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Abstract

[Doctoral Study Title]


by
[your official name]

MS, [university], 200X


BS, [university], 200X

Doctoral Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment


of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Business Administration

Walden University
[last month of quarter you plan to graduate] 200X

Abstract
Insert abstract here; it should be no more than one page. Abstract text must be doublespaced with no paragraph breaks. Describe the overall research problem being addressed
in the first couple of sentences and indicate why it is important (e.g., who would care if
the problem is solved). You can include a general introduction of the issue in the first
sentence, but you need to move to a clear statement of the research problem being
addressed. Identify the purpose and theoretical foundations, if appropriate, summarize the
key research question(s), and briefly describe the overall research design, methods and
data analytic procedures. Identify the key results, 1 or 2 conclusions, and
recommendations that capture the heart of the research. Conclude with a statement on the
implications for positive social change. Here are some form and style tips: (a) Limit the
abstract to one typed page; (b) maintain the scholarly language used throughout the
doctoral study; (c) keep the abstract concise, accurate, and readable; (d) use correct
English; (e) ensure each sentence adds value to the readers understanding of the
research; and (f) use the full name of any acronym and include the acronym in
parentheses. Do not include references or citations in the abstract. Per APA style, unless
at the start of a sentence, use numerals in the abstract.

[Doctoral Study Title]


by
[your official name]

MS, [university], 200X


BS, [university], 200X

Doctoral Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment


of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Business Administration

Walden University
[last month of quarter you plan to graduate] 200X

Dedication
This is an optional page for a dedication. If you include a dedication, use regular
paragraph spacing as shown here (not centered, italicized, or otherwise formatted). The
acknowledgments should not exceed one page.

Acknowledgments
This is an optional page for acknowledgments. It is a nice place to thank the
faculty, family members, and friends who have helped you reach this point in your
academic career. The acknowledgments should not exceed one page.
No page number appears on any of the pages up to this point. If you do not wish
to include this page, delete the heading and the body text.

Table of Contents
List of Tables.......................................................................................................................
List of Figures......................................................................................................................
Section 1: Foundation of the Study......................................................................................
Background of the Problem...........................................................................................
Problem Statement.........................................................................................................
Purpose Statement..........................................................................................................
Nature of the Study........................................................................................................
Research Question.........................................................................................................
Hypotheses.....................................................................................................................
Interview/Survey Questions.....................................................................................
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework..........................................................................
Definition of Terms........................................................................................................
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations................................................................
Assumptions............................................................................................................
Limitations...............................................................................................................
Delimitations............................................................................................................
Significance of the Study...............................................................................................
Contribution to Business Practice............................................................................
Implications for Social Change...............................................................................
A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature................................................
Transition and Summary................................................................................................
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Section 2: The Project..........................................................................................................


Purpose Statement..........................................................................................................
Role of the Researcher...................................................................................................
Participants.....................................................................................................................
Research Method and Design........................................................................................
Method.....................................................................................................................
Research Design......................................................................................................
Population and Sampling...............................................................................................
Ethical Research...........................................................................................................
Data Collection............................................................................................................
Instruments............................................................................................................
Data Collection Technique.....................................................................................
Data Organization Techniques...............................................................................
Data Analysis Technique..............................................................................................
Reliability and Validity................................................................................................
Reliability..............................................................................................................
Validity...................................................................................................................
Transition and Summary..............................................................................................
Section 3: Application to Professional Practice and Implications for Change..................
Overview of Study.......................................................................................................
Presentation of the Findings.........................................................................................
Applications to Professional Practice..........................................................................
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Implications for Social Change....................................................................................


Recommendations for Action......................................................................................
Recommendations for Further Study...........................................................................
Reflections...................................................................................................................
Summary and Study Conclusions................................................................................
References..........................................................................................................................
Appendix A: Title of Appendix..........................................................................................
Curriculum Vitae................................................................................................................
This Table of Contents (TOC) has all the headings from the template included. To
update your TOC, right click anywhere in the Table of Contents, select Update Field, then
select Update entire table or Update page numbers only, and click OK.

