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You are on page 1of 46

ALKANOLAMINE SYSTEM

Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

In

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

By

Sourav Modi

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela 769008

May 2011

MODELLING VLE OF ACID GAS AQUEOUS

ALKANOLAMINE SYSTEM

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree

Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

In

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

By

Sourav Modi

Under the guidance of

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela 769008

May 2011

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled Application of UNIQUAC model in modeling VLE of

acid gas aqueous alkanolamine system submitted by Sourav Modi bearing Roll No. 107CH022

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the prescribed curriculum of Bachelor of

Technology in Chemical Engineering Session 2007-2011 in the department of Chemical

Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela is an authentic work carried out by him

under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in the

thesis is his bona fide work.

Supervisor:

Prof. M. Kundu

Department of Chemical Engineering

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela -769008

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank the Department of Chemical Engineering, NIT Rourkela for

providing me an opportunity to work on the project Application of UNIQUAC model in

modeling VLE of acid gas aqueous alkanolamine system. I would like to thank my supervisor

Prof. M. Kundu for her steadfast support and guidance in this regard and also for providing me

the motivation and constructive criticism throughout the course of the project.

I would also like to thank Prof. R.K. Singh and Prof. H.M. Jena for acting as the project

coordinators and for their valuable suggestions. I am grateful to our Head of Department(HOD)

Prof. K.C. Biswal for providing me with all the necessary opportunities for completion of my

project.

Sourav Modi

107CH022

iii

ABSTRACT

The removal of acidic gases like Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen sulphide from gas streams is a

very important operation in natural gas and synthetic ammonia industries, petrochemical plants

and oil refineries. For this purpose absorption with aqueous solutions of alkanolamines is being

used. The objective is to develop a thermodynamic VLE model in order to calculate the

equilibrium distribution of ionic and molecular species in the highly non-ideal liquid phase. This

thesis is a work on the application of the UNIQUAC model in modeling VLE of acid gas

alkanolamine system.

iv

CONTENTS

Page No.

Certificate

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of Figures

List of Tables

Nomenclature

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

ii

iii

iv

vii

viii

ix

ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT

DEBYE-HUCKEL EQUATION

ALKANOLAMINES AND LOADING

APPROACHES FOR MODELLING

5

6

6

7

7

2.5.1

2.5.2

2.5.3

2.5.4

7

8

9

9

Davies equation

Non-Random Two Liquid model (NRTL)

The UNIFAC model

The UNIQUAC model

Chapter 3

MODELING

3.1 MODELING

3.2 UNIQUAC MODEL

3.2.1 Combinatorial Part Of The UNIQUAC Gibbs Excess

Energy Function

3.2.2 Residual Part Of The UNIQUAC Gibbs Excess Energy

Function

3.2.3 Debye-Huckel Part Of The UNIQUAC Gibbs Excess

Energy Function

12

13

13

16

18

4.1 OPTIMIZATION

4.2 OUTPUT

23

24

5.1 RESULTS

5.2 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

REFERENCES

29

31

32

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

Title

Page No.

30

(utMDEA-MDEA vs T)

Figure 2:

30

(utH2O-MDEA vs T)

vii

LIST OF TABLES

Title

Table 1:

Table 2:

Page No.

Data sets used for model development and mean deviation % for the

predicted values of Solubility in the CO2-MDEA-H2O system

29

29

viii

NOMENCLATURE

VLE

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

MDEA

activity coefficient

loading

volume parameter

density(kgm )

Molecular weight

No. of moles

u ,u

ionic charge

i,j

index

excess

asymmetrical

ix

partial pressure of CO

equilibrium constant

combinatorial

residual

DH

Debye Huckel

Volume fraction

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION

Removal of acid gas impurities such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbonyl sulfide (COS),

and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas streams is a very important operation for natural gas

processing, oil refineries, coal gasification, ammonia manufacture and petrochemical plants. The

removal of acid gases from gas streams (commonly referred to as the acid gas treating process

and also as the gas sweetening process) is a technology which has been in use industrially for

over half a century. The impurities when present in gas streams may lead to very serious

problems in pipeline transportation and downstream processing of the gas. Some of the CO2 is

quite often removed from natural gas because at high concentrations it reduces the heating value

of the natural gas and it is also costly to compress this extra volume for transportation of natural

gas in pipelines.

