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Chapter 02

History of garment industry in Bangladesh

The southern Asian country of Bangladesh, bordered by India and Burma, has a population of
approximately 164 million people. The Bangladesh economy has grown an average of six
percent a year over the last two decades and has a population increasing by an average of 1.59%
a year. This manufacturing industry accounted for almost 12% of Bangladeshi GDP in 2009 and
2010 and employs approximately four million people.
The Bangladeshi textile and garment manufacturing sector is fuelled by young, urbanizing,
workers many of whom are women. With the majority of production destined for U.S. and
European markets, Bangladeshs ready-made garment industry now accounts for approximately
78% of total exports, second only to China as the worlds largest apparel exporter. However,
Bangladesh has a long history of health and safety tragedies in garment and textile
manufacturing. Garment factory fires and collapses have killed at least 1800 workers since 2005.
The country entered the apparel export market in 1978 with only 9 units and earned USD 0.069
million. During the last three decades this sector has achieved a phenomenal growth, due to
policy support from the government and more importantly dynamism of the private sector
entrepreneurs along with extremely hardworking but civic workers. Now the number of RMG
units is around 5,000 and the export earnings have exceeded USD 19 billion with 145 countries
using made in Bangladesh' knit garments and 126 countries using Bangladesh woven products.
Analysts are telling-the apparel export numbers can be more than doubled by 2020.

Ready-made garments manufactured in Bangladesh are divided mainly into two broad
categories: woven and knit products. Shirts, T-shirts and trousers are the main woven products
and undergarments, socks, stockings, T-shirts, sweaters and other casual and soft garments are
the main knit products. Woven garment products still dominate the garment export earnings of
the country. The share of knit garment products has been increasing since the early 1990s; such
products currently account for more than 40 per cent of the countrys total RMG export earnings
(BGMEA website). Although various types of garments are manufactured in the country, only a
few categories, such as shirts, T-shirts, trousers, jackets and sweaters, constitute the major
production-share (BGMEA website; and Nath, 2001). Economies of scale for large-scale
production and export-quota holdings in the corresponding categories are the principal reasons
for such a narrow product concentration
With about $15 billion in exports in 2010, ready-made garments are the country's most important
industrial sector; they represent 13% of GDP and more than 75% of total exports. Recent surveys
carried out by the consulting firm McKinsey and the accounting firm KPMG identified attractive
prices as the most important reason for purchasing in Bangladesh. Price levels will remain highly
competitive in the future, since significant efficiency increases will offset rising wage costs.

Diagram of Garment Export from Bangladesh

Besides labor cost and duty advantage, raw materials and real estate costs are also cheaper in
Bangladesh. There is also no doubt that Bangladesh is benefitting from various preferential trade
agreements providing tax free entry into several dozen countries.

Competitiveness of Bangladesh Apparel Industry:

Price advantage
International standard quality Control Process
36 years experience in garment manufacturing
Quick learning and dedicated workforce at competitive cost
Resilient and entrepreneurial spirit
Rapidly moving toward higher end of the market
Adoption of environment friendly and green concepts
Cleaner production and the green concept gradually gaining momentum
Policy support
Financial and bank support

Contribution of the apparel industry in Bangladesh economy:

The RMG export contributes more than 16% of GDP.
More than 25 million people are directly and indirectly dependent on the sector for their
Creating employment and contributing to poverty alleviation.
Accelerating industry growth through exports and leading the growth of ancillary
Enhanced trade which has helped Bangladesh to shift to a trade dependent country.
The sector has proven its strength and resilience in the post MFA era including the global
crisis in the 2008-09.

Graph of RMG export of Bangladesh from 2005-2012:

Percent of RMG in total export












Role of information technology in garments industry:

IT has become an integral part of garment industry. Form employee attendance to shipment dispatching is
dependent on IT. Like service industry, few departments of the garments industry are fully dependent on
IT or ERP covers all the jobs done by various departments. All imported purchases are done
through ERP systems and recently many buyers pushed their suppliers to update options on their ERP so
that buyer can access the status of their orders sitting in the country office every day.

