ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS Person Simple (Indefinite) I person II Person III Person

Present Tense
I do We do You do He does She does It does They do I am doing We are doing You are doing

Past Tense
I did We did You did He did She did It did They did I was doing We were doing You were doing He was doing She was doing It was doing They were doing I had done We had done You had done He had done She had done It had done They had done You had been doing You had been doing He had been doing She had been doing It had been doing They had been doing

Future Tense
I shall do We shall do You will do He will do She will do It will do They will do I shall be doing We shall be doing You will be doing He will be doing She will be doing I t will be doing They will be doing I shall have done We shall have done You will have done He will have done She will have done It will have done They will have done You will have been doing You will have been doing He will have been doing She will have been doing It will have been doing They will have been doing

Continuous

I person II Person III person

Perfect

Perfect continuous

He is doing She is doing It is doing They are doing I person I have done We have done II person Your have done III He has done person She has done It has done They have done I person I have been doing II person You have been doing III person He has been doing She has been doing It has been doing They have been doing

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
• Present Tense Sentences ○ Simple ○ Continuous ○ Perfect ○ Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Past Tense Sentences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. I went to college. I read a lesson. I ate an apple. Raja sang a song. I studied the lesson. He opened the door. You run away. Dog barked. I saw a book. He came from school. He said to Raja. I received a message. Raja danced beautifully. They worked hard. You caught.

1. Simple Present Tense Sentences [3rd Person + Present tense + Singular → Verb + s] 1. I go to college. 2. I read a lesson. 3. I eat an apple. 4. Raja sings a song. 5. Sun rises in the east. 6. Sun sets in the west. 7. They jump. 8. He opens the door. 9. You run away. 10. He runs away. 11. He walks to the garden. 2. Present Continuous Tense Sentences is → singular am → I are → plural 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I am speaking. Raju is eating. You are sleeping. They are watching T.V. We are playing food ball.

2. Past Continuous Tense Sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I was speaking Raju was sending. You were teaching. They were coming. We were dancing. He was thinking.

3. Present Perfect Tense Sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I have cut my nose. I have given money. I have a house We have brought. He has sent it. She has sunk. It has broken. They have taken.

3. Past Perfect Tense Sentences. 1. 2. 3. The sun had set. The show had begun. I had cut my hair.

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • I had been eating. I had been listening. She had been running. They had been reading. You had been jumping. Future Tense Sentences ○ Simple ○ Continuous ○ Perfect ○ Perfect Continuous

4. Present Perfect continuous Tense Sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • I have been giving money. I have been listening music. She has been reading. He has been running. They have been watching movie. Past Tense Sentences ○ Simple ○ Continuous ○ Perfect ○ Perfect Continuous

1. Simple Future Tense Sentences. 1. 2. 3. I shall go to college. I shall study tomorrow. We shall come.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. You will run. He will open. She will sing. We shall eat. It will come. Raju will sing. Raja sill come. 3. Future Perfect Tense Sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I shall have eaten tomorrow. I shall have written my exercise. They will have broken the car. We will have known. We shall have gone tomorrow.

2. Future Continuous Tense Sentences. 4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He will be eating. I shall be going. They will be dancing. They will be going. Raja will be acting. We shall be singing. Rose will be winning the race. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I shall have been eating. Raju will have been reading. Raja will have been studying. They will have been writing. Raja will have been doing.

I. Use able to / unable to
Can = Present Tense Could = Past Tense 1. I can play. (Use able to) Ans. I am able to play. 2. I could play (Use able to) Ans. I was able to play. 3. He could tell me. (Use able to) Ans. He was able to tell me. 4. They could tell me. (Use able to) Ans. They were able to tell me. 5. She can work. (Use able to) Ans. She is able to work. 6. I can write a letter. Ans. I am able to write a letter. 7. She could eat a mango. Ans. She was able to eat a mango. 8. She could not eat sandwich. Ans. She was unable to eat sandwich. 9. I cannot dance. Ans. I am unable to dance. 10. I cannot write an essay. Ans. I am unable to write an essay.

II. Remove too too → very, excessively, extremely too ……to…… → so …… that ……cannot/ could not Present tense, is, am, are → cannot. Past tense, was, were → could not. 1. It is too hot outside. Ans. It is very hot outside. 2. These books are too expensive. Ans. These books are very expensive. 3. Raja is too fond of sweets. Ans. Raja is extremely fond of sweets. 4. It is too sour. Ans. IT is very sour. 5. The king was too infallible (perfect) to make a mistake. Ans. The king was so infallible to make a mistake. 6. I am too tired to think of anything. Ans. I am so tired that I cannot think of anything. 7. He spoke too fast to be understood. Ans. He spoke so fast that one could not understand. 8. He is too proud to beg. Ans. He is so proud that he cannot beg. 9. Hitler was too cruel to spare the Jews. Ans. Hitler was so cruel that he could not spare the Jews. 10. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was too busy to give us an appointment. Ans. The Chief Minister Mr. Raja was so busy that he could not give us an appointment.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
11. Parents now days are too busy to pay attention to their children education. Ans. Parents now days are so busy that they cannot pay attention to their children education. 12. It became too dark to read easily. Ans. It became so dark that one could not read easily.   I have lot of work to do. (noun) He earned good name. (Noun)

 He visits to the zoo. (verb)

IV. Opposites with Prefixed and suffixes.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. able x unable (prefix) complete x incomplete proper x improper guide x misguide regular x irregular ordinary x extraordinary social x anti – social legal x illegal encourage x discourage interior x exterior agree x disagree careful x careless (suffix) fearful x fearless appear x disappear direct x indirect perfect x imperfect septic x antiseptic ability x inability useful x useless important x unimportant call x miscall national x international

III. Make sentences using the given words as noun as well as verbs.
Noun = Name of place, animal, things. Verbs = Action. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.          Hand Can Lock Cook Work Visit Name Hand me the towel, please. (verb) Raja’s hand is beautiful. (noun) You can do this. (verb) The can is full of water. (Noun) Lock the door, before you leave. (verb) Key is with the lock. (noun) My mother cooks food. (verb) He is a popular cook. (noun) He works in call centre. (verb)

15.
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

V. Affirmative and negative sentences

6. He had only his daughter with him. Ans. He had no one except his daughter with him. 7. I do not remember. (Make it affirmative) Ans. I fail to remember. 8. I did not remember. Ans. I failed to remember.

