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PART V " Romenttc$m,tszo-tgoo

278

t))

o\vnlopvrNt
3,46

\m

0,00

Music of fairies (first theme)


rvorked out in different kcys

Fairies'music
developed

0,36 French horn blasts


1,06 Fairies' music extended
l:4 I Lysander and Hermia

42)
45)
527

String pizzicato and string tremolo


Ritard,

'olt string

sound, music seems

to come to stop

sleep

RECAPITULATION

5,5) ffi! 0,00 Retr-trn lo enchantment


0:)2 farrles muslc
6,14
6,5

'I

,06

Four introductory chords rettrrn

Dancing fairies' music returns (first


theme), but transition is eliminated

Lovers' music

Lyrical melody in woodwinds and


strings (second theme) as before

7,47

1,55

Bottom's music

Again ratLcous Jortissino music of


ass (closing theme, part 1)

B'52

3,00

Royal hunting partY

Fanfares (closing theme, part 2)


serve as ending to recapitulation

3:)4

Epilogue by fairy

CODA

9.16

Puck

Light, quick music of fairiest


toward end, Duke Theseus and
four opening chords recalled

Use a downloadable, cross-platform animated Active Listening Guide, available


at wwwthomsonedu.com/music/wright.

Thomson
ThomsonNOWlor Listentng to Mustc, Sth Edition,
and Llsfenlng to Western Music will assist you in
understanding the content of this chapter wlth

esson plans generated for your specific needs


In addilron, you may complete this chapter's

Listening Exerclse in ThomsonNOW's interactive


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succeed in this course

program music (267)


absolute music (267)
program

symphony (267)
dramatic
overture (268)
concert overture (268)

symphonic (tone)
poem (268)
ophicleide (269)
English horn (269)

cornet (269)
id{e fxe (270)
Dres irae

(271)

diminution (272)
double
counterpoin t (272)
collegno (zz2)
Cewandhaus
Orchestra (275)
incidentai music (276)

Early Romantic Muii


PIANO MLISIC
grew in size and power during the nineteenth
by the new technology of the Induswhrile srstill encased in an exterior wooden "shell," the piano's
triial
al FRe'volutionr.W
.CVlC
-ern
tn.te rnal, frame, pfev rusly wooden as well, was now made of cast iron, allowing

honly or(
orchestra
J,u5ISttas the symlpno
U

piano, propelled
id tlhe pi
ntu
tury'/ so too did
CCln
1

Ear.ly Romantic Music, Piano

Music

CHApT ER

25 27g

for greater tension on the strings. This cast-iron frame supported thicker steel
strings, which greatly increased the volume of sound and allowed the pianist

to pound away on the keyboard without breaking the strings. (Recall that
Beethoven's forceful playing had been known to wreak havoc on the older
wooden-frame piano5-5ee Chapter 21 ) But not only could the Romantic
piano support louder and more aggressive playing, it also facilitated a gentler,
more lyrical style as well, its hammers were covered with felt, which allowed
the instrument to "sing" with a mellow tone, in contrast to the "ping,, of the
pianos of Mozart's day. Like the growing nineteenth-century orchestra, the
piano could now produce both a very loud sound (Jortissino) and a very soft
one (pianissimo) The instrument's range increased as well, whereas the piano
in the 1790s encompassed five octaves, it spanned seven by the 1g40s By midcentury the piano was equipped with two pedals, operated by the performer's
feet. on the right side was the sustainingpedal, which enabled strings to
continue to sound after the performer had lifted his or her hand from the corresponding keys. on the left was the softpedal, which softened the dynamic
level by shifting the position of the hammers relative to the strings Finally, in
the 1850s, the Steinway company of New York began cross-stringing the
piano, overlaying the lowest-sounding strings across those of the middle register, and thereby producing a richer, more homogeneous sound. By the midnineteenth century, all the essential features of the modern piano were in
place-the essential design of the piano has not changed in .l 50 years
As the piano grew larger and more expressive, it became something of a
home entertainment centel a place where the family could gather to play and
sing before the days of television and electronrc entertainment. Every aspiring middle-class home had to have a piano, both for family enjoyment and as a
status symbol-the "high art" instrument in the parlor signi6ed to visitors that
they had entered a "cultured" home. Parents made sure their children, especially the girls, received lessons, and publishers, eager to profit from the vogue
for the piano, turned out reams of sheet music for pianists of all skill levels.
Spurred by the sudden populariry of the piano, a host of virtuoso performers set

upon the concert halls of Europe with fingers blazing.

what they played

was often more a display of technical fireworks-rapid octaves, racing chromatic scales, thundering chords-than of musical substance Happily, however,

several of the greatest piano virtuosos of the nineteenth century were also
gifted composers.