For the rational and effective design of the gas treating processes a sound knowledge of

the vapour liquid equilibrium of acid gases in alkanolamines are very essential, besides the

knowledge of mass transfer and the kinetics of processes like absorption and regeneration.

Moreover, the equilibrium solubility of acid gases in aqueous alkanolamine solutions determines

the minimum recirculation rate of the solution to treat a specific sour gas stream and it also

determines the maximum concentration of the acid gases which can be left in the regenerated

solution in order to meet the product gas specification. The representation of an experimental

VLE data with a rigorous thermodynamic model is necessary so that one can systematically

interpolate in between and also extrapolate beyond the experimental data. Accurate models are

also essential for the clear understanding of complex equilibrium of weak electrolyte systems

represents the absorption with chemical reaction of acidic gases into aqueous single and mixed

alkanolamine solvents.

Over the decades, we have witnessed a noteworthy development in modeling vapourliquid equilibria of acid gases over alkanolamines. Some of the path breaking works in this

regard are the models developed by Kent & Eisenberg (1976), Desmukh and Mather (1981),

Electrolytic NRTL model by Austgen et al. (1989), and Clegg-Pitzer correlation by Li and

Mather.

The primary objectives of this work are:

VLE of CO2 in aqueous N-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA) solvent .

To validate the developed model with the help of the experimental results

available in the open literature over a wide range of amine composition, CO2

partial pressure and temperature.

The model was able to predict the equilibrium distribution of species, ionic and

molecular, in highly non-ideal liquid phase.

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE

REVIEW

4

2.1

Vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE), is the condition when a liquid and its vapour (gaseous

phase) are in equilibrium with each other, a state where the rate of evaporation (liquid getting

converted to vapour) equals the rate of condensation (vapour getting converted to liquid) on a

molecular level such that there is no net vapour-liquid inter-conversion. Although theoretically

equilibrium takes a very long time to attain, such equilibrium is practically reached in a relatively

closed location if the liquid and its vapour are allowed to stand in contact with each other for

sometime with no interference or only slow interference from the outside.

=

(i)

Where yi is the mole fraction of the component i in vapour phase and xi is the mole fraction of

the component i in liquid phase. Ki is the equilibrium constant for the component i. From

thermodynamics

=

(ii)

and P is the total pressure of the mixture. For the condensable components as considered

here, 0 is the fugacity of pure liquid i at system temperature T and pressure P. It is calculated

from

[Prausnitz, 1969]

=

(iii)

Where, for the pure liquid i, is the saturation (vapour) pressure, is the fugacity coefficient

at saturation, and vi, is the molar liquid volume, at a fixed temperature T. Only pure- component

data are required to evaluate . The fugacity coefficients (in the mixture) and (pure i at

saturation are found from the vapour-phase volumetric properties. Normally, at the low pressures

considered here, these fugacity coefficients do not deviate much from unity. To determine K

factors, the quantity which is the most difficult to estimate is the activity co-efficient
.

2.2

ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT:

Activity coefficients might be measured experimentally or calculated theoretically, using the

Debye-Hckel equation or extensions such as the Davies equation or specific ion interaction

theory (SIT) can also be used. Alternatively correlative methods such as the UNIQUAC, NRTL

or UNIFAC method may be employed, provided that the fitted component-specific or model

parameters are available.

2.3

DEBYE-HUCKEL EQUATION:

In order to determine the activity of an ion in a given solution, one must know the

[P. Debye and E. Hckel (1923)].

=

["["]$]

(iv)

[C0] represents the concentration of the chosen standard state, e.g. 1 mol/kg if we work in

molality.