1. I like to go to the seashore. (Make it negative.) Ans. I don’t dislike going to the seashore. 2. He likes to go to the seashore. Ans. He don’t dislike going to the seashore. 3. They like to go to the seashore. Ans. They don’t dislike going to the seashore. 4. It is useless. Ans. It is not useful. 5. There is little hurry. Ans. There is no hurry.

9. She does not remember. Ans. She fails to remember.

VI. Question Tag.
1. I am in mood. Ans. I am in mood, aren’t I? 2. Let’s go for picnic. Ans. Let’s go for picnic, shall we? 3. Let us go for cinema. Ans. Let us go for cinema, shall we?

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
4. They always come in time. Ans. They always come in time, don’t they? 5. We sit here every day. Ans. We sit here every day, don’t we? 6. Vijay comes here right at 5. Ans. Vijay comes here right at 5, doesn’t he? 7. They reached here yesterday. Ans. They reached here yesterday, didn’t they? 8. That girl got the prize. Ans. That girl got the prize, didn’t she? 9. I am not tired. Ans. I am not tired, am I? 10. He does not attend the school. Ans. He does not attend the school, does he? 11. Raji never mixes with her classmates. Ans. Raji never mixes with her classmates, does she? 12. You should not blame him. Ans. You should not blame him, should you? 13. I shall go to school. Ans. I shall go to school, shan’t I? 14. We are not telling the truth. Ans. We are not telling the truth, are we? 15. He will go to school. Ans. He will go to school, won’t he? 16. Bring me food. Ans. Bring me food, will you? 17. Show me your pen. Ans. Show me your pen, will you? 18. Stay there. Ans. Stay there, will you? 19. Open the door. Ans. Open the door, will you? 4. He was very slow. (Make it exclamatory) Ans. How slow he was! 5. It was a very lovely painting. Ans. What a lovely painting it was! 6. How lucky I was! Ans. I was very lucky. 7. What a lesson to be learned from Wilma! Ans. It was indeed a great lesson to be learned from Wilma. 8. He was an extraordinary human being. Ans. What an extraordinary human being he was! 9. I am quite tired. Ans. How tired I am! 10. I am very proud of my nice mother. Ans. How proud I am of my nice mother! 11. You are absolutely right. Ans. How right you are!

VII. Yes / No type questions.
1. The boy plays well. Ans. Does the boy play well? 2. He wrote a letter. Ans. Did he write a letter? 3. We pray every day. Ans. Do we pray every day? 4. He plays at every night. Ans. Does he play at every night? 5. He is not a fool to waste his time. Ans. Is he a fool to waste his time? 6. She will certainly win the race. Ans. Will she certainly win the race? 7. It would spoil the game. Ans. Would it spoil the game?

VII. Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences.
1. What a wonderful story it was! (make it assertive) Ans. It was a wonderful story. 2. How naughty you are! Ans. You are very naughty. 3. How sweet! Ans. It is really very sweet.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS VIII. Degree of comparison.
Positive Sweet Small Tall Bold Clever Kind Young Brave Fine Happy Great Easy Wealthy Hot Thin Sad Fat Beautiful Eminent Industrious Ferocious Difficult Good Well Bad Little Much Many In Up Old Old Positive No other Few other/ very few Comparative Sweeter Smaller Taller Bolder Cleverer Kinder Younger Braver Finer Happier Greater Easier Wealthier Hotter Thinner Sadder Fatter More beautiful More eminent More industrious More ferocious More difficult Better Better Worse Lesser More More Inner Upper Elder Older Comparative than any other than many / most other Superlative Sweetest Smallest Tallest Boldest Cleverest Kindest Youngest Bravest Finest Happiest Greatest Easiest Wealthiest Hottest Thinnest Saddest Fattest Most beautiful Most eminent Most industrious Most ferocious Most difficult Best Best Worst Least Most Most Innermost Uppermost Eldest oldest Superlative the happiest one of the tallest 5. Australia is one of the largest Islands. Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands. Very few Islands are as large as Australia. 6. Books are the best source of knowledge. Ans. Books are better than any other source of knowledge. No other source of knowledge is as good as books. 7. Iron is stronger than many other metals. Ans. Iron is one of the strongest metals. Very few metals are as strong as Iron. 8. No one is as lazy as Raja. Ans. Raja is lazier than any other. Raja is the laziest of all. Note: - Whenever the comparison is made between two persons or things there does not exist with superlative degree. 1. Raja is sweeter than Raji. Ans. Raji is not as sweet as Raja. 2. Mumbai is not leaner than Chennai. Ans. Chennai is as clean as Mumbai. 3. March is not as hot as June. Ans. June is hotter than March. 4. The rose smells as sweet as the lily. Ans. The lily does not smell sweeter than the rose. 5. The rose smelled as sweet as the lily. Ans. The lily did not smell sweeter than the rose. 6. The roses smell as sweet as the lilies. The lilies do not smell sweeter than the rose.

1. Raji is the richest woman in Mumbai. Ans. Raji is richer than any other woman in Mumbai. No other woman in Mumbai is as rich as Raji. 2. Swami Raja was one of the most eminent disciple of ustad Amjat Ali Khan. Ans. Very few disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan were as eminent as swami Raja. Swami Raja was more eminent than many other disciples of ustad Amjat Ali Khan. 3. Reading is the best form of recreation. Ans. Reading is better than any other form of recreation. No other form of recreation is as good as reading. 4. Australia is the largest Island. Ans. Australia is larger than many other Islands. No other Island is as large as Australia.

