to 20,000, ( )
20,000 to 50,000, ( )
MORE THAN 50,000 ( )
Q.no.1: Which brand of milk do you use?
(a) Parag ( )
(b) Amul ( )
(c) Otheres ( )
Q.no.2: How do you know about Paragmilk ?
(a) Advertisement ( )
(b) Shopkeeper ( )
(c) Others ( )

70

Q.no.3: Quantity used by you (In liter) ?


(a) 3 liters ( )
(b) 2 liters ( )
(c) 1+ liters ( )
(d) 1 liter ( )
Qno.4: Reason to choose a particular brand ?
(a) Home Delivery ( )
(b) Eaisly Available ()
(c) Quality ( )
Q.no.5: Reason for using Parag ?
(a) Quality ( )
(b) Price ( )
(c) Availability ( )
Q.no.6: Reason for not using Parag ?
(a) High Price ( )
(b) Non Availability ( )
(c) Not regular supply ( )
(d) Bad Taste ( )
Q.no .7: How do you purchase milk ?
(a)Yourself ( )
(b)Home Delivery ( )
Q.no.8: Response of customer about door delivery?
(a) Yes ( )
(b) No ( )
Q.no.9: Response of you regarding extra charges to door delivery ?
(a) Yes ( )
(b) No ( )

71

Q.no. 10: What type of parag milk do you use?


(a)Standradized( )
(b) Full cream ( )
(c)Toned milk( )
(d) Loose Milk ( )
Q.no.11: Change from one brand to another brand
a) Yes ( )
b) No ( )
Q.no.12: Over all experience with Paraga)
(a) Excellence ( )
b) Good ( )
(c) Fair ( )
(d) Poor ( )
Q.no.13: Your suggestion with respect to Parag milk product?

72

RETAILAR SURVEY FORM


NAME OF THA SHOP
ADDRESS
sTEL.NO
Q.no.1: What are the milks you usually keep in your shop?
(a)Parag (_)
(b)Amul (_)
(c)Mother Dairy (_)
(d)Others (_)
Q.no.2: Rate these milks in terms of volume of sales from 1 to 4.
(a)Parag (_)
(b)Amul (_)
(c)Mother Dairy (_)
(d)Others (_)
Q.no.3: Does packing play any role in promoting sales?
(a)Yes
(b)No
Q.no.4: How you sold the milk?
(a)At M.R.P.
(b)Less Then M.R.P.
(c)MoreTthen M.R.P.
Q.no.5: How would you compare the services of Parag and Amul on
the following?(Rank 1 to 4)
ParagAmul
REQUENCY OF VISIT AT SELES PERSONAL....
TIMELY DELIVERY
DISPLAY SUPPORT.
ANY OTHER.
Q.no.6: Customer purchase milk because of
(a)Price
(b)Quality
(c)Availability
(d)Others

73

Q.no.7: Behavior of Driver


(a)GOOD
(b) Excellent
(c) Bad
(d) Average
Q.no.8: Quality of Parag
(a) Good
(b) Excellent
(c) Bad
(d) Average
Q.no.9: Product delivery time
(a) Good
(b) Bad
Q.no.10: Agent originally belongs to
(a) Parag
(b) Amul
Q.no.11: Margin on sales
(a) Yes

74