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TABLE OF LAB EXPERIMENTS

Sr.

Experiment

No.

Page
No.

Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier


i) Practically analyze the working and performance of single
phase rectifier.
Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier
i) Observe the effect of inductive load on working of a rectifier.
ii) Use of a free wheeling diode.

Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier


i) Analysis of a full-wave bridge rectifier with RL load.

13

Half wave rectifier using R-Triggering


i) To analyze the resistive firing/triggering of silicon controlled
rectifier.
Half wave rectifier using RC Triggering
i) To analyze RC-firing Triggering network of silicon controlled
rectifier.
Half wave rectifier using RC Triggering(Part Two)
i) To analyze RC-firing Triggering network of silicon controlled
rectifier.
Full wave rectifier using resistive Triggering
i) To analyze full wave R-firing network os SCR.
Full wave rectifier using RC Triggering.
i) To analyze full wave RC-firing network os SCR.
TRIAC Char act er ist ics
i) To study the V-I characteristics of a TRIAC in both directions
MOS FET Charact er ist ics
i) To study the characteristics of MOSFET.
IGBT Charact er ist ics
i)To study the characteristics of IGBT.
PWM generation for inverter circuits using 555 timers and 741 operational
amplifier-Natural Sampling Technique.
i) To become familiar with pulse width modulation for operating
Inverter circuits.
ii) Variation of duty cycle by comparing saw tooth waveform with
Constant value.
iii) To study the operation of N-channel MOSFET operated using
PWM train.

16

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

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33

43
51
59
67
73
77

PREFACE

The laboratory of each and every subject taught in the degree of Bachelors in Electrical
Engineering is of very much importance in every University. Fully equipped laboratory meeting
the industrial demands under the supervision of qualified, talented and practically motivated lab
assistants and lab engineers is also a basic criterion of the Pakistan Engineering Council. This
Manual has been formulated considering all these above mentioned points.

With Regards
Engr. Hafiz Sikandar
.

Power Electronics Lab Manual

General Lab Instructions


Each student group consists of a maximum of 2-4 students. Each group member is
responsible in submitting lab report upon completion of each experiment on their
practical Note book.
Students are to wear proper attire i.e shoe or sandal instead of slipper. Excessive
jewelleries are not advisable as they might cause electrical shock.
A permanent record in ink of observations as well as results should be maintained by
each student and enclosed with the report.
The commands and observations from the simulator need to be approved and signed
by the lab instructor upon completion of each experiment.

Power Electronics Lab Manual

Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.1
Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier
Objective :
i)

Practically analyze the networking and the performance of a single phase rectifier

Equipment :
AC supply ,a diode(1N4007) ,resistor(1k),Oscilloscope, DMM, connecting wires

Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 1.


D1
1N4007
V1
Vp
50 Hz
0

R1

Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 10 peak voltage
at frequency of 50 HZ.
2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.
3. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms
observed on oscilloscope.
4. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

Power Electronics Lab Manual

Performance parameters :
1. Peak output voltage =Vm=-----------2. Average value of output voltage =Vdc=0.318*Vm=-------------3. RMS value of output voltage =Vrms=0.5* Vm=--------------4. RMS value of output current =Irms=Vrms/R=-----------------5. Output DC power =Pdc=Vdc*Idc=-------------------6. Output AC power =Pac =Vrms*Irms=----------------7. Secondary RMS voltage of Transformer or the Source=Vs=-------------8. Secondary RMS current of Transformer or the Source=Irms=-------------9. Secondary AC power supplied by Transformer or the Source=Ps= Irms*Vs=-------------10. Peak Secondary current of Transformer or the Source=Im=Vm/R=--------------

Evaluate the following parameter (also write down the required formulae) :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Rectifier efficiency = =----------------------Form factor=------------------Ripple factor=-----------------Transformer or source utilization factor(TUF)=-------------Crest factor(CF) of input current i=--------------Input power factor=--------------

Power Electronics Lab Manual

Observe V0 on the oscilloscope and sketch it on a graph paper

Sketched input voltage:

Sketched output voltage:

Sketched voltage across the diode:

Power Electronics Lab Manual

Comment :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Power Electronics Lab Manual

Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.2
Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier
Objective :
i)
ii)

Observe the effect of inductive load on working of a rectifier.