IX. Change the voice.
1. I love Ans. I am loved. 2. I warn. Ans. I am warned. 3. He calls. Ans. He is called. 4. She permits. Ans. She is permitted. 5. They call. Ans. They are called. 6. I write.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
Ans. I am written. 7. We help. Ans. We are helped. 8. They ask. Ans. They are asked. 9. Raja loves Raji. Ans. Raji is loved by Raja. 10. Vijay loves us. Ans. We are loved by Vijay. 11. Surya loves me. Ans. I am loved by Surya. 12. The cat kills the rat. Ans. The rat is killed by the cat. 13. The cats kill the rat. Ans. The rats are killed by the cat. 14. The cats kill the rat. Ans. The rat is killed by the cats. 15. I write a letter. Ans. A letter is written by me. 16. I write those letters. Ans. Those letters are written by me. 17. He broke the glass. Ans. The glass was broken by him. 18. He breaks the glass. Ans. The glass is broken by him. 19. The C.M. received the P.M. Ans. The P.M. was received by the C.M. 20. The peon delivered the letters. Ans. The letters were delivered by the peon. 21. I closed the door. Ans. The door was closed by me. 22. Raji wrote a letter. Ans. A letter was written by Raji. 23. He will finish the work. Ans. The work will be finished by him. 24. He will finish the work. Ans. The work will be finished by him. 25. People will forget it. Ans. It will be forgotten by people. 26. I shall invite you. Ans. You will be invited by me. 27. The police will catch me. Ans. I shall be caught by the police. 28. They will send me. Ans. I shall be sent by them. 29. They have eaten the fruits. Ans. The fruits have been eaten by them. 30. They have opened the window. Ans. The window has been opened by me. 31. He has driven those cars. Ans. Those cars have been driven by him. 32. I had written a letter. Ans. A letter had been written by me. 33. She had painted a picture. Ans. A picture had been painted by her. 34. He had cut those trees. Ans. Those trees had been cut by him. 35. The teacher had taught the lesson. Ans. The lesson had been taught by the teacher. 36. The teacher had taught the lessons. Ans. The lessons had been taught by the teacher. 37. The teacher will have taught the lesson. Ans. The lesson will have been taught by the teacher. 38. Vijay will have finished the task. Ans. The task will have been finished by Vijay. 39. My friend will have bought a gift. Ans. A gift will have been bought a gift. 40. I shall have written a letter. Ans. A letter will have been written by me. 41. I am watching you. Ans. You are being watched by me. 42. The Raman is building the wall. Ans. The wall is being built by the Raman. 43. The teacher is teaching a new lesson. Ans. A new lesson is being taught by the teacher. 44. My mother is cutting an apple. Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother. 45. My mother is cutting apples.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
Ans. Apples are being cut by my mother. 47. The gardener was cutting grass. Ans. Grass was being cut by the gardener.

X. Model Auxiliary
1. ‘used to’ is used to express a discontinued habit 2. ‘could’ is used for showing possibility 3. ‘shall’ is used for request, intention, promise, permission 4. ‘will’ is used for warning, order, instruction 5. ‘must’ is used for compulsion, obligation

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
Newspapers are truly a habit. Every morning it is delivered to your door step and you spend nearly half an hour eagerly digesting the recent happenings of the world, the country, the city and the locality. If there were no newspapers, our daily routine would be disrupted. The leisurely cup of tea would no longer taste the same. Indeed, our very mornings would no longer be the same. The next change would be that we would be less informed about our current affairs, the political situation; the new stock marked downs and ups, etc. Adolescents would be very disturbed to find that the entertainment column is no longer at their fingertips. They would have to waste time scouting the theatres for movie of their choice. Stock marked investors would miss their favourite page with the innumerable quotations – the latest index figures of their blue shares. Others would miss their favourite comic strip, and sports enthusiasts would lament the lack of coverage about the Wimbledon series. The T.V. and radio could be seen as valuable alternatives. Both of them would try to offer many channels and the latest news every half – an – hour. This would give us information with live video coverage but the habit of reading would be lost for ever. For many gown ups, the newspaper is truly a gateway to the world. So for these people, a world without newspaper is a disaster that must never happen!

If there were no newspapers.

lived in a nearby chawl and had two sons. They also said that she was slightly deaf. Whatever the reason for the accident, I felt that was an example of tidy the forces of fate also rule our lives. Logically, it was her inability to look after herself but as a traditional Indian I felt that her time on earth had ended. The accident was merely an excuse! When I was young, I was fond of playing the role of a teacher. I would imagine a class of children in front of me, a black board on the wall and myself - an ideal teacher. Everything was imaginary except the ruler in my hand. If I were a teacher, I would give greater importance to make the children understand the worth of polite speech and decent behaviour. I would never go late to class; I would avoid taking casual leave as far as possible. When I would enter the class I would propose them the time and expect them to propose me in return. ‘Good morning, children’ would be the beginning of the day. I would plan the lesson well and ensure that every child had understood the day’s topic. I would give special attention to the weaker students, unlike some teachers who only care for the clever children and neglect the below average ones. I would consider it my duty to analyse and solve the problems of every child without any partiality. I would not approve of learning by heart. I would try to make every lesson interesting by giving practical examples from every day life. The children would be encouraged to collect information from newspapers and magazines. I would encourage the children to participate in games, sports and cultural activities. It would be my principle never to make any personal remark which would hurt any child’s feelings. I would never tolerate selfishness, rudeness or dishonesty. I would encourage them to love their home members and their friends, and make them happy. Throughout my career as a teacher, my aim would be to encourage in every child real and noble values of life and raise them into a responsible and productive citizen of the world. A city is the centre of trade, commerce, industry and education. It is the foundation of administration. It is, therefore, full of activity, movements and changes. A city no doubt offers many tempting comforts and conveniences, pleasures and pass - times, openings and

