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he Nematocera are recognized by their elongated bodies and feathery antennae as

represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera have a more roundly pr
oportioned body and much shorter antennae. In 1964, Boris Borisovitsch Rohdendor
f proposed a classification in which the Nematocera is split into two suborders,
the Archidiptera and the Eudiptera.[13]
Suborder Nematocera (77 families, 35 of them extinct)
long antennae, pronotum di
stinct from mesonotum, in Nematocera, larvae are either eucephalic or hemicephal
ic and often aquatic.
Suborder Brachycera (141 families, 8 of them extinct) short antennae, the pupa i
s inside a puparium formed from the last larval skin, they are generally robust
flies with larvae having reduced mouthparts.
Infraorders Tabanomorpha and Asilomorpha these comprise the majority of what was
the Orthorrhapha under older classification schemes. The antennae are short, bu
t differ in structure from those of the Muscomorpha.
Infraorder Muscomorpha (largely the Cyclorrhapha of older schemes). Muscomorpha
have three-segmented, aristate (with a bristle) antennae and larvae with three a
cephalic instars (maggots).
Most of the Muscomorpha are further subdivided into the subsections Acalyptratae
and Calyptratae based on whether or not they have a calypter (a wing flap that
extends over the halteres). The family Muscidae, that includes the house fly, is
among the Calyptratae.
Beyond that, considerable revision in the taxonomy of the flies has taken place
since the introduction of modern cladistic techniques, and much remains uncertai
n. The secondary ranks between the suborders and the families are out of practic
al or historical considerations than out of strict respect for phylogenetic clas
sifications (modern cladists reject the use of Linnaean rank names). All classif
ications in use now, including this article, contain some paraphyletic groupings
; this is emphasized where the numerous alternative systems are most greatly at
odds. See list of families of Diptera.
Dipterans belong to the taxon Mecopterida, that also contains Mecoptera, Siphona
ptera, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and Trichoptera. Inside it, they are
classified closely together with Mecoptera and Siphonaptera in the superorder An
tliophora.[14]
Evolution[edit]
Diptera derive from Mecoptera or a strictly related group. The first true dipter
ans known are from the Middle Triassic (around 240 million years ago), and they
became widespread during the Middle and Late Triassic.[15]
The basal clades in the Diptera are the Deuterophlebiidae and Nymphomyiidae.[16]
The Bibionomorpha are a sister clade to Brachycera. The branching order of the
remaining clades of the lower Diptera - infraorders Culicomorpha, Psychodomorpha
and Tipulomorpha - has yet to be resolved.
Within the Brachycera, several progressively nested groups exist: Eremoneura (th
ree larval instars), Cyclorrhapha (pupation occurs within a puparium), Schizopho
ra (flies that escape from their puparium using the ptilinal sac, an evertable f
rontal pouch) and Calyptratae (larger flies with wings that have the calypter, a
n enlarged basal lobe).
The Schizophora include most of the family-level diversity in Diptera (~85 famil
ies) and more than 50,000 species. The Calyptratae form a monophyletic superfami
ly. Other monophyletic superfamilies include the Ephydroidea, Lauxanioidea, Neri
oidea, Sciomyzoidea and Tephritoidea. The relationships between the remaining fa
milies have yet to be clarified.
Sister groups to the Drosophilidae consist of two families, Braulidae and Crypto
chetidae.

There were three episodes of rapid evolution