2.4

Alkanolamines are special chemical compounds that carry hydroxy (-OH) and amino (-

NH2, -NHR) functional groups on an alkane backbone. The basic amine group is use to absorb

the acidic CO' gas whereas the OH group undergoes H-bonding as a result of which the

associative power increases due to which the vapor pressure of the solvent reduces. The reason

for using alkanolamines for absorption of gases like CO' from natural gas is that the rate of

absorption of CO' is very high compared to other solvents (like KOH).

MDEA (Methyl Diethanol Amine) is the most commonly used alkanolamine for CO'

absorption. Being a tertiary amine, there is no carbamate formation and loading is high.(Loading

is defined as the moles of CO' absorbed per mole of amine).

2. 5

Different approaches have been suggested for the thermodynamic modelling of chemical

2.5.1

Davies equation:

The Davies equation is an empirical extension of the DebyeHckel equation which can

concentrations. The equation was developed by fitting to experimental data. The final form of the

equation gives the mean molal activity coefficient,

log f = 0.5z1 z2 (

1+1.54

0.30I)

(v)

The second term, 0.30 I, approaches zero as the ionic strength goes to zero, so the

equation reduces to the DebyeHckel equation at

7

concentration increases, the second term becomes more and more important, so the Davies

equation can be used for highly concentrated solutions to allow the use of the DebyeHckel

equation. For 1:1 electrolytes the difference between the measured values and those calculated

with the help of this equation is about 2% of the value for 0.1 m solutions. The calculations

become less accurate for electrolytes that dissociate into ions with higher charges. Further

discrepancies will also arise if there is an association between the ions, with the formation of ionpairs, such as Mg2+SO42.

2.5.2

The Non-Random Two Liquid model (NRTL model) is an activity coefficient model that

correlates the activity coefficients i of a compound i with its mole fractions xi in the concerning

liquid phase. It is frequently applied in the field of chemical engineering in order to calculate the

phase equilibria. The concept of NRTL is based on the hypothesis of Wilson which states that

the local concentration around a molecule is quite different from the bulk concentration. This

difference arises due to a difference between the interaction energy of the central molecule with

molecules of its own kind and that with the molecules of the other kind. The energy difference

also introduces non-randomness at the local molecular level. The NRTL model belongs to the socalled local composition models [Renon, Prausnitz 1968].

In the case of the explanation of a vapour liquid equilibria it is essential to know which

saturated vapour pressure of the pure components was used and whether the gas phases was

treated as an ideal gas or a real gas. Accurate saturated vapour pressure values are very important

in the determination or the description of an azeotrope. The gas fugacity coefficients are most

often set to unity (ideal gas assumption), but the vapour-liquid equilibria at high pressures (i.e. >

10 bar) needs an equation of state to calculate the gas fugacity coefficient for a real gas

description.

2.5.3

UNIFAC is a semi-empirical system for the prediction of non-electrolyte activity

estimation in non-ideal mixtures. The UNIFAC method uses the functional groups present on the

molecules which make up the liquid mixture to calculate the activity coefficients. By utilizing

the interactions for each of the functional groups present on the molecules, as well as some

binary interaction coefficients, the activity of each solution can be calculated.

2.5.4

UNIQUAC (UNIversal QUAsiChemical) is an activity coefficient model that assumes

that the excess Gibbs energy of electrolyte system can be considered as a sum of two terms, one

related to long range forces in between the ions and the other related to short ranges forces

between all the species.

Empirical correlations can be used. However they fail when they are

extrapolated to conditions other than what they are based on.

Equation of state may be used. But the performance of equation of state greatly

depends on the mixing rules chosen and an unsuitable choice leads to error.

UNIQUAC model is frequently applied in the description of phase equilibria (i.e.

9

calculated the activity coefficients using the UNIQUAC model .

10

CHAPTER-3

MODELING

11

3.1

MODELING:

Chemical Equilibria[11]: In the aqueous phase for the CO2-MDEA-H2O system the

i)

Ionization of water:

:;

ii)

(1)

K1

?

CO' (aq) + 2H' O(C ) HCO@

> + H> O

iii)

(2)

:J

(3)

K/:J

(4)

MDEA + H> O? <M= MDEAH ? + H' O

Combining equations (2) and (4),

:N /:J

>

(5)

Equation (5) is the required model equation for the CO2-MDEA-H2O model.

p"PJ = H"PJ .