If I were a Teacher

A Road Accident I Witnessed.
I waited at the footpath to cross the road. An old woman stood a little ahead, and was quite busy counting some coins in her hand. Suddenly, she turned and lost in her own thoughts, she stepped on to the road. What followed is a terrible that is nearly impossible to describe. A jeep coming at high speed hammered her down, and the old woman lay in a crumpled heap in the middle of the road. She was badly hurt on her forehead and blood flow out like a spring. With a start, I realised that she was dead, and that death had been on the spot. A small crowd had gathered, and the jeep owner was trying to prove his innocence, but nobody was prepared to listen. They were all convinced that it was his rash driving that had caused her death. Luckily for him, the police station was quite near, and a constable soon appeared and took charge. Otherwise a physical beating would also have taken place. The ambulance arrived and the old woman’s body was carried away. Someone mentioned that she

Life in a crowded city/ City life

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
opportunities, and that is why people from all over the country - side are pouring into it in thousands. In a city, there are schools, colleges, classes, business houses and technical institutes, hospitals, charitable institutions, hospitals, cinemas, play grounds, stadiums, parks, gardens and easy means of transport and communication. If we have sufficient money, we can have the best food and clothing, the best accommodation, the best education, the best of medical treatment and the best of entertainment. In spite of all these good points, city - life is far from being happy. The city is overcrowded, stuffy, noisy, dusty, filthy and smoky. Life is spoiled by evils like pollution, slums, noise, corruptions and crime. Life in a city is rushed and worried. In a city money is worshiped and money is indeed the root of all evils. Thus we can say that, a city where everything is possible, especially, the impossible. Where lovers love first and then marry. Where there is a place for every Tom and Jerry. Where Telephone bills make a person ill. Where carbon dioxide is more than that of oxygen. Where the toad is considered to be a dust – bin. Where the college canteen is full and classes are empty. Where cycles reach faster than cars. Where skyscrapers overlook the slum. Where houses collapse, as the monsoon comes. Where Doordarshan tries to compete with BBC. Where the policeman, looks like a businessman. Where there is more water in the pen than ink. Where the beggars become rich soon. Where the roads are levelled when ministers arrive, Otherwise is like an Essel World ride. Where a person is praised after he dies. Where college admission means hard cash. The city with its crazy race for money and pleasures does not provide proper environment for an all - round development of the young. Some of the young - city dwellers fall into bad company, take to smoking, drinking, gambling, drug taking etc. These conditions of a city - life pose a grave threat to social peace and national progress. A society filled with crime and violence can never hope to progress and flourish. A city - life is more prone to all these evils than the peaceful and placid country life. It is precisely for this reason that it is said “God made the country and country made the town” Pollution is the price we are paying for modern civilization and material progress. Pollution means making unclean or dirty. Pollution is our enemy number one today. There is pollution everywhere, in the atmosphere, on land, in the seas and rivers. Our air is polluted or made unclean by smoke, gases and chemicals produced by vehicles, and factories, and by the use of various chemicals. Besides this, there is noise pollution in big cities resulting from the noise of vehicles, machines, loudspeakers and crackers. Sound pollution may lead to permanent loss of hearing sense. Tonnes of industrial and chemical waste carelessly dumped into our rivers, lakes and seas kill fish and other aquatic life. Polluted water destroys plant life. It damages the soil and makes it useless. Atomic radiation also pollutes the air and poses terrible health hazards. Radioactive pollutants are most dangerous as they affect human chromosomes and bring about permanent hereditary disorders. Unplanned growth of cities brings about more and more slums where dirt, disease and death breed. Pollution pollutes the air and harms the ozone layer of the earth which protects us from the UV – radiation of the sun. If the ozone layer is destroyed, mankind will perish through the harmful radiation of the sun. We must take immediate and effective steps to fight against pollution. We must reduce vehicular and factory smoke. We must shift industries from the cities; we must find some efficient system for the quick disposal of garbage. We must stop the dumping of chemical wastes into our rivers, lakes and seas. We must grow more trees, protect our forests, and have more gardens and open spaces. People should be more concerned about the continuing pollution of the environment. The sooner effective steps are taken the better it will be for mankind. The Indian railway is one of the largest in the world. It has its own share of achievements. There are also some problems like accidents, delays, manpower shortage, shortage of space and so on. One such problem is lack of punctuality. Thousands of people from all over India are affected when a train is late or is delayed. Once our family had gone to Solapur for a few days. On our return we planned to catch the ‘Jayanti Janata Express’ from Solapur to Bombay. The train was supposed to be arriving at 7.50 p.m. We were at the station by 7 p.m. There was an

An Hour on a Railway Platform

Pollution

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
announcement over the public address system that “For your kind information, the Jayanti Janata Express is expected to arrive at 8.40 a.m. with a delay of 50 minutes because of some derailment. We are sorry for your delay in schedule”. After hearing the announcement I started to read magazine which I kept with my self. I soon lost interest in the magazines and wondered how I could spend the time. I was restless. Then I began noticing the people around me. The vendors at the stalls were all busy, some arranging their wares and some were cooking. Some passengers on the platform were checking their luggage. There were beggars counting their money. The sweepers were doing their jobs. There was an electrician repairing some connection. He was being helped by another man, also in uniform. Some porters were sleeping, others talking and playing cards. The Station Master came out of his office and went into the next office. I wondered why, so I got up and had a look. He was talking to the telegraphist. Others were coming to report to the station master and going about their work. I started observing and wondering how the stations were run so smoothly. I was amazed when I thought of the many employees and people working night and day to keep the railways and all the thousands of stations and kilometres of rail tracks, in working order. I also saw something of the life of the number of people who lived off the railways and of people whose life and livelihood depended on the travellers and the railways. When the train arrived almost 1.30 hrs. Late, I did not realize how late it was! Because I was so interested in what I was observing. I never thought a 1.30 hours delay could turn out to be so enjoyable, interesting and educative. I have a garden running right round my house. In the front are the flowers and bushed. Behind is the vegetable patch. Daddy and I take care of the front part of the garden. Mother tends the vegetables. In front of our house you will find rose bushes, sunflower plants and violets. We have planted hedges all along the borders. We trim them regularly. Dead leaves and the rubbish are used as fertilizer for the soil. We water the plants every day. In the evenings, I sit on a swing in the mogra tree. Bubuls, Mynahs and sparrows chirp in the branches. I feel very peaceful and happy, here, in my own garden. I was very happy when my S.S.C. Results were announced. I have passed with first class. I wanted to go to a good Commerce College. I got admission in a city college. I had formed some idea of what college life was going to be like. These ideas came from my friends in college and from films. I went to college on the first day feeling a little nervous. I soon realized that college was really quite different from what I had imagined. In some respects I was disappointed. In school we were over - protected and were never allowed to do anything on our own. In college we had the freedom to decide things for ourselves. I found that a lot of students were misusing this freedom. If I were the Principal I would be a little stricter about attendance. Even the weak students stay away from the class because they think it impresses others. They do not realise how foolish they are. If I were the Principal I would take steps to warn them, and inform their parents too.

