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MULUNGUSHI UNIVERSITY

Pursing frontiers of Knowledge

CENTRE FOR ICT EDUCATION


ICT 481 Project Management
Lecture 13

Contents

What is change management


Why change management
Phases of change
Reactions to change
How to minimize resistance to
change

Common Responses to change


Do Nothing.
If You Do Not Change You Become Extinct.
Ignore the situation.
change will slam into you and knock you off balance.
Get angry
wont make it go away- in fact, temper typically makes things
worse.
Wish it away
Wishing is a waste of time, too, so dont sit around thinking and
talking about the good old days with the hope theyll return.
Run away
You cant even run away from it, because theres no place you
can run thats beyond the range of change.
Get involved
Join a Community Of Practice

Better response to change


Monitor Change
See how you can help and fit in. Look for areas
you can use your strength.
Become part of the solution.
Noticing Small Changes Early Helps You Adapt To
The Bigger Changes That Are To Come.
Review the web site when you can.
Stay informed.
Adapt To Change Quickly.
Movement In A New Direction this will Help You
Find New opportunities.
Try not to do the same old thing over and over, you
will get the same results.

What is Change
Management?
The process responsible for controlling
the lifecycle of all changes (strategic,
operational) in any environment

What is Change
Management?
The

process, tools and techniques


to manage the people-side of
change to achieve the required
business outcome(s)

Goal of Change
Management

The goal of change management is:


to ensure that standardized
methods and procedures are used
for efficient and prompt handling of
Changes
to minimize the impact of
change-related incidents upon service
quality and, consequently, improve
the day-to-day operations of the
organization

Types of changes

Business process design


Technology/system upgrades
Restructuring
Expansion or downsizing
Business model changes/new
ventures
New marketing campaigns
Job redesign
Changes that impact suppliers
Changes that impact customers

Reasons for business change


Business survival time, often, a key
factor here.
Improved efficiency and provision of
better information based on systems.
Competitive advantage through use
of innovation.
External factors key is involvement
of all stakeholders.

Why change management


Increase probability of project
success
Manage employee resistance to
change
Build change competency onto
organization

Why change management

Avoid project failures


Minimize productivity loss
Lessen turnover of valued employees
Avoid delayed implementation or
over-budget
Reduce disruption to customers and
business revenue

Benefits of Change Management


Reduces Process Inconsistencies
Strengthens Communication & Visibility of
Changes within Environment
Focuses on Business Needs & Impact
Reduces the Number of Failed Changes and
Rework
Facilitates Delivery and Planning of Prompt
Changes
Assesses Risks- quality, time, cost, etc
Enables Prioritization of Change Proposals

Key issues for managing


change

Plan the change programme in the


same way as you handle a project.
Consider impact of change on users.
Phase introduction of change.
Involve users in planning and
implementation.

Time and change matrix

The phases of change

Change management is not:


Managing

the technical side of

change
Just communication plans

Causes of resistance
Employees:
Managers:
1. Not aware of the
1. Loss of power and
business need for
control
change
2. Overloaded with
2. Lay-offs were
announced or feared
current
3. Unsure if they had
responsibilities
the skills needed for
3. Lacked awareness
success in the future
of the need for
state
change
4. Comfort with the
current state
4. Lacked the
5. Believed they were
required skills
being asked to do
5. Fear, uncertainty
more with less, or do
and doubt
more for the same
Can mere
communications address these?
pay

Three Phases of Change: How


people experience change

Current
State

Transiti
on State

Future
State

Current State
Employees (including management and
executives!) generally prefer the current state,
because that is where they live

Current
State

Transiti
on State

Future
State

better the devil you know is better than the devil


you dont

Future State
The future state is unknown to the employee; will
it be better, or worse?
This is where Project teams live

Current
State

Transiti
on State

Future
State

Transition State
The transition state creates stress and anxiety

Current
State

Transiti
on State

Future
State

Key points
Effective change management
MUST be focused on helping
individuals change

Individual change is a
process

Successful change addresses both the


technical and the people side
Solution is designed,
developed
and delivered
effectively
(Technical side)

Solution is
embraced,
adopted and
utilized effectively
(People side)
= CHANGE
SUCCESS

Individual PEOPLE change, NOT organizations

Change management requires a


system of doers

Each gear plays


a specific role
based on how
they are related to
change

Change management roles


Role

Ideal implementation

Change mgmt
resource/team

I develop the change management strategy and


plans. I am an integral part of project success.

Executives and senior


managers

I launch (authorize and fund) changes.


I sponsor change.

Middle managers and


front-line supervisors

I coach my direct reports through the changes that


impact their day-to-day work.

Project team

I manage the technical side of the change. I integrate


change management into my project plans.

Project support
functions

I support different activities of the change


management team and project team.

* Change
management group,
dept or office

We own the change management methodology and


support its implementation in the organization.