Uses of various IT tools in garments industry


pattern making

cpmputerized cutting machine conveniently and correctly shaping raw cloth sheets
mailing solution
voice chatting
semi and fully automatic sweing


into sized shapes

inventory tracking
production management
transmission of documents

communication with buyers and suppliers of raw

materials and with sub-contractors
sweing clothes automatically with convenience and ease
real time communication with buyer

Uses of IT in Bangladesh garment Industry from order placement to


The starting point for any Export Transaction is an enquiry. An enquiry for product should, inter
alia, specify the following details or provide the following data size details - Std. or oversize or
undersize Drawing, if available Sample, if possible Quantity required delivery schedule is the
price required on FOB or C& F or CIF basis Mode of Dispatch - Sea, air or Sea/air Mode of
Packing Terms of Payment that would be acceptable to the Buyer - If the buyer proposes to open
any Letter of Credit, any specific requirement to be complied with by the Exporter is there any
requirement of Pre-shipment inspection and if so, by which agency any Certificate of Origin
STEP:2: Proforma generation:
After studying the enquiry in detail, the exporter - be it Manufacturer Exporter or Merchant
Exporter -will provide a Performa invoice to the buyer.

STEP 3: Order placement by buyer:

Bangladesh apparel industry has come across a long way. As mentioned, it was not only for
`cheap labor' or even `China plus one'. Entrepreneurship, work ethics, diversity, capacity and
policy support also played a major role here. Buyers look for several types of garments from here
in Bangladesh. It is one of the few countries among the peers who are producing for so many
brands like- Target. Wal-Mart, Sears, K-Mart, TESCO, Sainsbury's, American Eagle,
Abercrombie & Fitch, H& M, GAP, NEXT, Marks& Spenser, Aeropostale, Wrangler, Lee, Nike,
PUMA, Adidas, PVH, Tommy Hilfiger, CK, Timberland, ZARA, ESPIRIT, Polo Ralph Lauren
and may be what not. Orders are placed by the buyer of garment industry through e-mail. Buyers
mention number, size, design, and level of quality of the product and other terms and conditions
about their transaction in the e-mail they have sent to the buying house.
STEP: 4: Order acceptance
It is advisable that the Exporter immediately acknowledges receipt of the order, giving a
schedule for the delivery committed. The order reaches to the production manager through
buying house. It needs to go through two steps:

Receipt of order by buying house: Buying houses in our country works as an

intermediary in the process of order placement to shipment. Buyers of home and abroad
places order for garment product through buying houses in the country. Buying houses
have a valid e-mail address and they receipt order mainly through e-mail address.

Receipt of order by production manager of a particular apparel manufacturing

firm: After receiving order by a buying house firm, it contacts with recognized and

reputed apparel manufacturing firm and conveys the message about orders placed by
importer to the production of particular firm mainly through facsimiles.

Receipt of order by buying house: Buying houses in our country works as an intermediary in
the process of order placement to shipment. Buyers of home and abroad places order for garment
product through buying houses in the country. Buying houses have a valid e-mail address and
they receipt order mainly through e-mail address.
Receipt of order by production manager of a particular apparel manufacturing firm: After
receiving order by a buying house firm, it contacts with recognized and reputed apparel
manufacturing firm and conveys the message about orders placed by importer to the production
of particular firm mainly through facsimiles.
Step:5: Production:
CAD means Computer Aided Design that is a project assisted by a computer. CAD is the use of
computer technology to aid in the design of a product A CAD system permits to develop project
functions, mainly based on the design of the item which one wants to create by using a series of
tools provided by a data processing system to improve the speed and efficiency of the operations
which are usually made by hand. CAD actually encompasses all those activities of product
design cycle with converts a workable concept into a ready to manufacture product
specifications. The various sections are:
Hence CAD may be defined as A process of use of computers in creating, analyzing,
modifying, optimizing and drafting / documenting a product data so as to achieve its design goal
efficiently and effectively
CAD tool Elements:
i. Geometrical Modeling and Computer Graphics: Helps in generation and visualizing models on
which the analysis is done subsequently.
ii. Analysis and Optimization tool: It predicts the behavior of the model under the loading
conditions when all constraints are simulated using boundary conditions.
iii. Drafting and Documentation tool
CAD Software:
CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design,
improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.
Originally software for Computer-Aided Design systems was developed with computer
languages such as FORTRAN, ALGOL but with the advancement of object-oriented
programming methods this has radically changed.
Auto CAD: Explore and visualize 2D/3D concepts with a powerful set of intuitive design tools.
Real CAD Pro: It is all purpose 2D/3D CAD software for full 3D modelling, rendering, and 2D
drafting in one inexpensive solution.
Rhino3D: It is the best tool for opening, editing, fixing and converting 3D files of almost any
type, as well as being a brilliant 3D modeler in its own right.