:N

QWXYZ QRJ T

\RJ T \WXYZ

(6)

The equilibrium concentration of each species can be obtained by the electroneutrality condition

and mass balance equations as the following:

]^_`ab [ = ]bcdUV = ]^_`a

(Electroneutrality condition)

12

Mass Balance:

]^_`a

= ]^_`a + ]^_`ab [

(7)

(8)

Where, o presents the initial concentration of the compounds and the variable is the

CO' loading in the equilibrated liquid phase, expressed in moles of CO' per mole of the amine.

The activity coefficient () for each species is obtained with the help of the UNIQUAC model.

3.2

UNIQUAC MODEL:

The UNIQUAC model assumes that the molar excess Gibbs energy of an electrolyte

system consists of short-range (gSR) and long-range (gLR) terms.

=

gh

fY

fij

gh

fkj

gh

(9)

For short-range interaction, with the ion-pair assumption, the UNIQUAC equation

with both

fkj

gh

= ( )"lmnopqrlsoqt + ( )guvowxqt

fY

gh

fY

gh

(10)

The Debye Huckel part is used to represent contribution from long range ion-ion interactions

which are most important at low concentrations.

3.2.1

Cy'-MDEA (alkanolamine)z' O system is comprised of molecules and ions which differ

appreciably in size and shape. Unlike other models, UNIQUAC model has advantage of giving

consideration to molecular shape and size through structural parameters. The combinatorial part

is related to the structural parameters.

13

(ng | /RT)

lmnopqrlsoqt

= o no ln ( ) z/2 qo no ln ( )

= o no ln (

p

p

(11)

) z/2 qo no ln ( )

= ]y ]y' ]]y

(12)

BCOM = no ln (no / )

CCOM = qo no ln ( )

]y' =

=

(13)

MOLES(I) = no

RPARAMETER(I) = ro

DENOMR = 1/ nt rt

ln (PHITT(I) = LPHITT(I)

(BCOM/ no )h,,p

lpvrqpr

(14)

p s

p s

)/ no

(15)

lpvrqpr

/n [1

= LPHITT(I) + 1 PHITT(I)

[1 / ]

(BCOM/ no )h,,p

""P

/ '

= /n [1

= ln

= ln

= qo ln + q n ln / no

p

p

]

(16)

(17)

14

= ( / nt rt )( nt qt /no qo )

o

= ro /qo t nt qt / t nt rt

= RPARAMETER(I).

= PHTHH(I)

|Pg

g|h|g()

. DENOMQ

(18)

lnPHTHH(I) = LPHTHH(I)

ln

= r / q [qo / nt rt ro nt qt / nt rt' ]

no

= r / q (

= r / q (

= r / q (

p s

K

p s

)[ / ]

)[qo

)qo [1

o

= (qo / nt qt ) [1 ]

o

K

p s

(19)

CCOM

o

o

= qo ln + q n (qo / nt qt ) 1

o

o

no

= qo ln + qo 1

(1/ nt qt ) n q

= q [ln + 1 ]

(ng | /RT)/ no

lmnopqrlsoqt

= ln + 1

(20)

' ln + 1

15

PHTHH(I)]

= (ln o )

3.2.2

lmnopqrlsoqt

(21)

The residual part is related to the interaction parameters due to short range interactions

between between molecule-molecule, molecule-ion and ion-ion. Concentrations of CO'> ,H> O?

V

are so small that ion pairs associated with these species may be neglected.

