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You are on page 1of 87

Sr.

Experiment

No.

Page

No.

i) Practically analyze the working and performance of single

phase rectifier.

Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier

i) Observe the effect of inductive load on working of a rectifier.

ii) Use of a free wheeling diode.

i) Analysis of a full-wave bridge rectifier with RL load.

13

i) To analyze the resistive firing/triggering of silicon controlled

rectifier.

Half wave rectifier using RC Triggering

i) To analyze RC-firing Triggering network of silicon controlled

rectifier.

Half wave rectifier using RC Triggering(Part Two)

i) To analyze RC-firing Triggering network of silicon controlled

rectifier.

Full wave rectifier using resistive Triggering

i) To analyze full wave R-firing network os SCR.

Full wave rectifier using RC Triggering.

i) To analyze full wave RC-firing network os SCR.

TRIAC Char act er ist ics

i) To study the V-I characteristics of a TRIAC in both directions

MOS FET Charact er ist ics

i) To study the characteristics of MOSFET.

IGBT Charact er ist ics

i)To study the characteristics of IGBT.

PWM generation for inverter circuits using 555 timers and 741 operational

amplifier-Natural Sampling Technique.

i) To become familiar with pulse width modulation for operating

Inverter circuits.

ii) Variation of duty cycle by comparing saw tooth waveform with

Constant value.

iii) To study the operation of N-channel MOSFET operated using

PWM train.

16

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

23

33

43

51

59

67

73

77

PREFACE

The laboratory of each and every subject taught in the degree of Bachelors in Electrical

Engineering is of very much importance in every University. Fully equipped laboratory meeting

the industrial demands under the supervision of qualified, talented and practically motivated lab

assistants and lab engineers is also a basic criterion of the Pakistan Engineering Council. This

Manual has been formulated considering all these above mentioned points.

With Regards

Engr. Hafiz Sikandar

.

Each student group consists of a maximum of 2-4 students. Each group member is

responsible in submitting lab report upon completion of each experiment on their

practical Note book.

Students are to wear proper attire i.e shoe or sandal instead of slipper. Excessive

jewelleries are not advisable as they might cause electrical shock.

A permanent record in ink of observations as well as results should be maintained by

each student and enclosed with the report.

The commands and observations from the simulator need to be approved and signed

by the lab instructor upon completion of each experiment.

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.1

Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier

Objective :

i)

Practically analyze the networking and the performance of a single phase rectifier

Equipment :

AC supply ,a diode(1N4007) ,resistor(1k),Oscilloscope, DMM, connecting wires

D1

1N4007

V1

Vp

50 Hz

0

R1

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 10 peak voltage

at frequency of 50 HZ.

2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.

3. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms

observed on oscilloscope.

4. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

Performance parameters :

1. Peak output voltage =Vm=-----------2. Average value of output voltage =Vdc=0.318*Vm=-------------3. RMS value of output voltage =Vrms=0.5* Vm=--------------4. RMS value of output current =Irms=Vrms/R=-----------------5. Output DC power =Pdc=Vdc*Idc=-------------------6. Output AC power =Pac =Vrms*Irms=----------------7. Secondary RMS voltage of Transformer or the Source=Vs=-------------8. Secondary RMS current of Transformer or the Source=Irms=-------------9. Secondary AC power supplied by Transformer or the Source=Ps= Irms*Vs=-------------10. Peak Secondary current of Transformer or the Source=Im=Vm/R=--------------

Evaluate the following parameter (also write down the required formulae) :

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Rectifier efficiency = =----------------------Form factor=------------------Ripple factor=-----------------Transformer or source utilization factor(TUF)=-------------Crest factor(CF) of input current i=--------------Input power factor=--------------

Comment :

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.2

Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier

Objective :

i)

ii)

Use of a free wheeling diode.

Equipment :

AC supply ,a diode(1N4007) , a bridge ,resistors(1k), inductor coil(10mH)

Oscilloscope, DMM, connecting wires.

Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 2.an inductive load is added to circuit .

D1

1N4007

R1

V1

Vp

50 Hz

0

L1

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is peak voltage at

frequency of 50 HZ.

2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.

3. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms

observed on oscilloscope.

4. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

Performance parameters :

1. Peak output voltage =Vm=-----------2. Average value of output voltage =Vdc=0.318*Vm=-------------3. RMS value of output voltage =Vrms=0.5* Vm=--------------4. RMS value of output current =Irms=Vrms/R=-----------------5. Output DC power =Pdc=Vdc*Idc=-------------------6. Output AC power =Pac =Vrms*Irms=----------------7. Secondary RMS voltage of Transformer or the Source=Vs=-------------8. Secondary RMS current of Transformer or the Source=Irms=-------------9. Secondary AC power supplied by Transformer or the Source=Ps= Irms*Vs=-------------10. Peak Secondary current of Transformer or the Source=Im=Vm/R=--------------

Evaluate the following parameter (also write down the required formulae) :

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Rectifier efficiency = =----------------------Form factor=------------------Ripple factor=-----------------Transformer or source utilization factor(TUF)=-------------Crest factor(CF) of input current i=--------------Input power factor=--------------

Sketch the output voltage:

10

Section ii:

Use of a free-wheeling diode:

Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 3.a free-wheeling diode is added to circuit .

D1

1N4007

V1

Vp

50 Hz

0

R1

Dm

1N4007

L1

Sketch the output voltage:

11

Comment :

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Using signal generator supply apply the voltage at high frequency to a half wave diode rectifier

and observe the response with resistive load and sketch output voltage.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

12

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.3

Single Phase uncontrolled Rectifier

Objective :

i) Analysis of a full-wave bridge rectifier with RL load

Equipment :

AC supply , a bridge ,resistors(1k), inductor coil.(10mH) Oscilloscope, DMM,

connecting wires

Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 4.an inductive load is added to circuit .

V1

D1

1N4007

D2

1N4007

R1

D3

1N4007

D4

1N4007

L1

Vp

50 Hz

0

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is peak voltage at

frequency of 50 HZ.

2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.

3. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms

observed on oscilloscope.

4. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

13

Performance parameters :

1. Peak output voltage =Vm=-----------2. Average value of output voltage =Vdc=0.318*Vm=-------------3. RMS value of output voltage =Vrms=0.5* Vm=--------------4. RMS value of output current =Irms=Vrms/R=-----------------5. Output DC power =Pdc=Vdc*Idc=-------------------6. Output AC power =Pac =Vrms*Irms=----------------7. Secondary RMS voltage of Transformer or the Source=Vs=-------------8. Secondary RMS current of Transformer or the Source=Irms=-------------9. Secondary AC power supplied by Transformer or the Source=Ps= Irms*Vs=------------10. Peak Secondary current of Transformer or the Source=Im=Vm/R=--------------

Evaluate the following parameter (also write down the required formulae) :

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Rectifier efficiency = ----------------------Form factor=------------------Ripple factor=-----------------Transformer or source utilization factor(TUF)=-------------Crest factor(CF) of input current i=--------------Input power factor=--------------

14

Sketch the output voltage with resistive load:

Comment :

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

15

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.4

Half wave rectifier using R-Triggering

Objective:

i) To analyze resistive firing/triggerimg silicon controlled rectifier(SCR).

Equipment :

AC Supply, SCR(MCR100-6),a diode, load resistor of designed value, variable gate

resistance(0-100K).

Design problems:

Minimum resistance (Rmin):

16

the minimum resistance Rmin should be such that when Rg=0,the gate current does not exceed

the maximum allowable value,

Rmin=Vs/Ig(max) ----------------(1)

Vs(max)= -------------(It is equal to max. voltage supplied by the Ac supply)

Ig(max)= --------------(the max. gate current is usually given by Igt in the datasheet)

Using equation (1):Rmin= ------------(choose the nearest standard resistor)

The min.value of gate triggering current is selected as specified in datasheet(80uAin case of

MCR 100-6)the SCR will turn on when instantaneous value of supply voltage Vs becomes equal

to:

Vs>- to Ig (min.)[Rg+Rmin]+Vg(min.)+VD -----------------(2)

Rg+Rmin.<- Vs-Vg(min.)-VD/Ig(min.) ------------------------(3)

VD= ----------(it is equal to forward voltage drop across the diode)

Ig(min.)= ----------(it is the min. value of gate current at which SCR fires).