Iron CAD: It is the productivity leader when it comes to moving creative ideas into full 3D
PRISM: It allows the editing of shades of colors on the printer and makes a calibration
according to the original color & color on the screen.
COLOUR TEX: It creates realistic simulation of fabric created in color weave. It is possible to
create a wide variety of yarns of all material and types.
MODARIS: Garment Sector
TUKACAD (TUKATECH): Garment Sector
LECTRA: Used in garment sector mostly for pattern making Grading and designing.
OPTITEX PDS (pattern design system) - Garment Sector
GT RESOURCES: Garment Sector
Various types CAD system: Currently, the following are the different types of CAD systems
available in the market for the use of garment industry.
i. Digitizing systems
ii. Grading systems
iii. Marker making systems
iv. Pattern design software (PDS)
v. Pattern generation software (PGS)
vi. Body measurement software
vii. Texture mapping
viii. Embroidery systems
ix. Specification & costing systems
System Requirement:
Today, CAD systems exist for the entire major platforms (Windows, Linux, UNIX and Mac OS
X); some packages even support multiple platforms. The following are the minimum
requirements for optimum performance of this type of software:
1) Hardware
i. IBM compatible INTEL Pentium III / 750 MHz or higher
ii. 256 MB RAM or higher
iii. 20 GB HDD (SCSI preferable) or higher
Iv. 1.44 MB FDD
v. CD Drive
LAN Card
AGP Card 32 MB (SiS 6326 or equivalent) [24 bit color support]
viii. 17" or 21" color monitor (1240 X 1024 X 24 bit or 32 colour support)
ix. Keyboard
x. Mouse
2) Operating system
MS Windows 2000 with Service Pack 2 / XP Professional.

Advantages of CAD:



Allows to shorten the time elapsing between the development of the new fashion ideas
and the collection presentation
CAD reduce staff requirement in a given work as complex engineering drawing can be
easily done by use of CAD
Quicker preparation of the collections
The degree of repetitiveness in the design part is more with the help of CAD
The number of prototypes or samples to be physically produced prior to acceptance by
the customer is greatly reduced by use of CAD system, thus resulting in cost and
CAD system provides Quick Response (QR) capabilities to an enterprise by compressing
the design - manufacturing - marketing" cycle time.
Cad system produce more logical pattern & improve concentration of designer to give
optimum design
Lower interference with the production activity.
CAD system can easily interface with CAM devices
(Computer Aided Manufacturing) for machine control & Fabric production becomes
practically automatic.
It gives fewer design error
CAD system gives greater accuracy in design calculation
The Designs can be stored in libraries, can be recalled, modified, and evaluated quickly
The CAD systems can directly download process information (e.g. machine settings,
lifting plan) to the shop floor; designs can be quickly brought to production of woven
Continuous monitoring & the control on the whole production cycle.
Offer a better service to the customer

Computer Aided Manufacturing:

CAM is the use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the
manufacturing of work pieces. Traditionally, CAM has been considered as a numerical control
(NC) programming tool, wherein two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) models of
components generated in CAD software are used to generate G-code to drive computer
numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools.
1) A CAM system employ computer for two basic purposes:
i. Computer monitoring and control
ii. Manufacturing supporting applications
2) Typical areas of concern:
i. High Speed Machining, including streamlining of tool paths
ii. Multi-function Machining
iii. 5 Axis Machining
Feature recognition and machining