(

ng |

)

= no qo ln ( o )

RT suvowxqt

o

(22)

TPP(I) = o

TPPI(I) = 1/TPP(I)

= /

(23)

= THEETA(J)

= exp (

q

h

(24)

a

= AKII. TKII = LPSII(J, I)

T

a = uo uoo

= AKII

(25)

16

ng |

(((

)/ no )h,,p

RT

lpvrqpr )suvowxqt

= qo ln (TPP(I) n q /TPP(J)(

TPP(J)

no h,,p

lpvrqpr

= ( / ) + (

=0

h()

p

)h,,p

lpvrqpr

(26)

= qo ( nt qt no qo ) / nt q't

no

= qo (n q / nt q't

no

(

TPP(J)

)

no h,,p

lpvrqpr

THEETA(J). PSII(I, J)]

(27)

ng |

[((

)/ no )h,,p ]

RT

= QPARAMETER(I)[lnTPP(I)

MOLES(J)QPARAMETER(J)

(DENOMQ. TPP(J) PSII(I, J)]

TPP(J)

= QPARAMETER(I)[lnTPP(I)

THEETA(J)

(TPP(J) PSII(I, J))]

TPP(J)

17

(28)

= (C )

The Debye Huckel formula is used to represent contribution from long range ion-ion

interactions which are most important at low concentrations.

( gh )unu@x

pfY

ut

nJ

'

(29)

(30)

mo = no /n M

(31)

dmo

'

= no M /n M

dn

= /n' M

= m /n

(32)

dI

dmo

= 0.5.

. zo'

dn

dn

= 0.5. p . zo'

m

= . mo /zo'

.

= I/n

dI

= 0.5zo' /n M

dno

((

ng |

)/ n )unu@x

RT

= M .

N

nU

'

ut

N

J

N

J

. ln 1 + bI bI +

( )(I/ n ]

nJ

(33)

n M . (

nJ

'

N

nU

tpK?nJ

)[

J

p;

+

(34)

18

K

I '

I

= (0.5/I ' )(

)

n

n

N

= (0.5/I J )(p )

=

.

. IK/'

ln 1 + bI '

(35)

=

1 + I

=

ng |

RT

)

(

n unu@x

.

I '

)

K (

n

'

K?J

(p )

J

(36)

ut

K

K

K

4AK

b' I

0.5bI '

b' I

'

= M. > ln 1 + bI' bI' +

+

0.5bI

K

b

2

2

'

1 + bI

K

K

2AK

= M. > 2ln 1 + bI ' bI '

b

bI '

1+

K

bI '

K

K

2AK

= M. > 2ln 1 + bI ' 1 bI' + 1

b

bI '

1+

K

K

bI '

K

K

K

2AK

1 + bI' bI '

= M. > 2ln 1 + bI ' 1 bI' +

K

b

'

1 + bI

M. nUN [1 + bI J

'

N

K?nJ

2 ln(1 + bI J )]

(37)

19

= (ln )unu@x

ut

ng |

RT

(

)

no unu@x

= n M .

N

nU

ut

tpK?nJ

p

J

J

(38)

I' 0.5

= K . I/ no

no

I'

=

.

N

J

.(

.J

p; ;

K

ln 1 + bI '

no

(39)

b

=

1 + bI

=

K?nJ

ng |

RT

(

)

no unu@x

=

=

I '

.

K

no

'

.

N

.J

. (p

; ;

(40)

ut

zo' AK

b

1 b

'

K . K K + b

>

b

1 + bI ' I' I '

zo' AK

b ' IK/'

1+

K . 1

bI'

zo' AK

b' I

K

b ' IK/'

1 + bI'

N

= (zo' AK I J )/(1 + bI J )

= (ln )unu@x

+ bI '

(41)

ut

20

The activity coefficients of the various components in the electrolyte system due to short range

and long range contributions are then calculated as follows:

i)

lnp = (lnp )

ii)

lmnopqrlsoqt

ut

(42)

lnm = (lnm )

iii)

lmnopqrlsoqt

ut

(43)

lno = (lno )

lmnopqrlsoqt

ut

(44)

Assumptions:

1. For simplicity, the ionic species of CO32- in the aqueous phase was neglected, because its

concentration is very low in comparison with the other species dissolved in a mixed

alkanolamine-water system.

2. Water is the only solvent used in the CO2-MDEA-H2O system.

3. It is assumed that all the dissolved CO2 is converted into HCO3- ions.

4. The symmetric convention for water is adopted (H2O=1).

5. Like-like interactions are neglected.

21

CHAPTER-4

MATLAB

PROGRAMMING

22

4.