Vg(min.)=----------(it is the gate cathode voltage corresponding to Ig(min)

Using the equation (2) :Rg=----------(choose the nearest standard resistor)

The value of the selected standard resistor =Rg= ---------Selection of load Resistance:

Max. value of anode to cathode current from data sheet = ----------A

Holding current from datasheet=----------A

Choose a value of load resistance such that anode to gate current does not exceed the rated

current and it is not less than the latching current when SCR is conducting. it recommended to

select load resistance such that half of rated current or less flows when SCR is conducting.

17

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 15Vpeak at

frequency of 50 HZ.

2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.

3. Keep the potentiometer resistance Rg to its max. value so Ig is very small and SCR is

not triggered. Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.

4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer Rg such that SCr is now fired and almost all

the input voltage appears across the load. Measure and observe the change in voltage

across the SCR.

5. Record your observations for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range

of observations.

6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the

waveforms observed on oscilloscope.

7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

No.

V0(dc)

Vo(dc)

DMM)

using calculations)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

18

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4

19

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

20

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10

21

Sketch voltage waveform across load thyristor for firing angle used above

22

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.5

Half Wave Rectifier using RC-Triggering

Objective:

i) To analyze RC-firing/triggering network of silicon controlled rectifier

Equipment:

AC-supply, SCR(MCR 100-6),a diode, load resistor of designed value, variable gate

resistance(0-100kohm)

And capacitance of designed value.

Section 1:Half Wave rectifier using RC-Triggering

23

Design Procedure:

Minimum Resistance(Rmin):

The minmum resistance Rmin shoule be such that when RG=0,the gate current does not exceed

the maximum allowable value,

Rmin=Vs(max)/ig(min)

Vs(max)=_______________(it is equal to the maximum voltage supplied by the AC supply)

Ig(max)=_______________(This maximum gate current is usually given by IGT in the

datasheet)

Using Equation (1):Rmin=_____________(choose the nearest standard resistor)

An empirical relation for the product RC is

RC>=0.65T

T=1/f=time period of supply voltage

Gate Resitance(RG):

The minimum value of gate triggering current is selected as specifies in the datasheet(80_A in

case of MCR 100-6).The SCR will turn on when instantneous value of supply voltage Vs

becomes equal to

Vs>=IG(min)R+VG(min)+VD

R<=Vs-VG(min)-VD/IG(min)

R=RG+Rmin

Power Electronics Lab Manual

24

IG=______________(it is the minimum value of gate current at which SCR fires)

VG=_____________(it is the gate-cathode voltage corresponding to IG(min))

Using equation (2):RG=_____________(choose the nearest standard resistor)

Maximum value of anode to cathode from datasheet=_____________A

Latching current from datasheet=___________A

Holding current from datasheet=____________A

Choose a value of laod resitance such that anode to gate current does not exceed the rated current

and is not less than the latching current when SCR is conducting.it is recommended to selected

laod resistance such that of the rated current or less flows when SCR is conducting.(Latching

current IL is the minimum anode current required to maintain the thyristor in the On-state

immediately)after the thyristor has been turned ON and the gate signal has been removed.

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 15V peak at

frequency of 50Hz.

2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure.

3. Keep the potentiometer resistance RG to its maximum value so IG is very small and SCR

is not triggered. Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.

4. Describe the resistance of potentiometer RG such that SCR is now fired and almost all

the input voltage appears across the load. Measure and observe the change in voltage

across load and SCR.

5. Record your observation for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range of

observation.

25

6. Record your observation and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveform

observed on oscilloscope.

7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

Observations Set

No.

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)

Vo(dc)

(TheoraticallyUsing

DMM)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

26

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

TIME

Angle used Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

SKETCH voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

TIME

27

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

28

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

29

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

Comments:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

30

Section 2:

Calculate the resistance and capacitance according to procedure already mentioned

Rg=__________________

Rmin=________________

C=___________________

RL=___________________

Observation Table

No.

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)

Vo(dc)

(TheoraticallyUsing

DMM)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

31

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50m

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above

0ms

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Time

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

32

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.6

Half Wave Rectifier using RC-Triggering (Part Two)

Objectives:

i) To analyze RC-firing/triggering network of silicon controlled rectifier.

Equipment:

AC-supply, SCR (MCR 100-6), a diode, load resistor of designed value, variable gate

Resistance (0-750k) and capacitors of designed value.