Automation of Machining processes

Ease of Use

Over time, the historical shortcomings of CAM are being attenuated, both by providers of niche
solutions and by providers of high-end solutions. This is occurring primarily in three areas:
i. Ease of use
ii. Manufacturing complexity
iii. Integration with PLM and the extended enterprise
Manual versus CAD or CAM
Greater flexibility in designing, grading and marking, reduction in waste, percentage increase in quality
cutting room and reduction in sample making time are some of the benefits of the application of
CAD/CAMin garments manufacturing.
Experiment regarding use of CAD/CAM versus manual process
An independent research conducted on benefits of CAD/CAM yielded the following result for preparing a
T-shirt of a standard size the manual process and the computerized process took the following time

Time taken in manual process

New pattern creation
Marker planning
Sketch preparation

Time required (in minute)


Time taken in CAD/CAM system

New pattern creation
Marker planning
Sketch preparation

Time required (in minute)


So here we can see the obvious benefits of using IT tools in place of manual process.

Before entering the final production process, manufacturing companies have designed the
ordered product and sent the sample to the buyer through e-mail. After receiving the positive
feedback from the buyer, they enter into the final production process. In fashion design, CAD/
CAM software is widely used in Bangladesh. Computer Aided Design is used at various stages
in the apparel and textile industry. The fashion design CAD/CAM software can be broadly
classified into following categories, each relating to a different design and manufacturing stage.

Categories and manufacturing stages are:

nge Planning




Designing/ Range Planning All apparel manufacturers plan the range of garments which they
are setting up to manufacture. Most of the designing and range planning is still done by the buyer
or the owners of the brand because they are closest to their actual clients; it is easier for them to
understand the specific needs of their target market. To some extent, this has now changed with
more and more manufacturers allowing vendors to dabble a bit in designing, based on their
specific inputs in terms of colors, yarns, fabrics, prints, silhouettes etc.
Prototyping/ Sampling once the designs have been finalized, a prototype or sample has to be
made, because the scalability of the end product (garment) very much depends on the fit of the
In a study conducted by an independent research agency, which monitored and observed the
reasons of dissatisfaction or returns of garments sold - fitting problems topped the dissatisfaction
Considering the importance of a good fit, it becomes imperative for a manufacturer or retailer to
achieve the best fits possible. Considering the complexity involved with different fabrics and
silhouettes, a CAD system takes away much of the pain from prototyping thus decreasing the
time to market.
Mass Production comes with its own challenges. Unlike most other products, apparel
manufacturing, even today very much depends on people especially when it comes to tailoring
or assembling. A mistake anywhere down the line in the prototyping or cutting process becomes
very difficult and often impossible to rectify. This is where a CAD system comes in, to deskill
some of the processes involved in mass manufacturing, namely the preproduction processes so
that perfectly cut parts are fed to the operators. Additionally, the fabric saved in bulk cutting
while using a CAD system is enormous.
Retailing A 3D solution allows 3D files to be uploaded on to website for clients to choose
from. 3D files can be opened and viewed in any MS office application or Internet explorer.
STEP 6: Goods readiness & documentation:

Once the goods are ready duly packed in Export worthy cases/cartons (depending upon the mode

of despatch), the Invoice is prepared by the Exporter.

If the number of packages is more than one, a packing list is a must.
Even If the goods to be exported are excisable, no excise duty need be charged at the time of
Export, as export goods are exempt from Central Excise, but the AR4 procedure is to be
followed for claiming such an exemption.
Similarly, no Sales Tax also is payable for export of goods.
STEP 7: Goods removal from works :
There are different procedures for removing Export consignments to the Port, following the AR4
procedure, but it would be advisable to get the consignment sealed by the Central Excise
authorities at the factory premises itself, so that open inspection by Customs authorities at the
Port can be avoided.
If export consignments are removed from the factory of manufacture, following the AR4
procedure, claiming exemption of excise duty, there is an obligation cast on the exporter to
provide proof of export to the Central Excise authorities
STEP 8: Documents for C & F agent :
The Exporter is expected to provide the following documents to the Clearing & Forwarding
Agents, who are entrusted with the task of shipping the consignments, either by air or by sea.

