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ENS2106 Motorsport Design and Development

ENS3105 Mechanical Design and Development

Lecture 1 - Introduction

Dr. Ferdinando Guzzomi


f.guzzomi@ecu.edu.au

Which is the better product?

Which is the better product?

Which is the better product?

Which is the better product?

Which is the better product?

Learning & Assessment


Lectures (2 hours)
Covers design theory and calculations, including case studies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Introduction / PDS
Stress, Strain and Strength
Mohrs Circle and Safety
Moments and Bending
Buckling
Mechanical Springs
Bearings Part 1
Bearings Part 2 Rolling Element

9. Catch up week
Mid-Semester Break
10. Power Transmission
11. Design of Non-Permanent Joints
12. Design of Permanent Joints
13. Design Case Study

Tutorial (1 hour)
Time to work on projects
Problems based on lecture material, similar to exam questions

Learning & Assessment


Assessments
Minor Project
Theory based problems
Major Project
Exam

10%
10%
40%
40%

Recommended literature
Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design
(Richard G. Budynas & J. Keith Nisbett)
Other useful literature:
Fundamentals of Machine Component Design
(Robert C. Juvinall & Kurt M. Marshek)
Notes on Design and Analysis of Machine Elements
(Douglas Wright)
school.mech.uwa.edu.au/~dwright/DANotes/intro/contents.html

Common questions

What is design?
What types of design are there?
What are the main activities in design?

Definition of Design
Design is the application of creativity to planning
the optimum solution of a given problem and the
communication of that plan to others

Engineering design is the process of devising a


system, component or process to met desired
needs. It is a decision making process (often
iterative), in which the scientific principles,
mathematics, and engineering tools are applied
to convert resources optimally to meet a stated
objective

Important points
What is the problem?
Two problem types:
- Well-defined
- Ill-defined

What is the solution?


Will the market accept it?
Will it be cost effective?
Will it come at the right time?
Will it be good enough?

Types of Design
Original
Development of a new system to perform a new task or one
that has been solved by other means previously. To design
something that did not exist previously.

Adaptive
Using known and established solution principles to meet new
requirements. Slight modification of an existing design.

Variant
Sizes and arrangements of aspects of a given system are
altered, however the solution principle and its application
remain the same. Modifying an existing design into a new idea,
by adopting new materials, methodology, manufacture, etc

Static vs. Dynamic Products


Static products only
require incremental
changes
Dynamic products often
require new concepts to be
considered
Performance of a product
increases more rapidly
during dynamic phases.
Available design time also
affects whether a product
is static or dynamic.

Can you learn to design?

Thames Tunnel

Great Western Railway

Clifton Suspension Bridge

Great Eastern

His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering


Source Wikipedia: Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859)

Main Activities
Gather and present facts about products and processes
Clarify and analyse relationships between products and
processes
Measure performance
Highlight strengths and weaknesses and compare
alternatives
Diagnose why an area is strong or weak
Provide redesign advice on how a design can be improved
Predict what-if effects (Murphys Law)
Carry out improvements
Allow iteration to take place

Decision Making Process

Types of Decisions
Fundamental
Few in number, but are of great importance to whether a design is
good or bad. Fundamental decisions are made during the start of a
design process, and are often unchangeable without substantial
redesign.

Intermediate
These are extensions of, and supplement, fundamental decisions.
Many intermediate decisions may spring from one fundamental or
other intermediate decision. These decisions may be changed, but
often not without difficulty and expense.

Minor
Occur in vast numbers, and are most often concerned with design
details. These can usually be changed with minimal difficulty and
expense.

Effects of Time
The importance of time to market has recently been shown to be responsible for
over 30% of the total profit to be made from a product during its lifecycle.
Cost to Change
Decision

Design
Progression

Design Activity Model v1 (Pugh)


Market

Specification
Concept Design
Detail Design
Manufacture
Sell

Design Activity Model v2 (Pahl & Beitz)


Task

Requirements List
Concept
Preliminary Layout
Definitive Layout
Product Documentation

Market/User Needs and Demands


Types of Information Needed
Legislation Patents, Trade marks, Registered Designs &
Copyright
Reports, proceedings & reference books
Manufacturers of competitive (like) and analogous products
Official and private representative bodies (e.g. Standards)
Safety specifications
Statistical or Market data publications
Filling in gaps in recorded sources (e.g. Specialist libraries, nonrecorded sources for design characteristics)

Information Analysis
Parametric analysis Cross-plot parameters to find relationships,
both logical and illogical
Needs Analysis - Analysis of reports, interviews, questionnaires etc.
Matrix analysis - Matrix of features of competitors on one axis,
model types on another.

The Product Design Specification (PDS)


The specification needs to be dynamic rather than static.