If I Were a Principal of a College

My Garden

Doctor Marathe is our family doctor, and much liked by everyone. He is a simple man, dresses in an ordinary white shirt and pants, and wears spectacles. He is there in his clinic for four hours every morning and another four in the evening. He treats all kinds of patients - the rich and the poor. People all around have great faith in him. He has a kindly, considerate nature and a ready smile for every patient. He is helped only by an old compounder who has long been in service with him. No one has a bad word for Dr. Marathe. The mention of him brings a light to everyone’s eye. Our country, India, is going through a difficult phase now, Though we are progressing some fields we still see much corruption, suffering and mismanagement. I wish I were the Prime Minister of our country, to that, I could do something about these problems. First, I would gather a council of honest, qualified and committed men as ministers. Their worth would have been proven in the past. No dishonest member would be chosen. Next, I would end corruption !, Starting from the top and up to the bottom. The punishment for corruption would be

Our Family Doctor

If I Were the Prime Minister of India

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
severe. The public would be informed not to tolerate such people but to complain if they were dissatisfied. Officers would be made accountable for their employees performance. The whole concept of accepting corruption as a part of life would have to be changed. This would be the first item in the list of priorities. Today we are facing communal problems. Riots and violence have become common. These problems would have to be solved. I would start by giving primary importance to education. To make people aware of the results of such violence, I would bring people face to face with the loss, suffering, death and agony that such senseless action cause. The punishment for anyone committing such acts or being responsible for such acts would be at least ten years in jail. The required amendments would be made in the criminal code. Today we find that people have little faith in justice. Out courts are very slow. People have to wait for years for their cases to come to court for hearing and final judgment. I would put an end to this by filling up the vacancies of judges existing now and setting up more courts and appointing more judges. I would make sure that no one in India starved or had difficulty for getting clean water to drink. The poor would get foot at subsidized price. Education for the backward classes and the poor would be free or subsidized to a greater extent. There are many other areas that would need immediate attention. But I would give top priority to the poor and to justice, above all others. There is no doubt that travelling broadens one’s outlook and makes one more knowledgeable and wiser. We learn much more in a short span of time than we would ever learn in the whole of our school life. One learns more by experience than by being taught or by learning from books. World’s best magazines or newspapers cannot provide the knowledge of, or the thrilling excitement of seeing the beauty of the beautiful historical monuments such as the Taj Mahal. To travel in one’s own country and see its hills, mountains, rivers, valleys and forests and to experience its different climatic conditions increases the geographical knowledge of an individual. On the other hand it arouses in us a sense of belonging and love and unity when we meet people of different castes, religion, speaking different languages, following different customs and traditions. Even History, becomes interesting on visiting the places where Shivaji was crowned or where Tipu Sultan was betrayed and killed. We feel proud of our rich heritage. Beyond India there lies a vast wonderful world. It would indeed be wonderful, interesting and educative to visit these foreign countries, experience their different climates and visit different historical places. Apart from natural and historical sights, travelling enables us to meet people of different races and faces that make an individual open minded and tolerant. One’s outlook becomes broad and progressive. Travelling removes prejudices and builds universal goodwill and fellow feeling. It helps us to become a citizen of the world. Fortunately, today travelling has become much easier with the increase of new modes of transport and the emergence of thousands of travel agencies for those who cannot set up their own travelling plans. Government should grant more facilities for the benefit of the people who cannot afford to travel and enjoy the pleasures of travelling. Those who can, should do as much travelling as possible. ‘Examinations’ the most dreaded word in anybody’s life. The immediate thought that comes to mind is studying hard and slogging. This is the universal notion that all students have, pouring over books, burning the candle at both ends. Sometimes one wishes that there should be no that these stressful moments would not be there. It is very trying time which everyone has to undergo. There are some intelligent students who are unscathed but majority carry unpleasant memories. What would the consequences be if there were no exams? Students would be thrilled - the fear of exams, the burden of hard work and sleepless nights would be removed. Let us weigh the pros and cons. The evaluation of a student and the effort that every person puts in, would never be realised. Students would tend to take things lightly, not bothering to put in regular hours of studying. There wo8uld be no grades in fact these grades which are awarded to students always encourage them and they try to better their performance. Every average student feels that he should accomplish something be an achiever and one thing which should be remembered is that hard work and sincerity always helps. On the other hand, the student on his own may be tempted to