Use of a free wheeling diode.

Equipment :
AC supply ,a diode(1N4007) , a bridge ,resistors(1k), inductor coil(10mH)
Oscilloscope, DMM, connecting wires.
Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 2.an inductive load is added to circuit .
D1
1N4007

R1

V1
Vp
50 Hz
0

L1

Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is peak voltage at
frequency of 50 HZ.
2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.
3. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms
observed on oscilloscope.
4. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

Power Electronics Lab Manual

Performance parameters :
1. Peak output voltage =Vm=-----------2. Average value of output voltage =Vdc=0.318*Vm=-------------3. RMS value of output voltage =Vrms=0.5* Vm=--------------4. RMS value of output current =Irms=Vrms/R=-----------------5. Output DC power =Pdc=Vdc*Idc=-------------------6. Output AC power =Pac =Vrms*Irms=----------------7. Secondary RMS voltage of Transformer or the Source=Vs=-------------8. Secondary RMS current of Transformer or the Source=Irms=-------------9. Secondary AC power supplied by Transformer or the Source=Ps= Irms*Vs=-------------10. Peak Secondary current of Transformer or the Source=Im=Vm/R=--------------

Evaluate the following parameter (also write down the required formulae) :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Rectifier efficiency = =----------------------Form factor=------------------Ripple factor=-----------------Transformer or source utilization factor(TUF)=-------------Crest factor(CF) of input current i=--------------Input power factor=--------------

Power Electronics Lab Manual

Observe V0and I on the oscilloscope and sketch them on a graph.


Sketch the output voltage:

Sketch voltage across diode:

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Section ii:
Use of a free-wheeling diode:
Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 3.a free-wheeling diode is added to circuit .
D1
1N4007
V1
Vp
50 Hz
0

R1
Dm
1N4007

L1

Observe V0and I on the oscilloscope and sketch them on a graph.


Sketch the output voltage:

Sketch voltage with RL load:

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Sketch voltage across free-wheeling diode:

Comment :
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Using signal generator supply apply the voltage at high frequency to a half wave diode rectifier
and observe the response with resistive load and sketch output voltage.

Comment on the response at high frequency.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.3
Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier
Objective :
i) Analysis of a full-wave bridge rectifier with RL load
Equipment :
AC supply , a bridge ,resistors(1k), inductor coil.(10mH) Oscilloscope, DMM,
connecting wires
Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 4.an inductive load is added to circuit .

V1

D1
1N4007

D2
1N4007

R1

D3
1N4007

D4
1N4007

L1

Vp
50 Hz
0

Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is peak voltage at
frequency of 50 HZ.
2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.
3. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms
observed on oscilloscope.
4. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

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Performance parameters :
1. Peak output voltage =Vm=-----------2. Average value of output voltage =Vdc=0.318*Vm=-------------3. RMS value of output voltage =Vrms=0.5* Vm=--------------4. RMS value of output current =Irms=Vrms/R=-----------------5. Output DC power =Pdc=Vdc*Idc=-------------------6. Output AC power =Pac =Vrms*Irms=----------------7. Secondary RMS voltage of Transformer or the Source=Vs=-------------8. Secondary RMS current of Transformer or the Source=Irms=-------------9. Secondary AC power supplied by Transformer or the Source=Ps= Irms*Vs=------------10. Peak Secondary current of Transformer or the Source=Im=Vm/R=--------------

Evaluate the following parameter (also write down the required formulae) :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Rectifier efficiency = ----------------------Form factor=------------------Ripple factor=-----------------Transformer or source utilization factor(TUF)=-------------Crest factor(CF) of input current i=--------------Input power factor=--------------

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Observe V0and I on the oscilloscope and sketch them on a graph.


Sketch the output voltage with resistive load:

Sketch voltage with RL load:

Comment :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.4
Half wave rectifier using R-Triggering
Objective:
i) To analyze resistive firing/triggerimg silicon controlled rectifier(SCR).