33

Design Procedure:

The minimum resistance R min should be such that when RG=0, that gate current does

not exceed the maximum allowable value,

R min =Vs (max) / Ig (max)

Vs (max) =

(1)

Supply)

Ig (max) = _________________(This maximum gate current is usually given by IGT in

The datasheet.)

Using Equation (1): R min =________________(choose the nearest standard resistor)

RC 0.65T

T=1/f=time period of supply voltage

The minimum value of gate triggering current is selected as specified in the datasheet

(80A

In case of MCR 100-6).The SCR will turn on when instantaneous value of supply

voltage Vs

Power Electronics Lab Manual

34

Becomes equal to

Vs IG (min) R + VG (min) + VD

(2)

R Vs VG (min) VD / IG (min)

(3)

R = RG + R min

VD =________________________ (It is equal to the forward voltage drop across the diode).

IG (min) = __________________ (It is the minimum value of gate current at which SCR fires).

Maximum value of anode to cathode current from data sheet = _____________ A

Latching current from data sheet = _____________________ A

Holding current from data sheet = _______________________ A

Choose a value of load resistance such that anode to cathode current does not exceed the rated

current and is not less than the latching current when SCR is conducting. It is recommended to

Use 820 ohm as load resistance.

35

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure. Recommended is 10V peak at

frequencyof 50HZ.

2. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure 4a.

3. Keep the potentiometer resistance RG to its maximum value so IG is very small and SCR is

not trigged. Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.

4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer RG such that SCR is now fired and almost all the

input Voltage appears across the load .Measure and observes the change in voltage across load

and SCR.

5. Record your observations for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range of

observation.

6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveform

observed on oscilloscope.

7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

36

Observation Table:

NO

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)

(Practically using DMM)

Vo(dc)

(Theoretically using

calculations)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

37

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2:

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4:

38

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6:

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

39

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8:

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10:

40

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

41

Comments:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

42

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No. 7

Full Wave Rectifier Using Resistive Triggering

Objectives:

i)

Equipment:

Ac supply, oscilloscope, SCR (MCR 100-6), single phase Diode Bridge, load resistor of

designed value, virile gate rsistance, connecting wires and breadboard.

Circuit diagram:

Task:

Vary the firing angle by the gate resistance from 0 to 90 degree and observe load voltage and

voltage across thyristor on the oscilloscope .sketch waveforms for selected value of firing angle.

43

Design Procedure:

The design equations are same as used in experiment no 2 for half wave R-triggering.

1. Load Resistance =_____________ohms.

2. Rmin= __________ohms.

3. Gate resistance= ______________ohms.

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltage as used in design procedure .recommended is 10 V peak at

frequency of 50 HZ.

2. Arrange the circuit as shown in Figure 4a.

3. Keep the potentiometer resistance Rg to its maximum value so Ig Is very small and SCR will

not triggered .Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.

4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer Rg such that scr is now fired and almost all the input

voltage appears across the load .measure and observe the change in voltage across load and SCR.

5. Record your observations for at least 10 different firing angles over the entire range of

observations.

6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the waveforms

observed on oscilloscope.

7. Compare the practical output voltage with theoretical output voltage.

44

Observation table:

NO.

Firing Angle

Vo(dc)

(practically using

DMM)

Vo(dc)

(Theoretically

using calculations)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

45

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Power Electronics Lab Manual

46

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

Time

Power Electronics Lab Manual

47

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 8:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Power Electronics Lab Manual

48

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above:

0s

5 ms

10 ms

15 ms

20 ms

25 ms

30 ms

35 ms

40 ms

45 ms

Time

Show your calculations for voltage with firing angle in reading 3:

49

Comments:

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

Performance Parameters:

Evaluate the following parameters by consulting the suggested pre-lab reading .Also consult the

lab manual handout of experiment no.1 (use a separatepaper sheet if required, to record the

required observations and details of calculations):

Rectifier Efficiency=

_______________________

Ripple Factor= ______________________________

Transformer or Source Utilization Factor (TUF) = ___________________

Epress the output voltage (at firing angle of 30 degree) with Fourier series.

50

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.8

Full Wave Rectifier Using RC-Triggering

Objectives:

i)

Equipment:

AC supply,oscilloscope,SCR(MCR-100-6),single phase diode bridge,load resistors,

variable gate resistance,capacitors,connecting wires, breadboard.