MATLAB PROGRAMMING:

With all the assumptions mentioned in previous chapter taken into account, a MATLAB program

was written for the UNIQUAC model.

4.1

OPTIMIZATION:

The optimization of the objective function was done with the help of MATLAB 7.1

Objective function= | |/

An initial guess was made for the interaction parameters for iterations to begin and the upper and

lower bound values were fixed.

Optimset() function was used for providing options such as the maximum number of iterations

(Maxiter), maximum functional value(MaxFunEval) and the tolerance values (TolFun,TolX).

Optimization was done using the fmincon() function.

A new set of interaction parameters was obtained for the UNIQUAC model which is further

validated.

23

4.2

OUTPUT:

T = 313 K

error = 1.958001322025627e-004

max

Iter F-count

65

f(x) constraint

0.0001958

-0.001

Directional

First-order

0.125

0.00451

And maximum constraint violation is less than options.TolCon.

No active inequalities.

x = 1.0e+004 *

-0.02998971991077

0.00045267699418

0.00998971924587

0.00014715720487

5.00000000000000

0.00000010000000

5.00000000000000

0.00000100000000

24

T = 343 K

error =

6.227530056201164e-004

Iter F-count

4

49

f(x)

0.000622753

max

Directional First-order

constraint

-0.001

0.5

0.0193

and maximum constraint violation is less than options.TolCon.

No active inequalities.

x = 1.0e+004 *

-0.03000055437520

0.00027513627935

0.01000055437513

0.00032486372737

5.00000000000000

0.00000010000000

5.00000000000000

0.00000100000000

25

T=373 K

error =

0.00529445466895

max

Iter F-count

5

61

f(x)

0.00529445

constraint

-0.001

Directional First-order

Step-size derivative optimality Procedure

0.5

0.025

and maximum constraint violation is less than options.TolCon.

No active inequalities.

x = 1.0e+004 *

-0.03000046108365

0.00026744995324

0.01000046048741

0.00033054634542

5.00000000000000

0.00000010000000

5.00000000000000

0.00000100000000

26

T = 298 K

error =

0.00292361

max

Iter F-count

9

94

f(x)

constraint

0.00292361 -1.054e-007

Directional First-order

Step-size derivative optimality Procedure

0.5

0.0173

2*options.TolFun and maximum constraint violation is less than options. TolCon.

No active inequalities.

x=

1.0e+004 *

-0.02293403405515

0.00000000001054

0.00293403441548

0.00042654648869

5.00000000000000

0.00000010000000

5.00000000000000

0.00000100000000

27

CHAPTER-5

RESULTS AND

DISCUSSION

28

5.1

RESULTS

Temperature dependent interaction parameters were determined; hence the experimental data

from the open literature were correlated with a correlation deviation of 0-1 % . In this work, the

experimental solubility data (Sheng et al.(1995).) comprising acid gas loadings in the range of

(0.0009 to 1.8) mol/mol and the partial pressures of acid gas in the range of (0.001 to 6400) kPa

at 2 M MDEA concentration have been used to estimate the interaction parameters by regression

analysis. The model thus developed was used as a predictive model at different MDEA

concentration over wide range of CO2 partial pressure and with mean deviation of 4 %.

The optimization of the objective function was done with the help of MATLAB 7.1

Objective function= | |/

(47)

Table 1 : Data sets used for model development and mean deviation % for the predicted

values of Solubility in the CO2-MDEA-H2O system

Reference

[MDEA] / M

T/K

Data points

Sheng et al

298,313,343,373

49

Mean absolute

error deviation(%)

0-1 (correlation)

Austgen and

Rochelle

2,4.28

313

14

4.17 (Prediction)

Pair

u0H2O-MDEA

utH2O-MDEA

u0MDEA-MDEA

utMDEA-MDEA

T=298K

-229.34

0.000000105

29.34

T=313K

-299.9

4.5

99.9

T=343K

-300

2.75

100

T=373K

-300

2.67

100

4.26

1.47

3.25

3.3

29

utMDEA-MDEA ->

utMDEA-MDEA vs T

4.5

4

3.5 y = 0.0009x2 - 0.5877x + 100.92

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

250

300

350

utMDEA-MDEA

Poly. (utMDEA-MDEA )