Equipment :
AC Supply, SCR(MCR100-6),a diode, load resistor of designed value, variable gate
resistance(0-100K).

Half wave Rectifier using R-triggering:

Design problems:
Minimum resistance (Rmin):

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the minimum resistance Rmin should be such that when Rg=0,the gate current does not exceed
the maximum allowable value,
Rmin=Vs/Ig(max) ----------------(1)
Vs(max)= -------------(It is equal to max. voltage supplied by the Ac supply)
Ig(max)= --------------(the max. gate current is usually given by Igt in the datasheet)
Using equation (1):Rmin= ------------(choose the nearest standard resistor)

The value of selected standard resistor =Rmin= --------------------

Gate Resistance (Rg):


The min.value of gate triggering current is selected as specified in datasheet(80uAin case of
MCR 100-6)the SCR will turn on when instantaneous value of supply voltage Vs becomes equal
to:
Vs>- to Ig (min.)[Rg+Rmin]+Vg(min.)+VD -----------------(2)
Rg+Rmin.<- Vs-Vg(min.)-VD/Ig(min.) ------------------------(3)
VD= ----------(it is equal to forward voltage drop across the diode)
Ig(min.)= ----------(it is the min. value of gate current at which SCR fires).
Vg(min.)=----------(it is the gate cathode voltage corresponding to Ig(min)
Using the equation (2) :Rg=----------(choose the nearest standard resistor)

The value of the selected standard resistor =Rg= ---------Selection of load Resistance:
Max. value of anode to cathode current from data sheet = ----------A
Holding current from datasheet=----------A
Choose a value of load resistance such that anode to gate current does not exceed the rated
current and it is not less than the latching current when SCR is conducting. it recommended to
select load resistance such that half of rated current or less flows when SCR is conducting.

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Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 15Vpeak at
frequency of 50 HZ.
2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.
3. Keep the potentiometer resistance Rg to its max. value so Ig is very small and SCR is
not triggered. Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.
4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer Rg such that SCr is now fired and almost all
the input voltage appears across the load. Measure and observe the change in voltage
across the SCR.
5. Record your observations for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range
of observations.
6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the
waveforms observed on oscilloscope.
7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

Observation set No.1:


No.

Firing angle (a)

V0(dc)

Vo(dc)

(practically using (theoretically


DMM)
using calculations)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4

Power Electronics Lab Manual

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Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Power Electronics Lab Manual

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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10

Power Electronics Lab Manual

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Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Show your calculations in firing angle in reading 3

Show your calculations in firing angle in reading 7

Sketch variations of output voltage with firing angle

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.5
Half Wave Rectifier using RC-Triggering
Objective:
i) To analyze RC-firing/triggering network of silicon controlled rectifier

Equipment:
AC-supply, SCR(MCR 100-6),a diode, load resistor of designed value, variable gate
resistance(0-100kohm)
And capacitance of designed value.

HALF WAVE RECTIFIER USING R-TRIGGERING


Section 1:Half Wave rectifier using RC-Triggering

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Design Procedure:
Minimum Resistance(Rmin):
The minmum resistance Rmin shoule be such that when RG=0,the gate current does not exceed
the maximum allowable value,
Rmin=Vs(max)/ig(min)
Vs(max)=_______________(it is equal to the maximum voltage supplied by the AC supply)
Ig(max)=_______________(This maximum gate current is usually given by IGT in the
datasheet)
Using Equation (1):Rmin=_____________(choose the nearest standard resistor)

The value of the selected standard resistor=Rmin=_____________


An empirical relation for the product RC is
RC>=0.65T
T=1/f=time period of supply voltage

Gate Resitance(RG):
The minimum value of gate triggering current is selected as specifies in the datasheet(80_A in
case of MCR 100-6).The SCR will turn on when instantneous value of supply voltage Vs
becomes equal to
Vs>=IG(min)R+VG(min)+VD
R<=Vs-VG(min)-VD/IG(min)
R=RG+Rmin
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VD=_____________(it is equal to the forward voltage drop across the diode)


