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Pursing frontiers of Knowledge


ICT 481 Project Management
Lecture 13


What is change management

Why change management
Phases of change
Reactions to change
How to minimize resistance to

Common Responses to change

Do Nothing.
If You Do Not Change You Become Extinct.
Ignore the situation.
change will slam into you and knock you off balance.
Get angry
wont make it go away- in fact, temper typically makes things
Wish it away
Wishing is a waste of time, too, so dont sit around thinking and
talking about the good old days with the hope theyll return.
Run away
You cant even run away from it, because theres no place you
can run thats beyond the range of change.
Get involved
Join a Community Of Practice

Better response to change

Monitor Change
See how you can help and fit in. Look for areas
you can use your strength.
Become part of the solution.
Noticing Small Changes Early Helps You Adapt To
The Bigger Changes That Are To Come.
Review the web site when you can.
Stay informed.
Adapt To Change Quickly.
Movement In A New Direction this will Help You
Find New opportunities.
Try not to do the same old thing over and over, you
will get the same results.

What is Change
The process responsible for controlling
the lifecycle of all changes (strategic,
operational) in any environment

What is Change

process, tools and techniques

to manage the people-side of
change to achieve the required
business outcome(s)

Goal of Change

The goal of change management is:

to ensure that standardized
methods and procedures are used
for efficient and prompt handling of
to minimize the impact of
change-related incidents upon service
quality and, consequently, improve
the day-to-day operations of the

Types of changes

Business process design

Technology/system upgrades
Expansion or downsizing
Business model changes/new
New marketing campaigns
Job redesign
Changes that impact suppliers
Changes that impact customers

Reasons for business change

Business survival time, often, a key
factor here.
Improved efficiency and provision of
better information based on systems.
Competitive advantage through use
of innovation.
External factors key is involvement
of all stakeholders.

Why change management

Increase probability of project
Manage employee resistance to
Build change competency onto

Why change management

Avoid project failures

Minimize productivity loss
Lessen turnover of valued employees
Avoid delayed implementation or
Reduce disruption to customers and
business revenue

Benefits of Change Management

Reduces Process Inconsistencies
Strengthens Communication & Visibility of
Changes within Environment
Focuses on Business Needs & Impact
Reduces the Number of Failed Changes and
Facilitates Delivery and Planning of Prompt
Assesses Risks- quality, time, cost, etc
Enables Prioritization of Change Proposals

Key issues for managing


Plan the change programme in the

same way as you handle a project.
Consider impact of change on users.
Phase introduction of change.
Involve users in planning and

Time and change matrix

The phases of change

Change management is not:


the technical side of

Just communication plans

Causes of resistance
1. Not aware of the
1. Loss of power and
business need for
2. Overloaded with
2. Lay-offs were
announced or feared
3. Unsure if they had
the skills needed for
3. Lacked awareness
success in the future
of the need for
4. Comfort with the
current state
4. Lacked the
5. Believed they were
required skills
being asked to do
5. Fear, uncertainty
more with less, or do
and doubt
more for the same
Can mere
communications address these?

Three Phases of Change: How

people experience change


on State


Current State
Employees (including management and
executives!) generally prefer the current state,
because that is where they live


on State


better the devil you know is better than the devil

you dont

Future State
The future state is unknown to the employee; will
it be better, or worse?
This is where Project teams live


on State


Transition State
The transition state creates stress and anxiety


on State


Key points
Effective change management
MUST be focused on helping
individuals change

Individual change is a

Successful change addresses both the

technical and the people side
Solution is designed,
and delivered
(Technical side)

Solution is
adopted and
utilized effectively
(People side)

Individual PEOPLE change, NOT organizations

Change management requires a

system of doers

Each gear plays

a specific role
based on how
they are related to

Change management roles


Ideal implementation

Change mgmt

I develop the change management strategy and

plans. I am an integral part of project success.

Executives and senior


I launch (authorize and fund) changes.

I sponsor change.

Middle managers and

front-line supervisors

I coach my direct reports through the changes that

impact their day-to-day work.

Project team

I manage the technical side of the change. I integrate

change management into my project plans.

Project support

I support different activities of the change

management team and project team.

* Change
management group,
dept or office

We own the change management methodology and

support its implementation in the organization.

Current common reality that

we need to move beyond

Common implementation

Change mgmt

I feel like Im on an island here people expect me

to do everything and have all the answers.

Executives and senior


I gave you funding and signed the charter now go

make it happen!

Middle managers and

front-line supervisors

I feel like Im the direct target for some of these

changes, and I wish I knew what was going on.