Packing List
Declaration in Form SDF (to meet the requirements as per FERA) in duplicate.
AR4 - first and the second copy
Any other declarations, as required by Customs
On account of the introduction of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) system for
processing shipping bills electronically at most of the locations - both for air or sea
consignments - the C&F Agents are required to file with Customs the shipping
documents, through a particular format, which will vary depending on the nature of the
shipment. Broad categories of export shipments are :

Under claim of Drawback of duty

Without claim of Drawback
Export by a 100% EOU
Under DEPB Scheme

STEP 9: Customs Clearance:

After assessment of the shipping bill and examination of the cargo by Customs (where
required), the export consignments are permitted by Customs for ultimate Export. This is
what the concerned Customs officials call the LET EXPORT endorsement on the

STEP 10: Document Forwarding:
After completing the shipment formalities, the C & F Agents are expected to forward to the
Exporter the following documents:

Customs signed Export Invoice & Packing List

Duplicate of Form SDF
Exchange control copy of the Shipping Bill, processed electronically
AR4 (original duplicate) duly endorsed by Customs for having effected the Export
Bill of Lading or Airway bill, as the case may be.

STEP 11: Bills Negotiation:

With these authenticated shipping documents, the Exporter will have to negotiate the relevant
export bill through authorized dealers of Reserve Bank, viz., Banks.
Under the Generalized System of Preference, imports from developing countries enjoy certain
duty concessions, for which the exporters in the developing countries are expected to furnish the
GSP Certificate of Origin to the Bankers, along with other shipping documents.
Broadly, payment terms can be:

DP Terms
DA Terms
Letter of Credit, payable at sight or payable at... days.

Step12: Bank to bank documents Forwarding:

The negotiating Bank will scrutinize the shipping documents and forward them to the Banker of
the importer, to enable him clear the consignment.
It is expected of such authorized dealers of Reserve Bank to ensure receipt of export proceeds,
which factor has to be intimated to the Reserve Bank by means of periodical Returns.
STEP 13: Customs obligation Discharge:
As indicated above, Exporters are also expected to provide proof of export to the Central Excise
authorities, on the basis of the Customs endorsements made on the reverse of AR4s and get their
obligation, on this score, discharged.

STEP 14: Receipt of Bank certificate :

Authorized dealers will issue Bank Certificates to the exporter, once the payment is received and
only with the issuance of the Bank Certificate, the export transaction becomes complete.
It is mandatory on the part of the Exporters to negotiate the shipping documents only through
authorized dealers of Reserve Bank, as only through such a system Reserve Bank can ensure
receipt of export proceeds for goods shipped out of this country.

Chapter 03


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is business management software that a company can use to
store and manage data from every stage of business including:

Product planning, cost and development

Marketing and sales
Inventory management
Shipping and payment

ERP system track resources cash, raw materials, production capacity and the status of the
business commitments: orders, purchase orders and payrolls.
There are various ERP solutions used by the garments companies. They are:
CostingNet: it is used to create a detail product costing sheet.
Warehousenet: it is a warehouse management software.
Manpowernet: it is human resource software used to keep the personal record, day off
academic and working history of the employee.
Purchasenet: it is used to manage purchase orders.
Shippingnet: it is ashipping document software for shipping department which generates
invoice, shipping order, packing list,certificate of origin, country declaration etc.
dayoffNet: it is a simple database software used to manage all the employees dayoffs and
vacations applications inside the company.
qualityNet: it is a simple database used to manage all the quality control. Quality
assurance,audit analysis and factory evaluation of the company.
biilsNet: a simple database to issue all the sales invoices of the company. It will generate
invoices, packing list and a monthly sales report.
exportNet: it is a database used to manage exportables of the company.

Ethical Garments Ltd. uses some ERP software commonly used by the garments companies.



In case of packaging, ETHICAL GARMENTS LTD. uses KASEMAKE packaging design

software. It is very popular packaging design software used by thousands of designers
Transmission of documents
The related documents such as

Packing list
Inspection certificate
Bill of exchange
Certificate of origin

Beneficiary certificate

The documents are transmitted through

E-mails(soft copy)
Courier service(hard copy)

Settlement system

The acronym stands for Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications.
SWIFT is a co-operative society.
Who Uses SWIFT?