400

Temperature,T(K) ->

utH2O-MDEAvs T

5

utH2O-MDEA

->

4

3

2

utH2O-MDEAvs T

Poly. (utH2O-MDEAvs

T)

1

0

250

300

350

400

TemperatureT(K) ->

30

5.2

UNIQUAC model was developed for predicting CO2 solubility in highly non-ideal liquid

phase. The model predicted partial pressures of CO2 have been found to be in good agreement

with the experimental data available in the open literature.

Future Scope:

Since a model has been developed for predicting the CO2 solubility in highly non ideal acid gas

aqueous alkanolamine (CO2MDEAH' O) system, this model could be of immense help in the

energy sector for predicting the CO2 partial pressures. With lots of recent research work being

done in this field, this model may also be extended to predict the CO2 solubility in systems

containing different blends of alkanolamine (DEA, MEA, MAE, AMP, DIPA).

31

REFERENCES

32

6.

REFERENCES

1) Ali Haghtalab, Electrolyte UNIQUAC-NRF Model to Study the Solubility of Acid Gases

in Alkanolamines, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46, (2007) No.18

2) B. Lemoine et al, Partial Vapor pressure of CO2 and H2S over methyldiethanolamine

solutions Fluid Phase Eqilibria 172 (2000) 261-277.

3) C. Mathonat, V. Majer, A.E. Mather, J.P.E Grolier, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 140, (1997),

171-182.

Aqueous Acid Gas-Alkanolamine Systems. 2. Representation of H2S and CO2 Solubility

in Aqueous MDEA and CO2 Solubility in Aqueous Mixtures of MDEA with MEA or

DEA, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Vol 30, No.3 (1991) 543-555.

5) D.M. Austgen, G.T. Rochelle, X. Ping, C.C. Chen, Model of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for

Eng. Chem. Res. Vol 28 (1989) 1060-1073.

6) F.Y Jou , J.J. Carroll , A.E. Mather, F.D. Otto, The solubility of carbon dioxide and

Eng., 71(1993),264-268.

33

7) F.Y Jou, A.E. Mather, F.D. Otto, The solubility of CO2 in a 30 mass percent

monoethanolamine solution, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 73, (1995) 140-147.

8) George Kuranov, Bernd Rumpf, Natalia A. Smirnova, and Gerd Maurer, Solubility of

Single Gases Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide inAqueous Solutions of NMethyldiethanolamine in the TemperatureRange 313-413 K at Pressures up to 5 MPa,

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 35, (1996) 1959-1966

9) Kaj Thomsen, The extended UNIQUAC model. Aqueous Solutions, (2004) 1-12.

10) Keh-Pemg Shen and Meng Hul Li, Solubility of CO2 in aqueous mixtures of MEA and

MDEA, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 37, (1992) 96-100.

11) Leila Faramarzi, Georgios M. Kontogeorgis, Kaj Thomsen, Erling H.Stenby, Extended

UNIQUAC model for thermodynamic modelling of CO2 absorption in aqueous

alkanolamine solutions, doi:10.1016/j.fluid.2009.05.002

solubility of acid gases in monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine(MDEA)

solutions using the electrolyte-UNIQUAC model, 183-184, (2001) 159-171.

13) Olukayode Fatai Dawodu and Axel Meisen, Solubility of CO2 in aqueous mixtures of

alkanolamines, J. Chem .Eng. Data, 39 (1994) 548-552.

34

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1969).

15) Smith J. M., Van Ness H. C., Abbott M. M., Introduction to Chemical Engineering

Thermodynmics, Mc Graw Hill, (2005).

Electrolyte Systems.Chemical Engineering Science, 54, (1999) 1787-1802

17) Viktor Ermatchkov, A. lvaro Perez-Salado Kamps, and Gerd Maurer, Solubility of

Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solutions of N-Methyldiethanolamine in the Low Gas

Loading Region, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45, (2006) 6081-6091

35

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