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Part II

Magnetostatic
Cont.
Set 9 d (Last)
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors
And
Inductances
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors And Inductances


A circuit (or closed conducting path) carrying
current
produces a magnetic field
which
causes
a flux

This flux passes through


each turn of the circuit as
shown
If the circuit has identical turns, we define the
flux linkage as
. Also, the flux linkage
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors And Inductances


is proportional to the current producing it, so
or
where
is a constant of proportionality called
the Inductance of the circuit.
A circuit or part of a circuit that has inductance
is called an Inductor.
So, we can define inductance
of an inductor
as the ratio:
Henry (
)
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors And Inductances


This last eqn. is commonly referred to as selfinductance since the linkages are produced by
the inductor itself.
Inductance can be regarded as a measure of
how much magnetic energy is stored in an
inductor.
The magnetic energy (in Joules) stored in an
inductor is expressed in circuit theory as:

or
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors And Inductances


If we have two circuits carrying current
as shown
a magnetic
interaction exists
between the two
circuits
Four component fluxes are produced:

For example
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

and

, is the flux passing through


Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &
Devices

Inductors And Inductances


circuit 1 due to current
in circuit 2.
Now, we define the Mutual Inductance
as
the ratio of the flux linkage on circuit 1 to
current , that is:

The mutual inductance

is defined as:
Note

Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors And Inductances


If the medium surrounding the circuits is linear
(i.e., NO ferromagnetic material):
Henry ( )
The mutual inductance should not be confused
with the magnetization vector expressed in
Amperes/meter.
In this case of two mutual inductors, we define
the self-inductance of circuits 1 and 2,
respectively, as:
and
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors And Inductances

where
and
The total energy in the magnetic field is the
sum of the energies due to
,
is:

Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

Inductors And Inductances


The positive sign is taken if currents and
flow so to strengthen the fields of each other.
If the currents flow such that their magnetic
fields oppose each other, the negative sign is
taken.
Typical examples of inductors are toroids,
solenoids,
coaxial
and
parallel-wire
transmission lines.
The self-inductance
can be found by the
following steps
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

10

Inductors And Inductances


1. Choose a suitable coordinate system.
2. Let the inductor carry current
.
3. Determine
from Biot-Savart's law (or from
Ampere's law if symmetry exists) and calculate
from:

4. Finally find

Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

from:
Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &
Devices

11

Inductors And Inductances


The mutual inductance between two circuits is
calculated by taking a similar procedure.
Note that, the total energy stored in a
magnetostatic field in a linear medium is:

Which is similar to that for an electrostatic field:

Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

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Example Applications
Coaxial Cable Inductance:
Applying the eqn.

to that derived in

the previous chapter for the total flux for a


length and
:
So, the inductance is

Or on a per meter basis (unit length)


Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

13

Example Applications
Toroidal Coil Inductance: The total flux for N turns
and a current is:
where is the
cross section area.
Now, multiplying the total flux by , we get the
flux linkage, then dividing by , we get:
The inductance
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

14

You have learned


That the inductance of a structure is proportional
to the flux linkage .
That the flux linkage is proportional not only to
the number of turns ( ) generating the flux but
also to the number of turns intercepting this flux.
That the self inductance of a coil is proportional
to
.
How to calculate the inductance per unit length
of various transmission lines.
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

15

Some Suggested Problems


Some Suggested Problems (Text Book Ch. 9)
Solve the following problems:
9. 36, 9.37, 9.38, 9.41

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Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

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End of Set 9 d

End of Course
Wish you the best in your
final exams
Dr. Zuhair M. Hejaz

Set 9d Magnetic Forces, Materials &


Devices

17