IG=______________(it is the minimum value of gate current at which SCR fires)
VG=_____________(it is the gate-cathode voltage corresponding to IG(min))
Using equation (2):RG=_____________(choose the nearest standard resistor)

The value of the selected standard resistor=RG=_____________

Selction of load resistance:


Maximum value of anode to cathode from datasheet=_____________A
Latching current from datasheet=___________A
Holding current from datasheet=____________A
Choose a value of laod resitance such that anode to gate current does not exceed the rated current
and is not less than the latching current when SCR is conducting.it is recommended to selected
laod resistance such that of the rated current or less flows when SCR is conducting.(Latching
current IL is the minimum anode current required to maintain the thyristor in the On-state
immediately)after the thyristor has been turned ON and the gate signal has been removed.

Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 15V peak at

frequency of 50Hz.
2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.
3. Keep the potentiometer resistance RG to its maximum value so IG is very small and SCR

is not triggered. Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.
4. Describe the resistance of potentiometer RG such that SCR is now fired and almost all

the input voltage appears across the load. Measure and observe the change in voltage
across load and SCR.
5. Record your observation for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range of

observation.

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6. Record your observation and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveform

observed on oscilloscope.
7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

Observations Set
No.

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)

Vo(dc)

(Practically Using DMM)

(TheoraticallyUsing
DMM)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

TIME

Angle used Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

SKETCH voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

TIME

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Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Power Electronics Lab Manual

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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Power Electronics Lab Manual

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Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Show your calculations in firing angle in reading 3

Show your calculations in firing angle in reading 7

Sketch the variation of output voltage with firing angle.


Comments:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Section 2:
Calculate the resistance and capacitance according to procedure already mentioned
Rg=__________________
Rmin=________________
C=___________________
RL=___________________

Observation Table
No.

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)

Vo(dc)

(Practically Using DMM)

(TheoraticallyUsing
DMM)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Power Electronics Lab Manual

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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50m

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Compare two RC circuits in terms of performance


_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.6
Half Wave Rectifier using RC-Triggering (Part Two)
Objectives:
i) To analyze RC-firing/triggering network of silicon controlled rectifier.

Equipment:
AC-supply, SCR (MCR 100-6), a diode, load resistor of designed value, variable gate
Resistance (0-750k) and capacitors of designed value.

Half Wave Rectifier using RC-Triggering

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Design Procedure:

Minimum Resistance (R min):


The minimum resistance R min should be such that when RG=0, that gate current does
not exceed the maximum allowable value,
R min =Vs (max) / Ig (max)
Vs (max) =

(1)

________________(It is equal to the maximum voltage supplied by the AC

Supply)
Ig (max) = _________________(This maximum gate current is usually given by IGT in
The datasheet.)
Using Equation (1): R min =________________(choose the nearest standard resistor)

The value of the selected standard resistor = R min =____________________

An empirical relation for the product RC is


RC 0.65T
T=1/f=time period of supply voltage

Gate Resistance (RG):


The minimum value of gate triggering current is selected as specified in the datasheet
(80A
In case of MCR 100-6).The SCR will turn on when instantaneous value of supply
voltage Vs
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Becomes equal to
Vs IG (min) R + VG (min) + VD

(2)

R Vs VG (min) VD / IG (min)

(3)

R = RG + R min
VD =________________________ (It is equal to the forward voltage drop across the diode).

IG (min) = __________________ (It is the minimum value of gate current at which SCR fires).

VG (min) = ________________ (It is the gate-cathode voltage corresponding to IG (min)

Using Equation (2): RG = _______________________ (choose the nearest standard resistor)

The value of the selected standard resistor = RG = _____________________________

Selection of load resistance:


Maximum value of anode to cathode current from data sheet = _____________ A
Latching current from data sheet = _____________________ A
Holding current from data sheet = _______________________ A
Choose a value of load resistance such that anode to cathode current does not exceed the rated
current and is not less than the latching current when SCR is conducting. It is recommended to
Use 820 ohm as load resistance.

