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Tokoh Teori Sosial Kognitif

Albert Bandura

Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925, in Mundare, Alberta, Canada) is a


psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in
Psychology at Stanford University. Over almost six decades, he has been
responsible for contributions to many fields of psychology, including social
cognitive theory, therapy and personality psychology, and was also influential in
the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. He is known as the
originator of social learning theory and the theory of self-efficacy, and is also
responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment.
A 2002 survey ranked Bandura as the fourth most-frequently cited
psychologist of all time, behind B. F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Jean Piaget,
and as the most cited living one. Bandura is widely described as the greatest
living psychologist, and as one of the most influential psychologists of all time. In
2008 Bandura won the Grawemeyer Award in psychology.
The initial phase of Bandura's research analyzed the foundations of human
learning and the willingness of children and adults to imitate behavior observed
in others, in particular, aggression. He found that according to Social Learning
theory, models are an important source for learning new behaviors and for
achieving behavioral change in institutionalized settings. Social learning theory
posits that there are three regulatory systems that control behavior. First, the
antecedent inducements greatly influence the time and response of behavior.
The stimulus that occurs before the behavioral response must be appropriate in
relationship to social context and performers. Second, response feedback
influences also serve an important function. Following a response, the
reinforcements, by experience or observation, will greatly impact the occurrence
of the behavior in the future. Third, the importance of cognitive functions in
social learning. For example, for aggressive behavior to occur some people
become easily angered by the sight or thought of individuals with whom they
have had hostile encounters, and this memory is acquired through the learning
process.By the mid-1980s, Bandura's research had taken a more holistic bent,
and his analyses tended towards giving a more comprehensive overview of

human cognition in the context of social learning. The theory he expanded from
social learning theory soon became known as social cognitive theory.
Pengenalan

What is Social Learning Theory?


The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become
perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in
many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that
direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. Social learning
theory is a perspective that states that people learn within a social context. It is
facilitated through concepts such as modeling and observational learning.
His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new
information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational
learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety
of behaviors.

"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people


had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do.
Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling:
from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed,
and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action."

Theory
According to Social Learning theory, models are an important source for learning
new behaviors and for achieving behavioral change in institutionalized settings.
Social learning theory is derived from the work of Albert Bandura which proposed
that observational learning can occur in relation to three models: Three core
concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can
learn through observation. Next is the idea that internal mental states are an
essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because
something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in
behavior.
Let's explore each of these concepts in greater depth.

Live model in which an actual person is demonstrating the desired behaviour


Verbal instruction in which an individual describes the desired behaviour in
detail, and instructs the participant in how to engage in the behavior
Symbolic in which modeling occurs by means of the media, including movies,
television, Internet, literature, and radio. This type of modeling involves a real or
fictional character demonstrating the behaviour.

An important factor of Banduras social learning theory is the emphasis on


reciprocal determinism. This notion states that an individuals behaviour is
influenced by the environment and characteristics of the person. In other words,
a persons behaviour, environment, and personal qualities all reciprocally
influence each other. Bandura proposed that the modeling process involves
several steps:
1. Attention in order for an individual to learn something, they must pay
attention to the features of the modeled behaviour. In order to learn, you need to
be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a

negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a


novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full
attention to learning.
2. Retention humans need to be able to remember details of the behaviour in
order to learn and later reproduce the behaviour. The ability to store information
is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a
number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital
to observational learning.
3. Reproduction in reproducing a behavior, an individual must organize his or
her responses in accordance with the model behavior. This ability can improve
with practice. Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the
information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further
practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.
4. Motivation there must be an incentive or motivation driving the individuals
reproduction of the behaviour. Even if all of the above factors are present, the
person will not engage in the behaviour without motivation. Finally, in order for
observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the
behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an
important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly
effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or
punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit
for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each
day.
In addition to influencing other psychologists, Bandura's social learning
theory has had important implication in the field of eduction. Today, both
teachers and parents recognize the importance of modeling appropriate
behaviors. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building
self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory.
Bandura is known for his 1961-1963 experiments utilizing an inflatable clown
known as a Bobo doll in order to test modeling behaviours in children. Children
were divided into three groups one of which was exposed to an aggressive
adult model, one which was exposed to a passive adult model, and a control
group, which was not exposed to an adult model. Adults in the aggressive group
were asked to verbally and physically attack the doll, while those in the passive

group were asked to play peacefully. Once the children were given the
opportunity to play, results showed that those exposed to the aggressive model
were more likely to imitate what they had seen, and to behave aggressively
toward the doll. It was found that boys were four times more likely than girls to
display physical aggression, but levels of verbal aggression were about the
same. The results of Banduras studies provided support for the influence of
modeling on learning. Further, a later study in 1965 showed that witnessing the
model being punished for the aggressive behavior decreased the likelihood that
children would imitate the behaviour.
Julian Rotter moved away from theories based on psychosis and behaviourism,
and

developed

learning

theory.

