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By-products related to fuels

of acidic soil with an ettringite by98100308
product of wastewater treatment
Fey, M. V. et al. S. Afr. J. Planr Soil, 1997, 14, (3), 112-119.
The main by-product
of a saline water beneficiatioun
process currently
being evaluated by coal-based
industries is ettringite (CaizA114(OH)24(SO4)h S2HzO). The study is aimed to quantify and explain the benefits of
using this alkali waste to ameliorate acidic soils, by comparing its effect on
plant growth with those of calcite and gypsum. A four-week growth
experiment in a phytotron was conducted with maize (Zea mnys L.) in 1.2 kg
pots of acidic, sandy soil using treatment levels of CaCOx, C&O., 2HzO and
an ettringite-dominated
waste (EW) containing up to 2 g Ca per kg soil.
Cement containing fly ash with good long-term and
initial strength
Fujii, S. ef al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09,255,380 [97,255,380] (Cl.
C04B7/26), 30, Sep 1997, Appl. 96169,575, 26 Mar 1996.6 pp. (In Japanese)
The components and properties of the cement are described.
Chemical and physical properties
of chars with
heat treatment
Morishita, K. et al. DGMK Tanunnsber., 1997, 9703, (Proceedings
- I
97, Volume 2), 1249-1252.
The chars resulting from 12 coals heat treated at 900-1700C were gasified.
The gasification
of the char decreased
with increasing
heat treatment
and the degree of decrease depended on the coal rank. The
catalytic activity of mineral for char gasification and the crystallinity of the
carbon in char depended
on the coal type and the heat treatment
The decrease of the reactivity of the heat treated char was
by the catalytic
activity of the mineral matters and the
of the carbonaceous
Coal-tar pitch as a binder for the electrode industry
Kubica, K. et al. Karbo-Energochemical-Ekol.,
1996, 41, (3), 90-93. (In
Regarding its use as a binder in the electrode industry, the basic properties
of coal tar pitch are investigated.
of tar from pyrolysis
and hydropyrolysis
and their relationship with coal structure
Chen, H. K. er al. DGMK Tagungsber., 1997, 9703, (Proceedings ICCS 97,
Volume 2). 761-764.
In a 10 g fixed-bed reactor, Chinese bituminous
coal and lignite were
pyrolysed at a heating rate of 10Cimin up to 650C under 3 MPa of
nitrogen or hydrogen. Tar composition
analysis by GC-MS indicates the
n-alkanes in tars derived from Yanzhou bituminous coal are
C&r0 and Ci,-Cza in Hongmiao lignite. The oxygen-containing
groups in
Hongmiao coal are easily decomposed at 500C while in Yanzhou coal this
takes place at a temperature
above 6OoC, indicating the main structure in
Yanzhou coal is more condensed.
study on porous textures of ligniteand anthracite-based
in steam
Lutskanov, L. et al. DGMK Tagungsber., 1997, 9703, (Proceedings
97, Volume 2) 905-908.
Activated carbons produced in steam pyrolysis at 850C of samples from
Bulgarian lignites and anthracite were investigated concerning their porous
texture parameters.
The adsorption-desorption
isotherms of Nz were
determined as well as SnaET, CaET, the size, distribution
and volume of
pores and micropores. The texture parameters of the two different lignitederived active carbons were similar, but different from those of the
anthracite derived activated carbon.
Comparison of useful properties of selected liquid
coal derivatives
Banak-Tabkowska, J. and Tomaszkiewicz-Potepa,
A. Karbo-Energochemica[Ekol., 1996, 41, (12) 473-474, 476. (In Polish)
Different methods, selected on the basis of their possible application, have
been used to determine
the physicochemical
and group
compositions of coal tar, primary tar and coal-tar pitch.
for highways
with improved
mechanical resistance and flexural strength
Lizarraga Galarza, S. Span. ES 2,097,696 (Cl. C04B7/21), 1 Apr 1997,
Appl. 9,400,794, 15 Apr 1994, 5 pp. (In Spanish)
Composed of portland cement clinker, fly ash and/or blast furnace slag
comprise this concrete. Also included are 215% fluidization
agents of
sulfonated formaldehyde-melamine
or sulfonated naphthalene copolymers,
modified lignosulfonate
as a retardant additive, limestone or silica and l3% superplasticizer.
of the microstructure
of activated
chars made from preswollen coals
Klose W. ef al. DGMK Tagungsber., 1997, 9704, (Proceedings
ICCS 97,
Volume 3) 1469-1472.
The influence of pre-swelling on the pore structure of thermal activated
chars of high volatile coals pre-treated by solvent swelling was investigated.
The determined
apparent surface areas and pore radii distribution show