FREDERIC CHOptN

o- t 84s)

In the compositions ol Frederic Chopin (Flg.

zS-r), rhe piano and irs music

have their most perfect union. This "poet of the piano," as he


was called, was
born ne ar \warsaw, Poland, of a French father and. a polish mother.
The father

lreater size and complexity

tbe

oJ the

piano

piano' symbol of a cultured bone

FIGURE

25-1

A superbly Romantic portrait of Chopin by


Eugene Delacroix lt was originally painted

with Chopin next to George Sand (see


Fig.25-2). But in 1870, a vandal slashed
the double portrait, thereby (unintentionally) creating two canvases.

28O PART V

'Romanticism,4s2o-4soo

Poland's fight for freedom was crushed by Russian troops, and Chopin never

returned to his homeiand


After an unsuccessful year in Vienna, the twenty-one-year-old Chopin arrived in Paris in September 1 8 3 1 His inaugural concerts caught Parisians' fancy,
and his imaginative playing soon became the stuff of legends. But Chopin
was not cut out for the hfe of the public virtuoso. He was introverted, physically slight, and somewhat sickly. Consequently, he chose to play at private
give lessons
musicales (musical evenings) in the homes of the aristocracy and to
for a fee only the very rich could afford "l have been introduced all around
the highest circles," he said within a year of his arrival. "l hobnob with ambassadors, princes, and ministers. I can't imagine what miracle is responsible for
- all this since I really haven't done anything to bring it about "
E In October 1836, Chopin met Baroness Aurore Dudevant (1803-1 876), a
stream
s& writer who under the pen name of George Sand poured forth a steady
(Fig.
25-2).
Romances
Silhouette
to
our
akin
of Ro-"ntic novels roughly
fr

FIGURE

25-2

Novelist Aurore Dudevant (George Sand)


by Eugdne Delacroix. Both the painter
Delacroix and the composer Chopin often
stayed at her summer estate in Nohant
in the south of France,

men's
S".,d, a bisexual, was an ardent individualist with a predeliction for
she
$ clothing and cigars (see cover and Fig. 25-2). Six years Chopin's senior,
E b.."*. his lover and protector. Many of the composer's best works were written at Nohant, her summer residence 150 miles south of Paris. After their relationship ended in 7847, Chopin undertook a taxing conceft tour of England
and Scotland. Vhile this improved his depleted finances, it weakened his delicate health. He dled in Paris of tuberculosis at the age of thirty-nine

Mazurka

B! maj

r, Opus 7, No. 1 (1832)

mainFrancg.*(e
)nt most of his adult life in Franc
Ithough Fr6d6ric Chopin pent
9.W{t^uin
drew
his
composition/rd-quently
ta\ed strong emotional ties Poland, and
up\ musical idioms oI hls ative 1and. Indeed, the exBafiiite composer behero in Poland, his r+ut'c embraced as a way of
came\omething of a natio

pr.t.*\e

vbuth, Chopin had acationed *rnK(trfamily ln the Polish countrytional Polish dances as the mazurka
side, where\e was int
a fast dance in triple meter with an accent
and che polon\e. The
of them of
on the second b\at lts
bagvillage
a
of
droning
static
ny suggests the
Jewislranees+q4-ai
Bb mlrsl begins much like a triple-meter wa1tz, ex
pipe. Chopin's Ma
As

mazurka,

Jolk dance Jrom Poland

a national herita

at 2, not beat 1. Yet midwaY through


often falls
itches from mlirr to minor, a strange scale enters
nying bass. \fle have been
pears in the
he Parisian salon t'ilqPolish village, from the
's day, these mazurk)srqere experienced as
Ch

cept that the stryrrfg


(in section;ef; the
in the rylody, and a

from the w
foreign. I
to
the
iliar
music or as dance, the P

Chopin

in

Bf

ed, the Poles danced.

major, Opus 7,

No r irssu
'\

CA (rvith repeats)
000
0 16
0 3,t

Rapid dance with triple-metef accompaniment and accent on second beat (A)
Repeat of A

Lyrical interlude (B)

'

3t22

3O2 Vl The Romantic

Period

Before dying of tuberc-ul,osis '--af thirty-nine, Chopin asked that Mozart's Requiem be played at his funeral. The mourners also heard Chopin's own Funeral
March from his Piano Sonata in B Flat Minor.

Chopin's frr{usic

\
\

By the age of eighteen, Chopin had evolved an utterly personal and original
style. Compared with other great composers, he wrote few works, but almost
all of them remain in the pianist's repertoire. Most of his pieces are short. But in
these exquisite miniatures, Chopin evokes an infinite variety of moods, from
meiancholy to heroism. His music is always elegant and graceful. Even the virtuoso passages are melodic, not intended merely for display.
Chopin expressed his love of Poland in mazurkas and polonaises. In these
stylized dances, he captured the spirit of the Polish people without actually
using folk tunes. Unlike Schumann, Chopin did not attach literary programs or
titles to his pieces.
No composer has made the piano sound as beautiful as Chopin. His unique
melodic gift creates the illusion that the piano is singing. In repeating a melody,
Chopin adds delicate and gracefuI ornamental tones, similar to the vocal decorations heard in the Italian opera of his time. Many of Chopin's most poetic effects come from the sensitive exploitation of the damper ("loud") pedal. He
blends harmonies like washes of color. The pedal connects widely spaced tones
in the left-hand accompaniment. Chopin's treatment of harmony was highly
original and influenced later composers.
Chopin's compositions allow a pianist to heighten expression by slightly
speeding up or slowing down the tempo, or by holding a note longer than the
music actually indicates. This use of rubato lends a poetic and improvisatory

quality to his music.