If there were no exams

Travelling as a means of Education

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
work harder, knowing that he does not have to compete, measure up to anyone’s yardstick. Without exams, of course, there would be indiscipline as students may take it easy, not be attentive in class, giving rise to unruly behaviour and even lead to illiteracy. Of all the living beings inhabiting this earth, trees are out best friends. Mother Nature, in her infinite wisdom, has gifted them to man to live in harmony with him and to be of great service to him. Besides fruits, trees provide important raw materials for our industries. Industries provide employment to people. The wood for furniture, housing, railway carriages and ships come from trees. Wood is also used for fuel and for making charcoal which is used as fuel. From trees we get wood - pulp to make paper and artificial yarns (like nylon). Trees also give us products such as spices, rubber, turpentine, eucalyptus oil and gum. We also get honey and many valuable things for medicine from forests. We get so many things from forests that forests are rightly known as ‘ green gold’ Trees provide shade to tired travellers and animals and shelter to innumerable birds and insects. Trees keep the environment clean. They absorb harmful carbon dioxide from the air and fill the atmosphere with precious life - sustaining oxygen. In this way they reduce air pollution. Therefore, trees are called the lungs of nature. Forests retain humidity and attract rains. There will be no rain if there are no trees. It is for this reason that trees are known as rain catchers. In fact, all our basic necessities like, air, water, food, clothing and shelter come directly or indirectly from trees. trees. If there were no trees, there would be no rain and land would turn into an arid desert. Mankind would perish for want of food, drinking water, fresh air and sufficient humidity. So we should ever remain grateful to trees. The word, computer comes from the word ‘compute’, which means to count or calculate. The computer has, therefore, been defined as a mechanical or and electric apparatus capable of carrying out repetitive and highly complex mathematical operations at high speed. We are said to be living in the Computer Age today. Originally a counting gadget, the computer has made tremendous advances, and can perform a variety of tasks with the utmost efficiency. The credit goes to Professor Howard Aitken of the Harvard University, USA and a team of engineers attached to the International Business Machine Corporation. The year 1937 will go down in history as marking the birth of the computer. The computer does not work automatically. It is not a substitute for human brain. The human brain is capable of independent thinking; but not the computer. It has to be fed with necessary data. It works mechanically, not intelligently. The computer has to be ‘programmed’, which means that the necessary data have to be fed into it. It then performs a number of mathematical functions. It adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides, sorts out, compares, analyses, solved problems and furnishes printed solutions. It can produce all these results instantaneously. It is the instant calculator. It can store information for future use. It has, therefore, been called “memory bank”. There are some people who have apprehensions about the computer becoming the supreme ruler one day and dictating the lives of human beings. This is a groundless fear. The computer has no consciousness of its own. It cannot start by itself. It has no volition of its own, until it is started by man. It is man, with his human intelligence who can set it into motion. It is the product of the human intelligence and will be controlled by the human intelligence. Once a year, we have a very rand function in our school. That function is the Annual Prize Distribution Day. It is always held in the second week of December, just before the Christmas vacation begins. This year, it was held on Monday the 12th, in the spacious school hall, which was beautifully decorated. Mr. Dasgupta, the Chairman of the Saraswati Education Trust, was the chief guest. He arrived at the school with his wife exactly at 5 p.m. The two were warmly received by the Principal. Everyone gave them a standing ovation. After everyone had settled down, the Principal introduced the chief guest to the audience. Then the secretary of the school read out the annual school report. Next, the physical education teacher read out the names of the prize winners who came, one by one, to receive he prizes. I received two prizes – one for elocution and the other as the best student in my class. After the prize distribution, the chief guest rose to speak. He praised the prize winners for their achievements and asked other

Trees - Nature’s Gift to Man.

The annual prize distribution day

The computer – its uses

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
students to follow their examples. His speech was lively, brief and full of encouragement. This was followed by a variety entertainment programme put up by students of various classes. There were amusing skits and interesting dances. Rairaj Mohite of Standard VIII entertained the audience with his remarkable mimicry. The Punjabi Bhangra dance was the most exciting item. In the end, the Vice – Principal proposed a vote of thanks. The function ended with the National Anthem. The memory of this happy occasion is still fresh in my mind, especially because I received two prizes. Isn’t getting hot here? So, take off all your clothes! You may laugh. Yes, these famous words of Hollywood star, Nelly are truer than one might think. It’s really getting hot here. I mean world’s average temperature is rising every year, which in turn causes change in climate, rainfall patterns, rise in sea, and a wide range of impacts on plants, animals and humans. These changes are having negative effects on us. Carbon dioxide levels are 30% higher than they were prior. According to NASA, the polar ice cap is now melting faster. Arctic ice thickness has decreased. The current pace of sea level rise is 3 times the historical rate and appears to be accelerating. The number of hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. More than a million species worldwide could be driven to extinct by 2050. The current drought in Amazon is suspected to be a result of rising ocean temperature. Poverty and food scarcity has been tied to this. It is all a critical global issue posing a serious potential threat professionally called as Global Warming. Global warming affects the world on three – levels international, national and local. The debate on the cause of this serious scenario is, some say, that man has caused, others claim that it is natural trend. We the survivor stand with the lot who say the culprit for global warming is the record levels of the leading green house gases – Carbon dioxide, Methane, CFC, etc., which form a sort of blanket over the earth. We are warming the planet. We are living in the midst of this great chemical experiment. Unless we take steps to curb global warming, our planet, the friends are all in grave danger. But there is hope. Come let’s join. Each of us can make simple discussions to reduce global warming pollution. So my friends, we are going to put it in action.

Do we warming the globe?