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Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 10V peak at

frequencyof 50HZ.
2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 4a.
3. Keep the potentiometer resistance RG to its maximum value so IG is very small and SCR is
not trigged. Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.
4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer RG such that SCR is now fired and almost all the
input Voltage appears across the load .Measure and observes the change in voltage across load
and SCR.
5. Record your observations for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range of
observation.
6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveform
observed on oscilloscope.
7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

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Observation Table:
NO

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)
(Practically using DMM)

Vo(dc)
(Theoretically using
calculations)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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37

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2:

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4:

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Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6:

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8:

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10:

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Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

Show your calculations for voltage with firing angle in reading 3:

Show your calculations for voltage with firing angle in reading 7:

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Sketch the variation of output voltage with firing angle:

Comments:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No. 7
Full Wave Rectifier Using Resistive Triggering
Objectives:

i)

To analyze full wave R - firing network of SCR.

Equipment:
Ac supply, oscilloscope, SCR (MCR 100-6), single phase Diode Bridge, load resistor of
designed value, virile gate rsistance, connecting wires and breadboard.

Circuit diagram:

Task:
Vary the firing angle by the gate resistance from 0 to 90 degree and observe load voltage and
voltage across thyristor on the oscilloscope .sketch waveforms for selected value of firing angle.

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Design Procedure:
The design equations are same as used in experiment no 2 for half wave R-triggering.
1. Load Resistance =_____________ohms.
2. Rmin= __________ohms.
3. Gate resistance= ______________ohms.

Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure .recommended is 10 V peak at
frequency of 50 HZ.
2. Arrange the circuit as shown in Figure 4a.
3. Keep the potentiometer resistance Rg to its maximum value so Ig Is very small and SCR will
not triggered .Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.
4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer Rg such that scr is now fired and almost all the input
voltage appears across the load .measure and observe the change in voltage across load and SCR.
5. Record your observations for at least 10 different firing angles over the entire range of
observations.
6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms
observed on oscilloscope.
7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

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Observation table:

NO.

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)
(practically using
DMM)

Vo(dc)
(Theoretically
using calculations)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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45

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
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Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for angle used above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

Time
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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
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Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time
Show your calculations for voltage with firing angle in reading 3:

Show your calculations for voltage with firing angle in reading 7:

Sketch the variation of output voltage with firing angle.

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Comments:

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Performance Parameters:
Evaluate the following parameters by consulting the suggested pre-lab reading .Also consult the
lab manual handout of experiment no.1 (use a separatepaper sheet if required, to record the
required observations and details of calculations):

Rectifier Efficiency=

_______________________

Form Factor= __________________________


Ripple Factor= ______________________________
Transformer or Source Utilization Factor (TUF) = ___________________
Epress the output voltage (at firing angle of 30 degree) with Fourier series.

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.8
Full Wave Rectifier Using RC-Triggering
Objectives:

i)

To analyze full wave RC-firing network of SCR.

Equipment:
AC supply,oscilloscope,SCR(MCR-100-6),single phase diode bridge,load resistors,
variable gate resistance,capacitors,connecting wires, breadboard.

Circuit Diagram:

Task:

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Verify the firing angle (90 to 180 degree) by changing the gate resistance and observe load
voltage and voltage across thyristor on the oscilloscope.Sketch for selected values of firing
angle.
Load resistance=--------------------ohms
Gate resistance= --------------------ohms
R min=--------------------------------ohms
Capacitor=---------------------------

Procedure:
1. Adjust the supply voltages as used in design procedure.
2. Arrange the circuit as in figure.
3. Keep the potentiometer resistance RG to its maximum value so IG is very small and
SCR is not triggered.Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.
4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer RG such that SCR is now fired and almost
All the input voltage appears across the load.Measure and observe the change in
The voltage across load and SCR.
5. Record your observations for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range
of observations.
6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the
Waveforms observed on oscilloscope.
7. Compare the practical output with theoretical output voltage.

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Observations Table:
No.

Firing Angle

V0 (dc)
Using DMM

V0 (DC)
Theoretically
Calculations

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Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4.

0s

5ms

10ms

Power Electronics Lab Manual

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

54

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

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15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

55

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10.