Circuit Diagram:

Task:

51

Verify the firing angle (90 to 180 degree) by changing the gate resistance and observe load

voltage and voltage across thyristor on the oscilloscope.Sketch for selected values of firing

angle.

Load resistance=--------------------ohms

Gate resistance= --------------------ohms

R min=--------------------------------ohms

Capacitor=---------------------------

Procedure:

1. Adjust the supply voltages as used in design procedure.

2. Arrange the circuit as in figure.

3. Keep the potentiometer resistance RG to its maximum value so IG is very small and

SCR is not triggered.Measure and observe the voltage across load and SCR.

4. Decrease the resistance of potentiometer RG such that SCR is now fired and almost

All the input voltage appears across the load.Measure and observe the change in

The voltage across load and SCR.

5. Record your observations for at least ten different firing angles over the entire range

of observations.

6. Record your observations and calculations in tabular form and also plot the

Waveforms observed on oscilloscope.

7. Compare the practical output with theoretical output voltage.

52

Observations Table:

No.

Firing Angle

V0 (dc)

Using DMM

V0 (DC)

Theoretically

Calculations

53

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 2.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 4.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

54

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 6.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

45ms

50ms

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

55

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

Sketch voltage waveform across load resistance for firing angle in reading 10.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

56

Sketch voltage waveform across thyristor for firing angle used above.

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

20ms

25ms

30ms

35ms

40ms

45ms

50ms

57

Comments:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Performance Parameters:

Rectifier Efficiency =---------------------Form Factor =------------------------------Ripple Factor =----------------------------Transform or source utilization factor(TUF) =------------------------

58

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.9

TRIAC Characteristics

Objective:

To study the V-I characteristics of a TRIAC in both directions and also in

different (1, 2, 3 & 4) modes op operation and determine break over voltages,

holding current, latching current and comment on sensitivities.

Equipment:

TRIAC - BT 136, power supplies, wattage resistors, ammeter, voltmeter,

Procedure:

I-mode

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (a)

2. The value of gate current ig is set to convenient value by adjusting vgg.

3. By varying the supply voltage Vm gradually in step-by-step, note down the

corresponding values of Vmt2ti and h. Note down Vmt2ti and ii at the instant of firing of

TRIAC and after firing (by reducing the voltmeter ranges and increasing the ammeter

ranges) then increase the supply voltage Vmt2mti and ii.

4. The point at which TRIAC fires gives the value of break over voltage vbol

5. A graph of vmt2ti v/s ii is to be plotted.

6. The gates supply voltage. Vgg is to be switched off

7. Observe the am meter reading by reducing the supply voltage vmt. The point at which

the ammeter reading suddenly goes to zero gives the value of holding current ih.

59

II -mode:

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (b)

2. The gate current is set as same value as in i-mode

3.

60

Characteristics curve:

Normal method:

61

III-mode:

1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram (c).

2. Step no. s 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 are to be repeated as in i-mode.

IV-mode:

1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram (d)

2. Repeat the step no. s 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 of i-mode.

62

I-Mode

Ig=

Sr.no.

mA

VTRIAC (V)

ITRIAC( mA)

II-Mode

Ig=

Sr.no.

VTRIAC (V)

mA

ITRIAC( mA)

63

III-Mode

Ig=

Sr.no.

mA

VTRIAC (V)

ITRIAC( mA)

IV-Mode

Ig=

Sr.no.

VTRIAC (V)

mA

ITRIAC( mA)

64

Comment :

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

65

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment no.10

MOSFET Characteristics

Objective:

To study the characteristics of MOSFET.

Equipment:

MOSFET-IRF840, Power Supplies, Wattage Resistors, Ammeter, Voltmeter, etc.

Circuit Diagram:

66

67

68

Procedure:

Drain Characteristics

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Adjust the value of VGS slightly more than threshold voltage Vth

3. By varying VI, note clown ID & VDS and are tabulated in the tabular column

4. Repeat the experiment for different values of VGS and note down ID v/s VDs

5. Draw the graph of ID v/s VDS for different values of VGS.

Transconductance Characteristics

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Initially keep VI and V2 zero.

3. Set VDS = say 0.6 V

4. Slowly vary V2 (VGE) with a step of 0.5 volts, note clown corresponding and VDS

readings for every 0.5v and are tabulated in the tabular column.