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List of Tables
Table 1. A Sample Table Showing Correct Formatting.......................................................9
When you update the List of Tables, the table number and title will come in
without a period between them; you will need to manually add that period after all table
numbers, as shown for Table 1. In addition, the title will retain the italics from the
narrative when the List of Tables is updated. Once your list is finalized, select the entire
list, and change it to plain type.
Note that tables are numbered in sequence beginning with 1. Do not number
tables according to the section in which they appear (Table 4-1, 5-2, etc.) Table numbers
are followed by a period, not a colon or a dash. This applies to figure numbers in the list
of figures as well.

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List of Figures
Figure 1. Figure caption, sentence case.............................................................................xx
The List of Figures is not set up to automatically update. If you have figures in
your document, type them in manually here, following the example above.
Alternately, follow the instructions in the Instructions for Using the Walden DBA
Template, which will allow automatic updating of the List of Figures.

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Section 1: Foundation of the Study
Text begins here. Provide an overview of the context or background of the
problem. DBA Doctoral Studies are focused on applied business research
Background of the Problem
Text begins here. Provide an overview of the context or background of the
problem. DBA Doctoral Studies are focused on applied research in contrast to basic
research in PhD Dissertations.
This section has a clear statement demonstrating that the focus of the study is on a
significant applied business problem that is worthy of study. There is a brief, wellarticulated summary of research literature that substantiates the context of the study by
indicating a gap in effective business practice and potential solutions vis--vis the
literature.
Problem Statement
Text begins here. Text begins here. The problem statement describes the overall
research problem being addressed and indicates why it is important to the practice of
management (e.g., who would care if the problem were studied? It is helpful to state the
general problem first and then state the specific problem considered. One approach is
state a problem as a gap between the current state of a situation and the desired state of
the situation. Either the current state or desired state may be implied and thus not
explicitly included in the problem statement.
The problem statement concisely states what will be studied by describing at least
two variables and a conjectured relationship between them in quantitative studies. The

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problem statement describes the need for increased understanding about the issue to be
explored in qualitative studies.
Problem statements should be concise: 150 to 250 words.

General business problem that exists in business.

Two citations are required from the literature to establish a problem exists.
Example:
Jones (2010) stated that employee turnover in the health care industry averages
46% across the nation. According to Smith (2010), employee turnover contributes to loss
of both revenue and customers. The numbers and citations anchor the existence of the
problem.

Your specific issue/problem that you will address.

Example:
Employee turnover in Denver, Colorado is 66%, or employee turnover in
Houston, Texas is 12%.
The focus of this study is to explore or examine xxxxxxx
Purpose Statement
Text begins here. The Purpose Statement of the study clearly describes the
intent/focus of the investigation. Smith (2009) provided an excellent discussion on the
purpose statement as well as some scripts that may be useful in constructing this
statement.
The statement should be crafted into a mini story (250 words) that includes the
following six pieces of information:

Research method is identified as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed.

Research design is clearly stated.

Research variables (if a quantitative or mixed method) are briefly identified:


independent, dependent (experimental study), or a correlation (relationships,
comparison).

Specific population group of study is identified and justified.

Geographic location of study is identified.

Contribution to social change is described.


Nature of the Study

Text begins here. Provide a brief discussion on the research method and design.
State why one method (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) was selected and why
it was selected over the other methods. State why one design (within the method) was
selected and why it was selected over other designs. Note: It is not sufficient to state what
method and design were chosen but why they would be better than other
methods/designs.
Discussions relating to the methods/designs must be from multiple authors. For
example, Smith (2010) stated that qualitative studies xxxxxx. According to Schneider
(2008), qualitative studies xxxxx. Multiple perspectives must be provided.
Research Question
Text begins here. Identify the research question that will guide the study. For
example, this study explores, examines, or xxx. Note: There may be one or more overall
central questions.