In India, Jawaharlal Nehru’s birthday is the only day when children are remembered and celebrated as Children’s Day. Though Children’s Day is celebrated every year in India, children are still exploited and abused by the employer and society. Even after 60 year of independence to India, still there is no liberty and freedom for poor children. Though the Government of India has taken step forward by enacting many laws like Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986, Mines Act 1952, Merchant Shipping Act 1958, Motor Transport Workers Act 961, Apprentices Act of 1961, Bidi and Cigar Workers Act 1966, Plantation Labour Act 1951, Factories Act 1948, to ban domestic work and other forms of labour by children under the age of 14, the Indian authorities have not been able to enforce these Acts effectively for the prohibition of child labour. Even in the Constitution of India under Article 24, it clearly states that, “No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or employed in any hazardous employment.” The Indian government has taken care that children should be provided education until the age of 14. Hence, the government proposed in 83rd Constitutional Amendment Bill, 1997, guarantying the right to free and compulsory education for children from 6 – 14 years of age. It also made a fundamental duty for parents / guardians to provide opportunities for education to children in this age group. Even the Directive Principles of State Policy indicate that the government must take measures to achieve the goal of free and compulsory education for children under the age of 14 years. Article 45 of the Constitution states that the State Shall endeavour to provide, within a period of 10 years from the commencement of the constitution, free and compulsory education for all children till they reach the age of 14 years. In India we celebrate many festivals and every festival is celebrated in a different way. In rural areas the highlight of a festival is a fair or a ‘Mela’ as it is locally called. Young or old everyone looks forward to a fair, where you can have lots of fun and variety of entertainment. In Mumbai too we have fairs and one of the more popular ones is the

Child labour & enforcement to prevent child labour

Visit to a Fair

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
‘Bandra Fair’ which celebrates the birthday of Mary – the mother of Jesus. This festival jams on the 8th of September. She is called the lady of the Mount as the church is on a hill – called Mount Mary. This fair attracts people of all faiths who to worship and pray and enjoy the entertainment as well. A walk along the fair brings you face to face with variety of fun things. There are the Giant wheels which attracts youngsters giving them a thrill as they go spinning around the wheel. The Merry – go – round is what children look forward to. There is fun and laughter everywhere. Stalls selling sweetmeats are a great attraction at fairs. Other stalls sell clothes, jewellery items, knick – knacks toys, shoes, anything under the sun is sold at fairs. Children get fascinated with the balloons and the bubbles and parents make happy them by buying them all they ask. Indian foods like Tandoori Chicken – Bhel Puri – Chana Masala are a hot favourite. Another attraction at the fair is the fortune teller, with a tarot card or the parrot. People who want to know their fortune frequent these stalls. Finally you have the photographers who take instant pictures of people with artificial back drops. Every one at some time or the other visits a fair and every visit to a fair leaves a lasting memory of fun. Traditionally, there have always been no attitudes towards women. Either it is that women are weak, they must be protected, kept at home and looked after – the daughter, the wife and the mother. The other is – she must be worshipped. We see them as goddesses – Lakshmi, Durga, Saraswati. The place of women in Indian society today is an ambiguous one. She has not totally stepped out of the past exploitative role that the society had designed for her. Today we have constitutional guarantees, the legislation that makes a girl equal to a boy, but social change is slow. We cannot brainwash the parents and gender conditioning still treats women as the weaker sex. The New Education Policy had given importance to girl’s education. The question sill remains – after almost 60 years of planned development, in what way has the lives of women really changed? Millions o women are still illiterate. They face dowry problems, malnutrition, discrimination, offences of rape, violence in the home and outside. There is a way to change this. Each educated woman, to whom knowledge has been given, must now understand the value of being a committed citizen. They must question the value of traditional practices. Above all, there must be generosity of vision, a caring spirit that would like to reach out and help the less fortunate. All women must be prepared to be agents of change and instruments of women’s liberation. Only then will Indian women find their true equal place in society. Electricity is one of the basic forms of energy. Of all the forms in which energy exists including motion, sound, heat, light and radio waves, electricity is the most versatile (having many uses). It can be generated from many different sources. It can be sent almost instantaneously over long distances, carrying either messages or power and it can be converted simply and efficiently into other forms of energy as needed. Because of this versatility, electricity plays a part in nearly every aspect of modern life. It provides light and heat, and mechanical power and makes possible the telephone and telegraph, radio and television and countless other necessities and luxuries. Nowadays, we take gadgets like the light, fan mixer, oven, iron, refrigerator, air conditioner so much for granted without giving a thought to its working. We often hear our grandmothers talking of the good old days without electricity, when one would rise with the dawn and sleep early. All studying would be in the daylight hours; cooking on wood - fire had its own flavour and meals would be family meals to be eaten together at a fixed time by candle light. Once when we had no electricity for 8 hrs. life came to a standstill. The bells didn’t ring. The washing machine wend dead. TV sets was dark and silent. The radio was just a box without voice. The food spoiled. The electric clock about without flashlights, knocking on each others doors instead of ringing doorbells. Travelling by trains (electric) would be affected leaving millions stranded. In other words, chaos reigned supreme. Such power failures are a housewife’s nightmares. Chores which are quickly attended to remain unattended. We are so dependent on electricity and the comforts it provides, that without it we are literally left in darkness. In this modern day such black - outs are frequent because demand is more than supply. Our population has increased manifold and so has our consumption. Hence there is over loading and power breakdowns. The day is not far off when we will face an acute power crisis.

If there were no Electricity?