5. Repeat the experiment for different values of VDS & draw the graph of ID v/s VGS.

6. Plot the graph of VGS v/s ID

69

VGS=

VGS=

VDS(V)

ID(mA)

ID(mA)

VGS=

VGS=

VDS(V)

VDS(V)

ID(mA)

VDS(V)

ID(mA)

70

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

71

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No.11

IGBT Characteristics

Objective:

To study the characteristics of IGBT

Equipment:

IGBT-IRGBC 20S, Power Supplies, Wattage Resistors, Ammeter, Voltmeter, etc.

Circuit Diagram:

72

73

Procedure:

Collector Characteristics

1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Initially set V2 to VGEI = 5v (slightly more than threshold voltage)

3. Slowly vary VI and note clown Ic and VCE

4. For particular value of VGE there is pinch off voltage (VP) between collector

and emitter.

5. Repeat the experiment for different values of VGE and note down Ic v/s VCE

6. Draw the graph of Ic v/s VCE for different values of VGE.

Transconductance Characteristics

1. Connections are mode as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Initially keep VI and V2 at zero.

3. Set VCEI = say 0.8 v

4. Slowly vary V2 (VGE) and note down IC and VGE readings for every 0.5v and

enter tabular column

5. Repeat the experiment for different values of VCE and draw the graph of Ic v/s

vot

74

VGE=

VCE(V)

VGE=

IC(mA)

IC(mA)

VGE=

VGE=

VCE(V)

VCE(V)

IC(mA)

VCE(V)

IC(mA)

75

Comment :

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

76

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

Experiment No. 12

PWM generation for inverter circuit using 555 timer and 741

Operational Amplifier Natural Sampling Technique

Objective:

1. To become familiar with pulse width modulation for operating inverter circuits

2. Variation of duty cycle by comparing sawtooth waveform with constant value.

3. to study the operation of N-channel MOSFET operated using PWM train.

Equipment:

A DC power supply, bread board, N-channel MOSFET (IRF540), two general purposes

switching transistors (2N3904 and 2N396), Operational Amplifier 741, 555 timer IC,

two variable resistors (50K-ohm), resistors of required values (4.7K,10K,1K) and

capacitors (1 uF and 47 PF)

Datasheet information:

Carefully study the datasheet of different components and find out the following parameters

77

Gate-Source voltage = __________________

Turn ON time = ______________________

Turn OFF time = ______________________

Transistor 2N3904

Turn ON time = ______________________

Turn OFF time = _____________________

Rated Voltage = ______________________

Rated Current = ______________________

Transistor 2N3906:

Turn OFF time = _________________

Rated Voltage = __________________

Rated Current = __________________

78

Procedure

1. Arrange the circuit as shown in figure below

79

2. Observe the output at pin 6 of 555 timer at oscilloscope and sketch the two cycles

3. Adjust the frequency of above waveform equal to 1 KHZ with the help of variable

resistance and plot two cycles

80

5. Check the output voltage waveform at pin 6 of 741 and sketch the waveforms below

81

6. With the help of variable resistance connected at pin 2 of 741 adjust the duty of the

output waveform equal to 50% and sketch two cycles of waveform

7. Now sketch the waveform of step 3 and voltage at pin 2 of Op-Amp and voltage

waveform at pin 6 of 741 at same scale. (Three waveforms)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________

9. Does above waveform explain pulse width modulation ? which waveform is modulating

waveform in above waveform?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________

82

11. connect oscilloscope across the load resistance and sketch waveform

83

12. Vary the resistance controlling the duty cycle and record different reading in ascending

order of duty cycle.

No. ON Time

Duty Cycle

Ratio

Voltage at

pin 2 of

Op-Amp

Vo (dc)

Vo(dc)

(Practically

using DMM)

(Theoretically

using

Calculations)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

84

13. Sketch the waveform for observation 3, 5 ,7 and 9 ( Sketch triangular waveform, voltage

at pin 2 of op-Amp and voltage across load resistor for each reading)

For observations 3 from table:

85

86

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_______

Comments:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

How we can remove the 3rd harmonic and its multiples from the spectrum?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________

Note: On each graph clearly mention your time scale and magnitude; Plot at least two complete

cycles of waveforms else there will be zero credit. All the readings should be in sequence. Make

sure your roll number is written on each and every page of this handout. Please check the website

of your final lab simulation project.

87

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