Fuel and Energy Abstracts

January 1998

that pre-swelling causes a pore widening and an increase in total pore

volume, but no development of new micropores. At the same burn-off an
increase of = SO% in the surface area and = 100% in the pure volume.
Dry triboelectrostatic
of fly ash
Ban, H. et al. Fuel, 1997, 76, (8). 801-805.
In conjunction with analysis techniques, a laboratory-scale
separation system was used to study fly ash beneficiation.
Fly ash samples
were characterized
by size analysis and carbon content and then subjected
to dry triboelectrostatic
Due to differences
in the surface
physical and chemical properties of the carbon and ash, particles of unburnt
carbon and fly ash were triboelectrically
charged to opposite polarity and
then separated
by passing them through a static electricity field. Ash
fractions deposited on the positive and negative electrodes were collected,
analysed for carbon content and subjected to SEM and petrographical
analyses. The results indicate that the physical and chemical properties of
the ash dictate the maximum carbon-ash separation that would be possible.
the potential of dry separation
for removing
unburnt carbon from coal ash was demonstrated.
Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature
Murishita, K. ef al. Sekitan Kagaku Kaigi Happy0 Ronbunshu,
1996, 33,
225-228. (In Japanese)
To investigate the relationship between physical and chemical properties of
coal semi-coke treated at high temperature
and gasification reactivity, coal
semi-cokes of various coal rank were characterized
by oxygen gasification,
TPD, X-ray diffraction and AAS. At 900-1700C
the gasification reactivity
of thermally processed semi-coke decreases with increasing temperature
thermal treatment, and the degree of decrease depends on the coal types.
The mineral matters of coal play a rule of catalyst in coal gasification at low
Effect of heating on the
and thermal and rheological properties
Zielinski, J. et al. Karbo-Energochemical-Ekol.,
(In Polish)
A change in the rheology of a coal tar pitch
subjected to thermal soaking at temperatures
contents in the coal tar pitch
thermal soaking above >4OoC.

of coal-tar pitch
1996, 41, (12) 477-481.
was witnessed when it was
of 350-4OOC. Decreasing of
has been observed after its

Effects of pressure carbonization
on preparation
process of carbonlcarbon
composites from coal tar pitch
Oh, I.-S. et al. Han@k
Chaelyo Hakhoechi,
1997, 7, (5). 397-402.
The paper investigates the degree of crystallinity, porosity and oxidation
resistance of coal tar pitch with the heat treatment
pressure. Hexagonal type 4D carbon fibre/carbon
matrix composites were
made from the matrix of coal tar pitch through the process of pressure
and carbonization
(PIC). The effect of applied pressure on
was observed and it was revealed that the pressure of
had little effect on the degree of graphitization.
The pore
area ratio of coke was decreased by 1.5 times when it was treated at 600 bar.
As the treatment
the initial temperature
of the
oxidation reaction of cokes obtained with the heat treatment up to 650 C
was delayed. As the pressure to carbon/carbon
composites increased from
100 to 600 bar, the ratio of the density was greatly improved and porosity
Ethylene polymer composition containing fly ash
Yamamoto, K. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09,263,662 [97,263,662]
(Cl. COSL23/04), 7 Ott 1997, Appl. 96174,123, 28 Mar 1996, 6 pp. (In
The features of this composition include balanced mechanical properties,
and dimensional
stability. It comprises 100 parts ethylene
polymers showing density 0.840-0.925 g/cm and 100-900 parts fly ash.
Thus, 100 parts ultralow density polyethylene and 300 parts fly ash were
blended and moulded to give 1 mm sheet showing tensile modulus 1200 kg/
cm and elongation 180%.
Fly ash beneficiation in South Africa: creating new
opportunities in the market-place
Kruger, R. A. Fuel, 1997, 76, (8). 777-179.
The paper describes ways in which air classification, electrostatic
and density separation can be used to obtain specific fractions of fly ash
with different characteristics.
Possible markets for these products
Fly Ash in Concrete: Production,
Joshi, R. C. and Lobtia, R. P. 1997, 128 pp.



Fly ash
Makino, H. Funtai Kegake Ku&hi, 1997, 34, (S), 361-366. (In Japanese)
The fly ash generation process in electrical power stations and physical,
chemical, and morphology characteristics
of the fly ash are briefly described
together with its applications. These include blended portland cement and