The PDS document is a control document (not of essay style) and should be succinct
and clear. It should attempt to quantify parameters in each area. It should be dated
and numbered clearly and all amendments need to be documented.

Performance

Life in Service

Ergonomics

Safety

Cost

Size

Customer (Wants /
Needs)

Company
Constraints

Competition

Weight

Quality & Reliability

Market Constraints

Shipping

Aesthetics

Shelf Life

Legal

Environment

Maintenance

Processes

Installation

Packing

Materials

Time-Scales

Documentation

Quantity

Life Span

Testing

Disposal

Manufacturing
Facility

Standards / Specs

Social Implications

Patents & Product


Data

Conceptual Design
Needs to occur after a PDS has been generated.
Two main goals of conceptual design phase:

Generation of Solutions

Evaluation of Solutions
Aids to creativity in controlled convergence
Analogy (Find similar solutions)
Brainstorming
Attribute Listing
Checklists
Inversion (Manipulation of existing solution)
Combination (Bringing together multiple solutions)

Constraints and Criteria


Very important!
They define the overall design concept
Constraint
A limitation or restriction (within prescribed bounds) imposed on an entity,
project, or system from achieving its potential with reference to its goal.
A bound or limit which every design candidate must comply with to be a
valid or viable solution.

Criteria
A standard, rule, or test on which a judgment or decision can be based.
A means by which the suitability of design candidates may be judged
against one another.

Ensure ALL constraints and criteria are identified

Evaluation
Evaluate to prove design concept success
We need to avoid gut-feeling decisions.
Continually give opportunities for new concepts to emerge after
reducing concept numbers
Look for ways to reverse negatives of concepts
Skipping this step is a false economy of time
In order to evaluate we need:
A list of criteria
An ability to estimate:
The importance of criteria
The degree to which a criteria is met
The overall satisfaction of the solution

Matrices for concept evaluation give structure & control, should be


used with caution

2009 Evaluation (For FSAE Wheels)


Option

Cost

Weight

Development
Time

Performance

Score

Importance

10

10

20

10

50

Ex US wheels

10

20

36

Ex US wheel rims & Inhouse centres

15

38

In house Aluminium wheels

10

33

In house Carbon Fibre


wheels

10

10

27

These can be much more complicated, with more criteria and more advanced
weightings ...
Weightings and criteria do have some subjectivity involved, even when you try to
eliminate it.

Note that the evaluation criteria may change over time.

Other Design Considerations

Strength
Reliability
Thermal considerations
Corrosion
Wear
Friction
Processing
Utility
Cost
Safety
Weight
Life
Transportation

Noise
Styling
Shape
Size
Flexibility
Control
Stiffness
Surface Finish
Lubrication
Maintenance
Volume
Legal / Codes
Social

Detail Design
Traditional engineering teaching focuses at the detail design level. It is as
important as the conceptual phase, as all stages are of equal importance, but it
cannot rescue a bad concept.
In practice, Conceptual Design makes it possible to obtain:
A reduction in the total number of parts
A reduction in complexity (maybe with more simpler parts)
A reduction in material usage, hence weight reduction

A reduction in cost (Beware of final economics)


A reduction in assembly time and fewer components
A reduction in the number of drawings required
A reduction in the number of types of parts (standardisation)

An improvement in appearance
An improvement in reliability
Improved use of available facilities
A simplification of components aiding in designers analysis

Increased awareness of the importance and difficulties of detail design

Design for Manufacture (DFM)


Main Aims of DFM:

Minimise component and assembly costs


Minimise development cycles
Enable higher quality products to be made

Design of the Manufacturing Process


Parallel design of manufacturing process and product design will decrease delays in
getting to the market. To some degree process design will lag behind product design.
One can apply all the same product design methods to process design.
Aims are:
Shorter Development Cycles
Employing existing process equipment
Design of long lead time products early
Difficulties of manufacture considered early
Better Quality Products
Complex production increases chances of assembly errors
All products are manufactured
Acknowledged fact that it must occur

KISS (Keep It Simple Stupid)


Carroll & Bellinger (1969)
Perhaps the major single contributor to operating reliability
is simplicity and The superior design is one which
encompasses the necessary operating and protective
functions with the absolute minimum number of
components and connections
Crouse (1967)
If you simplify something you automatically increase its
reliability and cut its cost
Mihalsky (1975)
Keep the design simple in order to have good reliability

Recommendations

Practice!
Conceptual Design
Excellent detailed design cannot rescue a bad concept
Continual Specification
Good answer can become a poor answer very rapidly Wright

Good Design Creativity


Greatest gains are obtained by those willing to risk defeat - Shigley
If something can go wrong then it will go wrong and at the worst
possible time Murphys law

Is engineering design a science?

Is engineering design a science?

ISS Video

http://vimeo.com/45878034