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SOCIOLOGY

(definition: Science of society, social institutions, and social relationships, and specifically the
systematic study of the development, structure, interaction, and collective behaviour of organized
human groups. It emerged at the end of the 19th century through the work of Emile Durkheim in
France, Max Weber and Georg Simmel in Germany, and Robert E. Park and Albion Small in the U.S.
Sociologists use observational techniques, surveys and interviews, statistical analysis, controlled
experiments, and other methods to study subjects such as the family, ethnic relations, schooling,
social status and class, bureaucracy, religious movements, deviance, the elderly, and social change.)
limitations of the definition.
References to key words from Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought – Culture, Sociology, Popular
Culture, gestalt, material culture, non-material culture

C

civilization (they go hand in hand – chicken & the egg – raison d’être for each

other)

U

urban (a predominantly urban phenomenon – so even the so called “folk”
culture has arisen as a result of the bourgeoisie conditioning )

L

language (mother tongue – how we are genetically coded in the language of
our birth – importance of biology as much as environment)
(Foucaldian
genealogy)

T

tradition (rites / rituals / prevalent customs – folk & popular culture)
(Foucaldian archaeology)

U

Uniqueness (peculiarities within each group of individuals due to their own
particular histories)

R

region (climatic, landscape, geography)

E

ethnicity / experience

The sum total of the above - culture as a ‘gestaltic’ phenomena
Infra cultural – biological understanding
Pre cultural – physiological understanding
Micro cultural – day to day understanding
Importance :

transition from nomad to “settlement” – oral
folk
established institutions
Who we are inside is how we build naturally (separate from desire)

knowledge.CONCEPTS OF CULTURE     Cultural diversity (differences between cultures) Cultural Identity (uniqueness / U. human bonding familial ties – modes & mechanisms may vary but essential need is common) APPROACH TO CULTURE       Anthropological Hierarchy of needs (Maslow’s pyramid) Self reference criteria Diffusion theory High & low context Perception GRADATION OF CULTURE Folkway – every day customs Mores – Accepted norms towards a more formalized “rigid” structure Laws – formal.S. “coded” retribution down the line violation gradually invites stricter Values – abstract ideals Norms – definitive rules (LAWS) INSTITUTIONS (an institution is an established complex pattern of behavior in which a number of persons participate to improve group interests – schools. behavior) . marriage) CULTURE MATERIAL (artifacts) NON MATERIAL (beliefs.P. values. within a culture) Cultural relativism (all cultures are equally valid & to be judged relative to their own value system) Cultural Universals (commonalities irrespective of culture – need for sustenance & shelter.

HISTORIES. LEGENDS . TANTRA R E L I G I O N . HEROS AESTHETICS     SYMBOLS & SYMBOLIC ACTION BELIEFS. NORMS. ASSUMPTIONS MENTAL MODELS EDUCATION ATTITUDES & SOCIAL ORGANISATION   ATTITUDES RULES. TOOLS. RITES.ELEMENTS OF CULTURE MATERIAL CULTURE   ARTEFACTS. CEREMONIES. JOKES ROLE OF THE COMIC BOOK HERO RITUAL.MATERIAL LANGUAGE    STORIES. MANTRA. VALUES YANTRA. TECHNOLOGY  BUILT FORM (architectural remnants – not the theory) NON . ETHICAL CODES. CELEBRATIONS. MYTHS.

” . thereby causing less adjustment between the 2 parts that existed previously. drag) ADAPTIVE CULTURES RESULTANT IMPACT (particularly critical in a 21st century context) : RESOURCE DEPLETION Desirable : Interaction of technology / geography / culture CULTURAL CHANGE RAPID  due to war / conquest GRADUAL     INVENTION o Material o idealogy : agriculture ACCUMULATION DIFFUSION ADJUSTMENT : industrial revolution transport : writing : internet printing .CULTURAL LAG THEORY (technological evolutionism) William F. changes before or in greater degree than the other part does. Ogburn. 1922 – Social Change with respect to culture & original nature & On culture and Social Change “A cultural lag occurs when one or two parts of culture which are correlated. MATERIAL CULTURE (lag .1957 Culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations and social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag.

more.COLLECTIVE ACTION PERCEIVED BENEFIT THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE : THEORY OF NOSTALGIA (GOLDEN AGE) : THEORY OF INEVITABLE PROGRESS (FOR A BETTER WORLD) : THEORY OF CHANGE RUNS IN CYCLES : OTHERS – SUPERNATRAL. RACIAL. CULTURAL MAN Dynamic ENVIRONMENT RESISTANCE TO SOCIAL CHANGE o o o o Stability of folkway. social institutions prevalent Habit Value attachment Vested interest . ECONOMIC.

anger. disgust.SOCIALIZATION IN HUMANS SOCIAL INTERACTION phenomena) CIVIL INATTENTION (predominantly urban Why do we need to study socialization & related processes?  The routine of daily life forms the bulk of social activity (microsocialization)  Eventually become larger social systems & institutions (macrosocialization) COMMUNICATION  Verbal – social rules. conversation  Non Verbal – facial expressions & body gesture o Happiness. fear surprise (these constitute symbolic notions) . sadness.

A life of markers & brackets  Focused interaction  Unfocussed interaction Dramaturgical model – actors on a stage .5 – 4 ft) Social Distance (4 – 12 ft) Humphrey Osmond – Socio Petal & Socio Fugal – Star & Grid SOCIO VARIATIONAL FEATURES Physical Voice Odour (body & mouth) Physical proximity Eyes (> 12 ft) Public . The Hidden Dimension) – microcultures . on stage performances BACK REGIONS – behind the scene. private.formal.5 ft) (1.a recreation of a perception FRONT REGIONS .slip of the tongues -Sigmund Freud – CONTROLLED ALERTNESS ENCOUNTERS .INNATE * INDIVIDUAL * CULTURAL ETHNOMETHODOLOGY – term coined by Harold Garfinkel – the folk methods people use to make sense of what others do and say Language + Context = shared understanding Response Cries .fixed features / semi fixed features / informal PERSONAL SPACE Intimate distance distance Personal Distance (1 – 1.T. stylized roles. Hall. E. PROXEMICS (ref.

 The nothing space of the ‘ma’ .Inside / outside REDUNDANCY Cultural Religion Movies Literature Architectural Street patterns (star & grid) House – inside / outside Doors / windows / rooms Façade  The concept of the line & the concept of the point.