Nocturne in E Flat Major, Op. 9, No.


(r sao-1831)
Basic Set:

cD4E

Brief Set:

cD3E

Chopin composed his popular Nocturne in E FlatMajor, Op.9, No. 2, whenhewas


about twenty. Anocturne, or night piece, is a slow, Iyrical, intimate composition for
piano. Like much of Chopin's music, this nocturne is tinged with melancholy.
Nocturne in E Flat Major opens with a legato melody containing graceful upward leaps which become increasingly wide as the line unfolds. This melody is
heard again three times during the piece. With each repetition, it is varied by
ever more elaborate decorative tones and trills. The nocturne also includes a
subordinate melody, which is played with rubato-slight fluctuations of tempo.
A sonorous foundation for the melodic line is provided by the widely spaced
notes in the accompaniment, connected by the damper ("loud") pedal. The
waltzlike accompaniment gently emphasizes the S meter, T2beats to the measure subdivided into four groups of 3 beats each.
The nocturne is reflective in mood until it suddenly becomes passionate near
the end. The new concluding melody begins softly but then ascends to a high
register and is played forcefully in octaves. After a brilliant trill-like passage, the
excitement subsides; the noctume ends calmly.

Fr6dric

Chopin

3O3

ead while music is heard

CHOPIN, Nocturne in E Flat Major, Op.


triginal

9, No.

Andante, S meter
Piano

..

almost
But in
s, from

(Duration,4:05)

the vir-

Eg

E 0:00

1. a. Main melody, dolce, espressivo, waltzlike accompaniment

n these
rctually
lams or

unlque
nelody,
rl decoretic ef1al. He
d tones

xfia

4a.

xfia. * fia. xf8)

*4a.

*D.

al

highly
;lightly
ran the
isatory

J'

f;D *Qa.
@

E b*i"

0: 30

b.

Xfia

Xfid

# CD. X4a.

*4.

Main melody,p, embellished with decorative notes and trills.

hewas
tion for
oly.

,tuluprlody is
ried by

udes

tempo.
spaced
il. The
e mea-

@Eetr 0:i8

2. a. Subordinate

te near
a high
tge, the

1>t6"

i;eu

b.

melody,,2a, played

with rubato;

crescendo to
Main melody, with more elaborate decorative notes and trills; chromatic descent
leads to cadence.

-!l

3O4 Vl The Romantic

ry
ry

z'"zo

z', SA

t"s

@ 3iz\
L-

1'
Period

[["y,^

c. Subordinate melody,-2a, played with rubato; crescendo to


d. Main melody with more elaborate decorative notes and trills;
a.

t7)

N*l*"- aq-[Lr *i,in

chromatic descent

leads to cadence.
Concluding melody,1a, lhenplt.

b. Concluding melody varied, crescendo with ascent to high register, melody

played

forcefully in octaves, ff, high trill-like figure, decrescendo and descent to gentle,
rocking close, gry, Ihen 144t.

Et.td. in C Minor, Op.


(R.euo

."/
l oo,No . 12

lutionary; I 8 3 1 ?),,/'

TheRussian takeover of Warsaw in I 1 may have inspired Chopin to compose


the bla\ine and furious Reaolut
Etude in C Minor, Op. 10, No. 12. An 6tude
lSAS
iece designed to
h performer master specific technical difficulties. The Aegolutionary
Etude
example, develops speed and endurance in
\the pianist's\ft hand, w
must play rapid passages throughout. Chopin's
etudes reach bVond
exercises in technique to become masterpieces of
music, exciting
s well as to master.
The Reaolution
tude, in A A'-coda form, begins with a dramatic outburst. High, di
t chords and downward rushing passages lead to the
"o'-(tmpassioned),
maln
which is played in octaves by
right hand
ion rhounts because of the melody's dotted rhythms and its
tempes
lccompaniment. After a climax at the end of section A', the coda
momen
relaxes the tension. Then a torrential passage sweeps down the
keyboa to come to rest in powerful closing chords.

Listenin

Utline

to be read white

c is heard

CHOPIN, EtU

n C Minor, Op. 10, No. L2 (Revolutlonary)

Allegro con

o with fire), duple meter (!)

Piano

(Duration
A

1. a. High accented chords, .7f answered by downward rushing passages; low running
notes introduce