Current common reality that


we need to move beyond
Role

Common implementation

Change mgmt
resource/team

I feel like Im on an island here people expect me


to do everything and have all the answers.

Executives and senior


managers

I gave you funding and signed the charter now go


make it happen!

Middle managers and


front-line supervisors

I feel like Im the direct target for some of these


changes, and I wish I knew what was going on.

Project team

My focus is just the technical side. Once I flip the


switch, Im moving on to the next project.

Project support functions

I get called in on projects and given one little task,


but Im not sure how I fit in to the overall picture.

* Change management
group, dept or office

I dont even exist yet.

Mapping change management roles


1. Apply methodology
2. Formulate strategy
3. Develop plans
4. Support other doers
1. Authorize and fund
2. Participate actively
and visibly
3. Create coalition
4. Communicate
directly

1. Design the change


2. Manage technical side
3. Engage with CM
4. Integrate CM

1. Communicator
2. Advocate
3. Coach
4. Liaison
5. Resistance manager

1. Experience
2. Knowledge
3. Tools
4. Expertise

Peoples Reaction to Change


Several authors described peoples
behaviour and reaction to change.
Murphy, in a contemporary model,
suggests that there are four predictable
stages that people pass through when
exposed to any change:
resistance,
confusion,
exploration, and
commitment.

Peoples Reaction to Change


There are predictable behaviors
associated with each of these stages,
and the most effective change agents
study these behaviors and are able to
respond appropriately to get their
team committed and back on track
toward the goals.
It is critical that the change agent
consciously and constructively deals
with the human emotions associated
with all phases of planned change.

Driving and restraining forces


People maintain a state of status quo or
equilibrium by the simultaneous occurrence of
both driving and restraining forces operating
within any field.
The forces that push the system toward the
change are driving forces,
Whereas the forces that pull the system
away from the change are called restraining
forces.
For change to occur, the balance of driving
and restraining forces must be altered. The
driving forces must be increased or the
restraining forces decreased.

Driving and restraining forces


To know the type and strength of each group
of forces, leaders need to make a thorough
and accurate analysis of the fields in which
they operate. This analysis is called Force
Field Analysis.
An example of driving forces for
organizational change may include:
a desire to please ones boss,
to eliminate a problem that is undermining
productivity,
to get a pay raise,
to receive recognition.

Driving and restraining forces


Restraining forces include:
fear of the unknown.
conformity to norms.
unwillingness to take risk,

Model of Force Field Analysis


Driving Forces

Please boss
unknown
Eliminate problems

Restraining forces

Fear of the

Unwilling to take

risk

Get pay raise


norms

Receive recognition

Conformity to

Driving and restraining forces


Numerous factors affect successful
implementation of planned change. Many
good ideas are never realized because of:
Poor planning skills
poor timing or
Non gradual implementation of change
a lack of power on the part of the change agent.
Poor communication and problem solving skills,
lack of participation of those involved in the
change process
Lack of adequate availability of the required
human, non human and technical resourcesetc

Resistance: The Expected Response to Change

Because change disrupts the


homeostasis or balance of the group,
resistance should always be expected.
The level of resistance generally
depends on the type of change
proposed.
Technological changes encounter less
resistance than changes that are

Resistance: The Expected Response to Change

It also is much easier to change a


persons behavior than it is to change
an entire groups behavior
Likewise, it is easier to change
knowledge levels than attitudes.
In an effort to eliminate resistance to
change managers historically used:
an autocratic leadership style,
an excessive number of rules, and
a coercive approach to discipline.

Resistance: The Expected Response to Change


The resistance, which occurred anyway, was
both:
1. covert (such as delaying tactics or passiveaggressive behavior) and
2. overt (openly refusing to follow a direct
command).
. This resulted in wasted managerial energy
and time, Low productivity and a high level of
frustration.
. Today, resistance is recognized as a
natural and expected response to
change.

How to minimize resistance to Change

Instead of wasting time and energy


trying to eliminate opposition,
contemporary leaders now identify and
implement strategies
to minimize or manage this resistance
to change.
One such strategy is to encourage
subordinates to:
1. Speak openly so options can be
identified to overcome objections.
2. Talk about their perceptions of the
forces driving the planned change so

How to minimize resistance to Change


3. Whenever possible, all those who may be
affected by a change should be involved in
planning for that change (participative or
collaborative planned change).
4. Perhaps one of the greatest factors
contributing to the resistance encountered
with change is a lack of trust between the
employee and the manager or the employee
and the organization. Workers want security
and predictability. Thats why trust is eroded
when the ground rules change. Subordinates
always fear how change will affect their
personal lives and status.

How to minimize resistance to Change


leaders should clearly communicate with
the rest of the organization the goals and
progression of the change process.
ensure that group members share
perceptions about what change is to be
undertaken, who is to be involved and in
what role, and how the change will directly
and indirectly affect each person in the
organization.
Involve them in the change process so they
feel they played a valuable role and work for
its success.