Although originally the network was designed to support the requirements of Treasury and
Correspondent banking operations, it has over the years allowed other institutions access to the
services, albeit in some cases only to a limited degree. Currently the following types of
organizations can access the service:

Trading Institutions
Money Brokers
Securities Broker Dealers
Investment Management Institutions
Clearing Systems and Central Depositories
Recognised Exchanges
Trust and Fiduciary Service Companies
Subsidiary Providers of Custody and Nominees
Treasury Counterparties
Treasury ETC Service Providers

The Society is owned by its Members, and in order to become one the organisation must hold a
Banking License. In return Members own shares in the society and have voting rights. There are
a further two classes of user. Sub-members must be >90% owned by a member and are typically
branches. Whilst they have full access to the system they do not have voting rights or shares.
Participants are usually other types of financial institutions, and they have access to a limited set
of messages and no ownership rights.
All classes of member pay an initial joining fee and an annual support charge, although the
amounts differ for each class.
In addition users are charged on a per message basis by unit lengths of 325, 750, or 1950
characters dependent on message type. The charges also vary depending on volume tier.

The pricing is calculated to cover all of SWIFT's costs and investments with users then receiving
regular rebates after these are finalised.

SWIFT Services

SWIFT operates a number of services, primarily:


General Purpose Application, which only allows system messages, i.e. messages from a
user to SWIFT and vice versa, not from one user to another.

Financial Application, which is the user to user service comprising System Messages
FIN MT0nn, User-to-User Messages MT1nn through 9nn and Service Messages such as

Additionally, SWIFT provides a number of services that are charged for over and above the
normal fees. A few of these are:

IFT (Interbank File Transfer) -For bulk file transfer of messages, for example low net
value, high volume retail payments.
ACCORD - A centralised confirmation matching bureau service.
Directory Services - An automated and centralised Standard Settlement Instruction
service for message enrichment that at present is limited to Treasury and Payment
RTGS (Y-copy) - Mostly used for sending a copy of a message or parts thereof to a third
party, for example a Central Bank
Country Specific (e.g. CREST, CHAPSEuro) - Where SWIFT are either the carrier of the
messages or the supplier of additional network services.

How Does SWIFT Work?

The SWIFT network has an architecture that supports the requirements for a fully redundant
24x7 secure operation that is also highly scalable. There are a number of components to this
The System Control Processors are responsible for the operation of the entire system. This

Session Management
Software and database distribution
Monitoring all SWIFT hardware and software

Failure diagnostics and recovery

Dynamic allocation of system resources

These are located at Operating Centres, 2 in the US centre and 2 at the centre in the Netherlands.
The Slice Processors are responsible for:

Routing and safe storage of messages & history

Safe-store Acknowledgements to Regional Processors
Generation of reports
Delivery and non-delivery messages
Processing retrievals and system messages
Archiving, billing and statistics.

All messages are safe-stored on two media. The SP's are located in the operating centres.
The Regional Processors are the entry and exit point to SWIFT and they support Leased line,
Dial up or Public Data Network connection. The most common method is primary leased line
with dial-up backup. They are usually in same country as the user and provide sequence number
checking and message validation, temporary safe-storage, generation of Positive and Negative
Acknowledgements and verification of checksums
A Computer Based Terminal (CBT) that is also referred to as a SWIFT interface is then located
at each user site. These terminals support the connectivity to the local regional processor and
facilitate both manual entry of messages and the bridge to originating applications. Some more
detail on the latter facility will be covered later. There are many vendors of these interface
devices although SWIFT themselves have by far the largest market share. The following is a list
of some of the more common ones. A full list is available at


In garments sector use of swift is very prominent. The whole process of payment settlement
system is conducted through the swift messaging system. Ethical garments has an account with
the IFIC Bank and all the transactions with the foreign buyers happen through the swift
messaging system of IFIC Bank.

Chapter 04

1) The IT infrastructure in the garments industry is used in a very limited range.
2) One of the reasons for this is that most of the employees in the garments industry are
3) Most of the garments company does not have the sufficient capital to set up a strong IT
4) The working environment in the garments industry also does not allow a smooth
functioning of the IT infrastructure.
5) There are not enough technical people involved in the garments sector who can guide
employees to properly use the technology.

1) Although it is not possible to hire only literate workers the garments sector, the existing
workers can be trained so that they can be able to properly cope with the IT
2) The working environment of the garments sector should be developed in order to
implement the IT infrastructure.
3) Some of the tools that are used in garments sector are risky and can cause damage to the
workers. So the machines should be upgraded.