In

Social

Learning

and

Clinical

Psychology(1954), Rotter suggests that the effect of behaviour has an impact on


the motivation of people to engage in that specific behaviour. People wish to
avoid negative consequences, while desiring positive results or effects. If one
expects a positive outcome from a behaviour, or thinks there is a high probability
of a positive outcome, then they will be more likely to engage in that behaviour.
The behavior is reinforced, with positive outcomes, leading a person to repeat
the behaviour. This social learning theory suggests that behaviour is influenced
by these environmental factors or stimuli, and not psychological factors alone.
Albert Bandura expanded on Rotter's idea, as well as earlier work by Miller &
Dollard, and is related to social learning theories of Vygotsky and Lave. This
theory incorporates aspects of behavioral and cognitive learning. Behavioural
learning assumes that people's environment (surroundings) cause people to
behave in certain ways. Cognitive learning presumes that psychological factors
are important for influencing how one behaves. Social learning suggests that a
combination of environmental (social) and psychological factors influence
behaviour. Social learning theory outlines three requirements for people to learn
and model behaviour including attention: retention (remembering what one
observed),

reproduction

(ability

to

reproduce

motivation(good reason) to want to adopt the behaviour.

Applications

the

behaviour),

and

The applications of social learning theory have been important in the history of
education policies in the United States. The zone of proximal development is
used as a basis for early intervention programs such as Head Start. Social
learning theory can also be seen in the TV and movie rating system that is used
in the United States. The rating system is designed to let all parents know what
the programs that their children are watching contain. The ratings are based on
age appropriate material to help parents decide if certain content is appropriate
for their child to watch. Some content may be harmful to children who do not
have the cognitive ability to process certain content, however the child may
model the behaviors seen on TV.
Locus of control is an important consideration when helping students in higher
education environments perform better academically. Cassandra B. Whyte
indicated in the 1970s and 1980s that by encouraging students to accept
personal

responsibility

for

their

educational

outcomes,

better

academic

performance will usually be forthcoming if ability levels are present. More


frequent successful academic performance will result as thoughts and belief in
the need for personal effort toward the academic task is rewarded. As successful
experiences increase in frequency, the student usually incorporates the
confidence that hard work often can be rewarded with positive academic
outcomes.
Guided participation is seen in schools across the United States and all around
the world in language classes when the teacher says a phrase and asks the class
to repeat the phrase. An extension of guided participation is reciprocal learning
in which both student and teacher share responsibility in leading discussions.
The other part to guided participation is when the student goes home and
practices on their own. Guided participation is also seen with parents who are
trying to teach their own children how to speak.
Scaffolding is another technique that is used widely across the United States.
[citation needed] Most academic subjects take advantage of scaffolding,
however mathematics is one of the best examples. As students move through
their education they learn skills in mathematics that they will build on throughout
their scholastic careers. A student who has never taken a basic math class and
does not understand the principles of addition and subtraction will not be able to
understand algebra. The process of learning math is a scaffolding technique
because the knowledge builds on itself over time.

Another important application of social learning theory has been in the treatment
and conceptualization of anxiety disorders. The classical conditioning approach
to anxiety disorder, which spurred the development of behavioral therapy and is
considered by some to be the first modern theory of anxiety, began to lose
steam in the late 1970s as researchers began to question its underlying
assumptions. For example, the classical conditioning approach holds that
pathological fear and anxiety are developed through direct learning; however,
many people with anxiety disorders cannot recall a traumatic conditioning event,
in which the feared stimulus was experienced in close temporal and spatial
contiguity with an intrinsically aversive stimulus. Social learning theory helped
salvage learning approaches to anxiety disorders by providing additional
mechanisms beyond classical conditioning that could account for the acquisition
of fear. For example, social learning theory suggests that a child could acquire a
fear of snakes, for example, by observing a family remember express fear in
response to snakes. Alternatively, the child could learn the associations between
snakes and unpleasant bites through direct experience, without developing
excessive fear, but could later learn from others that snakes can have deadly
venom, leading to a re-evaluation of the dangerousness of snake bites, and
accordingly, a more exaggerated fear response to snakes.
Kesimpulan
Banduras Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one
another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been
called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it
encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.People learn through observing
others behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. Most human
behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others,
one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions
this coded information serves as a guide for action. (Bandura). Social learning
theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction
between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Bandura believed
in reciprocal determinism, that is, the world and a persons behavior cause
each other, while behaviorism essentially states that ones environment causes
ones behavior, Bandura, who was studying adolescent aggression, found this too
simplistic, and so in addition he suggested that behavior causes environment as
well. Later, Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three

components: the environment, behavior, and ones psychological processes


(ones ability to entertain images in minds and language). Social learning theory
has sometimes been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning
theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. The theory
is related to Vygotskys Social Development Theoryand Laves Situated Learning,
which also emphasize the importance of social learning.
Strength and weakness , One interesting point brought up by Bee (1992) is
that this kind of theory can easily handle inconsistencies in the childs behaviour
(reinforced at school, not at home = well-behaved at school, not at home). This
view of behaviour is extremely optimistic: it suggests that given the right
environment, any behaviour can be changed: you would never write anyone off if
you agreed with this theory. Another strength is that it gives an accurate picture
of the way behaviours are learned: clearly, children (and adults) do copy others
behaviours behaviour. A further strength is the cognitive element of Banduras
theory because it might offer a way to eventually integrate the learning theory
and cognitive development approaches. What are its weaknesses? Too much
emphasis placed on what happens to the child rather than what the child does
with the information s/he has. Secondly, such theories do not take into account
the actual development changes (physical and mental) that occur as the child
matures.
Rujukan
Bandura, A. & Walters, R. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt,
Rinehart & Winston.
Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of Behavior Modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.