Project team

My focus is just the technical side. Once I flip the

switch, Im moving on to the next project.

Project support functions

I get called in on projects and given one little task,

but Im not sure how I fit in to the overall picture.

* Change management
group, dept or office

I dont even exist yet.

Mapping change management roles

1. Apply methodology
2. Formulate strategy
3. Develop plans
4. Support other doers
1. Authorize and fund
2. Participate actively
and visibly
3. Create coalition
4. Communicate

1. Design the change

2. Manage technical side
3. Engage with CM
4. Integrate CM

1. Communicator
2. Advocate
3. Coach
4. Liaison
5. Resistance manager

1. Experience
2. Knowledge
3. Tools
4. Expertise

Peoples Reaction to Change

Several authors described peoples
behaviour and reaction to change.
Murphy, in a contemporary model,
suggests that there are four predictable
stages that people pass through when
exposed to any change:
exploration, and

Peoples Reaction to Change

There are predictable behaviors
associated with each of these stages,
and the most effective change agents
study these behaviors and are able to
respond appropriately to get their
team committed and back on track
toward the goals.
It is critical that the change agent
consciously and constructively deals
with the human emotions associated
with all phases of planned change.

Driving and restraining forces

People maintain a state of status quo or
equilibrium by the simultaneous occurrence of
both driving and restraining forces operating
within any field.
The forces that push the system toward the
change are driving forces,
Whereas the forces that pull the system
away from the change are called restraining
For change to occur, the balance of driving
and restraining forces must be altered. The
driving forces must be increased or the
restraining forces decreased.

Driving and restraining forces

To know the type and strength of each group
of forces, leaders need to make a thorough
and accurate analysis of the fields in which
they operate. This analysis is called Force
Field Analysis.
An example of driving forces for
organizational change may include:
a desire to please ones boss,
to eliminate a problem that is undermining
to get a pay raise,
to receive recognition.

Driving and restraining forces

Restraining forces include:
fear of the unknown.
conformity to norms.
unwillingness to take risk,

Model of Force Field Analysis

Driving Forces

Please boss
Eliminate problems

Restraining forces

Fear of the

Unwilling to take


Get pay raise


Receive recognition

Conformity to

Driving and restraining forces

Numerous factors affect successful
implementation of planned change. Many
good ideas are never realized because of:
Poor planning skills
poor timing or
Non gradual implementation of change
a lack of power on the part of the change agent.
Poor communication and problem solving skills,
lack of participation of those involved in the
change process
Lack of adequate availability of the required
human, non human and technical resourcesetc

Resistance: The Expected Response to Change

Because change disrupts the

homeostasis or balance of the group,
resistance should always be expected.
The level of resistance generally
depends on the type of change
Technological changes encounter less
resistance than changes that are

Resistance: The Expected Response to Change

It also is much easier to change a

persons behavior than it is to change
an entire groups behavior
Likewise, it is easier to change
knowledge levels than attitudes.
In an effort to eliminate resistance to
change managers historically used:
an autocratic leadership style,
an excessive number of rules, and
a coercive approach to discipline.

Resistance: The Expected Response to Change

The resistance, which occurred anyway, was
1. covert (such as delaying tactics or passiveaggressive behavior) and
2. overt (openly refusing to follow a direct
. This resulted in wasted managerial energy
and time, Low productivity and a high level of
. Today, resistance is recognized as a
natural and expected response to

How to minimize resistance to Change

Instead of wasting time and energy

trying to eliminate opposition,
contemporary leaders now identify and
implement strategies
to minimize or manage this resistance
to change.
One such strategy is to encourage
subordinates to:
1. Speak openly so options can be
identified to overcome objections.
2. Talk about their perceptions of the
forces driving the planned change so

How to minimize resistance to Change

3. Whenever possible, all those who may be
affected by a change should be involved in
planning for that change (participative or
collaborative planned change).
4. Perhaps one of the greatest factors
contributing to the resistance encountered
with change is a lack of trust between the
employee and the manager or the employee
and the organization. Workers want security
and predictability. Thats why trust is eroded
when the ground rules change. Subordinates
always fear how change will affect their
personal lives and status.

How to minimize resistance to Change

leaders should clearly communicate with
the rest of the organization the goals and
progression of the change process.
ensure that group members share
perceptions about what change is to be
undertaken, who is to be involved and in
what role, and how the change will directly
and indirectly affect each person in the
Involve them in the change process so they
feel they played a valuable role and work for
its success.