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Cernohousova Lada

STJA 2014
EXAMPLES:

1. Vole, j se na to vykalu.
I said these words when I was working on a research paper and could not come up with any
good ideas. I was in the room by myself.

2. Mami, m slovo vole i jin vznam ne jako nadvka?


I asked my mother, whom I regard as a wise and intelligent person, for help when I was
thinking up other meanings of the world vole, apart from the one that is used most
commonly

3. Dnen mlde je sam vole, vole.

An elderly lady was complaining about the language of the young as she was talking to her
friend on the bus.

4. Krku u hus a kachen se k vole.


I approached my brother, who works in agriculture, to tell me what part of animals body vole
is, because I had only a vague idea.

5. Ty vole jeden!
A boy at a discotheque accidentally bumped into a girl, who spilled red wine on her dress and
said angrily: Ty vole jeden! She was clearly addressing it to the boy and wanted him to hear
it.

6. Co si zahrajeme te? Co teba Vole padni?


Our family gathered on one evening and played card games. We did not know what game to
play next and my grandfather suggested Vole padni. The phrase Vole padni, after which the
game is named, is used when a player lies his cards down on the table.

7. Vole novho prezidenta, plnil svoji obankou povinnost.


A sentence our professor of linguistics would perhaps say.

8. Kter nemoci se k struma, nebo lidov vole.


A presenter put a question to the competitors in a Czech quiz show. The correct
answer was nemoci zvten ttn lzy.

9. Ty vole, to snad nen mon.


These words were said by a friend of a mine during a hockey game. The team he supports
wasnt performing well. He sounded frustrated.

10. Ty vole!
Once again a sentence said by my friend, but in a different game of hockey. It was said after
his favorite player had scored a beautiful goal. I think he said the words unintentionally. He
expressed him being surprised and also fascinated by the goal.

COMMENTARY:
1. In this sentence, vole has an expressive function. It was used to vent feelings in a
frustrating situation. There was no receiver needed, only the speaker. David Crystal
labels it as emotive language. The word could be in a paradigmatic relationship with

words such as paneboe or sakra. In this case, it functions as a function word and
doesnt carry any deeper meaning.

2. Here, the word vole represents a metalinguistic function and does not have any
particular meaning. I could not have substituted it with any other word.
Syntagmatically, the preceding word slovo is accurate, but e.g. vraz is also
possible. Vole functions as a lexical word this time.

3. Vole, vole is an example of metalinguistic function as well. It is a lexical word in


this sentence and cannot be replaced by any other expression, because then the
sentence would lose its original meaning.

4. The function of the word vole is referential (prepositional or ideational according to


D. Crystal), and it is a lexical word, because it is a noun here and it carries meaning.
Syntagmatically, se k could be replaced by se nazv, but that would require
changing the sentence to Krk u hus a kachen se nazv vole.

5. In the fifth case, vole represents a conative function and it is a noun vl in the
fifth case. The conative function needs both the speaker and listener. Vole could be
in a paradigmatic relationship with e.g. the word blbe.

6. Vole padni is a name of a card game and therefore I think that the word vole may
have an aesthetic meaning. But it is also a noun in the fifth case, and that means it has
a conative function. The game can also be called vole padni, or otroku lehni when
it is played by kids, which means that in this particular case, vole is in a
paradigmatic relationship with otroku.

7. The seventh example shows a referential function of the word vole. It is the past
participle of the verb volit and it is a lexical word.

8. This utterance shows another meaning the world vole can have, and its function is
referential. It cannot be substituted by any other word and it is sonce again a lexical
word.

9. In this case, vole has an expressive function and the word was not used to offend
anybody. Therefore, I think it is a function word.

10. This sentence has the same form as the previous one, only my friend was able to
express a different kind of emotion through the word vole. Both the ninth and tenth
examples did not need a listener.

I think vole could have a poetic function if it was used in poetry. I cannot imagine a
situation where it would have phatic function. According to the data I have collected, vole
can be both a function and lexical word.