0s

5ms

10ms

Power Electronics Lab Manual

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

56

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Show your calculations for voltage with firing angle in reading 3.

Show your calculations for voltage with firing angle in reading 7.

Sketch the variation of output voltage with firing angle.

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Comments:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance Parameters:

Rectifier Efficiency =---------------------Form Factor =------------------------------Ripple Factor =----------------------------Transform or source utilization factor(TUF) =------------------------

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.9
TRIAC Characteristics
Objective:
To study the V-I characteristics of a TRIAC in both directions and also in
different (1, 2, 3 & 4) modes op operation and determine break over voltages,
holding current, latching current and comment on sensitivities.

Equipment:
TRIAC - BT 136, power supplies, wattage resistors, ammeter, voltmeter,

Procedure:
I-mode
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (a)
2. The value of gate current ig is set to convenient value by adjusting vgg.
3. By varying the supply voltage Vm gradually in step-by-step, note down the

corresponding values of Vmt2ti and h. Note down Vmt2ti and ii at the instant of firing of
TRIAC and after firing (by reducing the voltmeter ranges and increasing the ammeter
ranges) then increase the supply voltage Vmt2mti and ii.
4. The point at which TRIAC fires gives the value of break over voltage vbol
5. A graph of vmt2ti v/s ii is to be plotted.
6. The gates supply voltage. Vgg is to be switched off
7. Observe the am meter reading by reducing the supply voltage vmt. The point at which

the ammeter reading suddenly goes to zero gives the value of holding current ih.

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II -mode:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (b)
2. The gate current is set as same value as in i-mode
3.

Repeat the step no. s 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 of I-mode

Circuit Diagram II-Mode:

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Characteristics curve:

Normal method:

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III-mode:
1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram (c).
2. Step no. s 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 are to be repeated as in i-mode.

IV-mode:
1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram (d)
2. Repeat the step no. s 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 of i-mode.

Circuit Diagram For III & IV mode:

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Observations and Calculations:

I-Mode
Ig=
Sr.no.

mA

VTRIAC (V)

ITRIAC( mA)

II-Mode

Ig=
Sr.no.

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VTRIAC (V)

mA
ITRIAC( mA)

63

III-Mode
Ig=
Sr.no.

mA

VTRIAC (V)

ITRIAC( mA)

IV-Mode
Ig=
Sr.no.

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VTRIAC (V)

mA
ITRIAC( mA)

64

Comment :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment no.10
MOSFET Characteristics
Objective:
To study the characteristics of MOSFET.

Equipment:
MOSFET-IRF840, Power Supplies, Wattage Resistors, Ammeter, Voltmeter, etc.

Circuit Diagram:

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Procedure:
Drain Characteristics
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Adjust the value of VGS slightly more than threshold voltage Vth
3. By varying VI, note clown ID & VDS and are tabulated in the tabular column
4. Repeat the experiment for different values of VGS and note down ID v/s VDs
5. Draw the graph of ID v/s VDS for different values of VGS.
Transconductance Characteristics
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Initially keep VI and V2 zero.
3. Set VDS = say 0.6 V
4. Slowly vary V2 (VGE) with a step of 0.5 volts, note clown corresponding and VDS
readings for every 0.5v and are tabulated in the tabular column.
5. Repeat the experiment for different values of VDS & draw the graph of ID v/s VGS.
6. Plot the graph of VGS v/s ID

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Observations and Calculations.

VGS=

VGS=
VDS(V)

ID(mA)

ID(mA)

VGS=

VGS=
VDS(V)

VDS(V)

ID(mA)

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VDS(V)

ID(mA)

70

Comment :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No.11
IGBT Characteristics
Objective:
To study the characteristics of IGBT

Equipment:
IGBT-IRGBC 20S, Power Supplies, Wattage Resistors, Ammeter, Voltmeter, etc.

Circuit Diagram:

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Procedure:
Collector Characteristics
1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Initially set V2 to VGEI = 5v (slightly more than threshold voltage)
3. Slowly vary VI and note clown Ic and VCE
4. For particular value of VGE there is pinch off voltage (VP) between collector
and emitter.
5. Repeat the experiment for different values of VGE and note down Ic v/s VCE
6. Draw the graph of Ic v/s VCE for different values of VGE.