The place of Women in Indian Society

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS

My Favourite Hobby.
A hobby is a kind of amusement, an interesting pursuit which fruitfully occupies our leisure hours. There are many kinds of hobbies like collecting things, games and sports, photography, painting, reading or even gardening. Hobbies may be constructive, lucrative or even useful, but what really matters is that they provide constructive and interesting recreation. My favourite hobby is collecting stamps. I have a lovely album in which I fix the stamps. I have separate pages for each country. I also have separate pages for stamps on birds, animals, great leaders, historical movements, etc. I have about 4000 stamps in all. My friends and relations who are not stamp collectors collect stamps for me. This has helped me to collect stamps from all over the world. I also exchange stamps with my friends. Whenever I get two or three identical stamps, I immediately try to exchange them for one that I do not have. I have managed to collect some very rare and old stamps. Whenever the postal department issues a new stamp or a commemorative stamp I see that I buy them. There are many benefits from stamp collecting. The birds, fishes, dresses, people, buildings and other emblems on the stamps tell us about the various countries, their culture, the lifestyles of the people, etc. It thus broadens our mental horizons and gives us a peep into history. Whenever I glance through my stamp album and look at my rare stamps. I am filled with a sense of pride and joy. My hobby fills my leisure hours with interest and keeps my mind well occupied. My hobby will continue and with the passage of time, I am sure that I will have an extraordinary large, stamp collection.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
October 96. Your younger brother who is staying in a hostel has failed in the Terminal examination and has become nervous. He is thinking to give up studies. Write a letter persuading him to continue the efforts and get success. 7G, Rainbow Colony, M.G.Road, Mahin (E), Mumbai - 400 016. 5th Match, 2007 Dear brother Vijay, I hope this letter of mine finds you in the pink of health. But what is this I hear about you? Are you really seriously planning to give up your studies, just because you failed in the terminal examination? It would then be a rash decision made without any fore-thought and careful reflection. A solitary failure should not dishearten you. It is not the end of the world for you yet. You must count your blessings. You are full of bouncing energy and very much in the prime of your youth. Should you decide to give up your studies, you will be a big loser. You will be tagged as a school drop - out. Worse still, without adequate formal education, you will not be able to forge ahead in life. The prospects for you anywhere and everywhere are bound to be bleak. Dearest brother, there is no point in being unduly nervous and diffident. Keep on working and brush up your weak subjects then you are likely to pass your next examination with flying colours. And what is more, this achievement is not beyond you. Your are quick on the uptake, this should make your task much easier and simpler. I would now in all seriousness urge you to have second thoughts on your rather rash decision to give up studies. Yours lovingly, ABC March 1997 You had invited your friend for a vacation at your native place. Somehow he/she could not arrive in time in spite of his/her assurance. Write a letter asking him/her about the reason and tell about your worries. 7G, Rainbow Colony, M.G.Road, Benson Town, Bangalore - 560 005. 5th Match, 2007. Dear Karthik, I received your letter long ago confirming your decision to spend this vacation with us. We were all eagerly waiting to see you. However, the vacation is almost over and we know that there must have been a strong reason for cancelling the arrival. Mother had special plans for us about spending holidays in Bangalore. Your busy life in Mumbai certainly needed a little change and we had taken care of that in our plans which included an excursion to Krishnarajsagar where the famous Brindavan Garden is. As this is the fag end of vacation and yet there is no sign of your arrival we lost hopes. Your recent letter confirming your ticket reservation makes us all the more anxious to know as to the reasons for your last minute cancellation. Our disappointment for your not coming has turned into anxiousness and we are all worried about you. Everyone is forwarding his/her reasons for your sudden dropping the plans to come to Bangalore and I tell you, more we think of the reasons the more worried it makes us all. Therefore, please write to us about the emergency that caused your change in the plans. We shall be anxiously waiting to hear from you. Yours lovingly ABC

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
3. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper drawing his attention to the illegal parking of truck in your lane. 7G, Rainbow colony, M.G. Road, Mahim(E), Mumbai:- 400 016. 5th March, 2009

.

The Editor, Times of India News Paper, Mumbai : - 400 001. Subject: Complain against the illegal parking of truck. Respected sir, I have been the resident of the above mentioned area for the last twenty years. The people here are all educated and go out to work and children go to school. I would like to bring to your notice that the roads in this area are fully filled with illegal parking of trucks, that it becomes very difficult to even walk specially during the rains. Not only this even the street lights are so poor, that it becomes very difficult for people to walk or take out their vehicles during late in the evening. One must be aware that how irresponsible is to park vehicles like trucks in the residential area. Hence I request you to consider it and through your newspaper, I want to make one request to the concerned authority to consider this matter as important park the trucks in some other non residential areas. I shall be obliged if you publish my letter in your newspaper so that it catches the attention of the Councillor of our ward and an urgent action is taken. Thanking you, Yours faithfully, X y Z. Write a letter to enquiry to the manager of a travel agency about a proposed vacation trip you intend to make to Delhi, Simla and Agra. 7G, Sonia Apartments, Rainbow colony, M.G. Road, Mahim(E), . Mumbai:- 400 016. 5th March, 2007 The Manager, The General travel agency, Mahim (W), Mumbai - 400 016. Subject: Enquiry about a proposed vacation trip to Delhi, Shimla and Agra. Respected sir, I, XYZ, one of the teacher staff of our school. We teachers had a meeting with our Principal. The authorities have agreed to give us the permission to conduct the vacation trip to Delhi, Shimla and Agra. Kindly furnish us with the necessary details and the total cost for 500 students and 20 staff members. Also send your quotations for other places. Eagerly awaiting your reasonable quotation. Thanking you, Yours faithfully, X Y Z.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE A SELF – STUDY AND PRACTICE BOOK FOR OMTEX STUDENTS
5. Your friend does not wish to join the N.S.S. As it involves a not of extra curricular activity. Write a letter to him/her persuading him/her to join this unit, telling him/her of the usual work being done by the unit, what real educational meas etc. 7G, Rainbow colony, M.G. Road, Mahim(E), Mumbai:- 400 016. 5th March, 2007

.

Dear Sania mirza, It was great hearing from you after a long time. Your holiday in the cool hills of Shimla seems to be interesting and full of fun, however the contents of your letter has disturbed me and set me thinking. As a long standing friend, I consider it my duty to give you my views and persuade you to follow your ideals. You have always been interested in joining the N.S.S. why should the curriculum deter you? There can be no field of study without extra - curricular activities. These activities help to develop your personality they will enable you to grow into a fine young accomplished man. Besides just think of the useful work you will be involved in the N.S.S. You were the one who always wanted to do something useful, in the service of others and this is the ideal chance. Sania, think about it, it is your career your are talking about. Don’t get put off with some extra - curricular activity, Be positive, Be brave and confidence will be yours. Bye for now, do keep in touch I love hearing from you and treasure, your friendship. Yours lovingly, X Y Z

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.