Transconductance Characteristics
1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Initially keep VI and V2 at zero.
3. Set VCEI = say 0.8 v
4. Slowly vary V2 (VGE) and note down IC and VGE readings for every 0.5v and
enter tabular column
5. Repeat the experiment for different values of VCE and draw the graph of Ic v/s
vot

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Observations and Calculations.

VGE=
VCE(V)

VGE=
IC(mA)

IC(mA)

VGE=

VGE=
VCE(V)

VCE(V)

IC(mA)

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VCE(V)

IC(mA)

75

Comment :
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Name
Reg. No
Marks / Grade

Experiment No. 12
PWM generation for inverter circuit using 555 timer and 741
Operational Amplifier Natural Sampling Technique

Objective:
1. To become familiar with pulse width modulation for operating inverter circuits
2. Variation of duty cycle by comparing sawtooth waveform with constant value.
3. to study the operation of N-channel MOSFET operated using PWM train.

Equipment:
A DC power supply, bread board, N-channel MOSFET (IRF540), two general purposes
switching transistors (2N3904 and 2N396), Operational Amplifier 741, 555 timer IC,
two variable resistors (50K-ohm), resistors of required values (4.7K,10K,1K) and
capacitors (1 uF and 47 PF)

Datasheet information:
Carefully study the datasheet of different components and find out the following parameters

N-Channel MOSFET (IRF540)

Drain source voltage = __________________

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Drain Current = _______________________


Gate-Source voltage = __________________
Turn ON time = ______________________
Turn OFF time = ______________________

Transistor 2N3904
Turn ON time = ______________________
Turn OFF time = _____________________
Rated Voltage = ______________________
Rated Current = ______________________

Transistor 2N3906:

Turn ON time = __________________


Turn OFF time = _________________
Rated Voltage = __________________
Rated Current = __________________

PIN configuration of 555 timers:

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PIN configuration of 741 Op-Amp:

Procedure
1. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure below

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2. Observe the output at pin 6 of 555 timer at oscilloscope and sketch the two cycles

3. Adjust the frequency of above waveform equal to 1 KHZ with the help of variable
resistance and plot two cycles

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4. Now connect 741 in comparator mode as shown in figure below

5. Check the output voltage waveform at pin 6 of 741 and sketch the waveforms below

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6. With the help of variable resistance connected at pin 2 of 741 adjust the duty of the
output waveform equal to 50% and sketch two cycles of waveform

7. Now sketch the waveform of step 3 and voltage at pin 2 of Op-Amp and voltage
waveform at pin 6 of 741 at same scale. (Three waveforms)

8. What do you observe from the above waveform?


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________

9. Does above waveform explain pulse width modulation ? which waveform is modulating
waveform in above waveform?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________

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10. Now connect N-Channel MOSFET circuit as shown in figure below

11. connect oscilloscope across the load resistance and sketch waveform

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12. Vary the resistance controlling the duty cycle and record different reading in ascending
order of duty cycle.

No. ON Time

Duty Cycle
Ratio

Voltage at
pin 2 of
Op-Amp

Vo (dc)

Vo(dc)

(Practically
using DMM)

(Theoretically
using
Calculations)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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13. Sketch the waveform for observation 3, 5 ,7 and 9 ( Sketch triangular waveform, voltage
at pin 2 of op-Amp and voltage across load resistor for each reading)
For observations 3 from table:

For observations 5 from table:

For observations 7 from table:

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For observations 9 from table:

Represent the Load waveform in terms of Fourier series. (Show details)

Sketch the spectrum up to 20th order harmonic

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What do you mean by natural sampling?


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______

Comments:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

How we can remove the 3rd harmonic and its multiples from the spectrum?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________

Note: On each graph clearly mention your time scale and magnitude; Plot at least two complete
cycles of waveforms else there will be zero credit. All the readings should be in sequence. Make
sure your roll number is written on each and every page of this handout. Please check the website
of your final lab simulation project.

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