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Hypotheses
Text begins here. Smith (2009) provided an excellent discussion on the research
questions and hypotheses statements as well as some scripts that may be useful in
constructing these statements.
List hypothesis/hypotheses as H10, H1a and so on. Note: A hypothesis or
hypotheses are required for quantitative or mixed methods studies only.
Interview/Survey Questions
Each interview/survey question must contribute knowledge to the research
question. Avoid questions with yes/no answers.
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
Text begins here. In quantitative studies, the theoretical framework, or in
qualitative studies, the conceptual framework, illustrates which ideas from the literature
ground the research being conducted. Theories are bodies of knowledge that help to
explain and predict phenomena and show how the study will be related to existing
knowledge. Some sample theories include (a) systems theory, (b) feminist theory, (c)
disruptive innovation theory, and (d) health belief theory. Describe in detail the selected
theory, how it relates to the study, how it informs the expectations and aspirations of the
research, and tie it back to the study.
Definition of Terms
Text begins here. The list of defined terms should be almost exactly like other
body text: double-spaced, first line indented. Just italicize the term being defined and

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follow it with a colon. All definitions should be sourced from professional/scholarly
sources and alphabetized. List only terms than might not be understood by the reader.
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
Assumptions
Text begins here. Assumptions are facts considered to be true, but are not actually
verified. Assumptions carry risk and should be treated as such. A mitigation discussion
would be appropriate.
Limitations
Text begins here. Limitations refer to potential weaknesses of the study.
Delimitations
Text begins here. Delimitations refer to the bounds or scope of the study. Describe
the boundary and what is in and out of the scope.
Significance of the Study
Contribution to Business Practice
Text begins here. Discuss how this study will fill gaps in the understanding and
effective practice of business.
Implications for Social Change
Text begins here. Provide a statement of positive social change or the
improvement of human or social conditions by promoting the worth, dignity, and
development of individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or
societies.

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A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature
Text begins here. Ten key elements are required in this subsection. (a) An
introduction containing a discussion of the content of the literature, the organization of
the review, and the strategy for searching the literature. (b) The review of related research
and literature is clearly related to the applied problem statement as expressed in research
questions or hypotheses. (c) The review of related research and literature compares and
contrasts different points of view and the relationship of the study to previous research
and findings. (d) Concise summaries of the literature define the most important aspects of
the theory for understanding improved business practice and which will be examined or
tested for quantitative studies or substantiate the rationale or theoretical framework for
the study that will provide the context for understanding and explaining the elements for
improved business practice (for qualitative studies). (e) There is literature-based
description of the research variables (quantitative studies), or potential themes and
perceptions to be explored (qualitative studies), (f) The content of the review is drawn
from acceptable peer-reviewed journals or sound academic journals or there is a
justification for using other sources.
Average length of a literature review is 100 + peer-reviewed references with 80 to
85% being published within the last 3 to 5 years. (g) Literature related to the research
design and method(s) is reviewed. (h) Literature related to the use of differing
methodologies to investigate the outcomes of interest is reviewed. (i) The methods review
is an integrated, critical essay on the most relevant and current published knowledge on
the topic. The review is organized around major ideas or themes that will inform the

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research project. (j) The preliminary research design is presented and a detailed argument
as to why and how the research design is appropriate to the business problem/research
questions is presented.
Notes: Citations must be written in past tense and a summary of the literature
provided. Most often you will have one paragraph per source. You may need more than
occasionally but not often. You also may sometimes summarize more than one source in a
paragraph when the studies reviewed are very similar in some aspect. The summary
should clearly illustrate the importance of the source to an understanding of your study.
Transition and Summary
Text begins here. This section summarizes Section 1 and the gives an overview of
the next two sections.

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Section 2: The Project
Text begins here. Provide a one or two paragraph introduction to Section 2. This
introduction should provide a clear outline of the Section.
Purpose Statement
Text begins here. Begin Section 2 by reminding readers of the purpose of the
study. Do your best not to copy and paste word for word from Section 1; instead, vary
your language slightly to keep your reader engaged but ensure facts are accurate.
Role of the Researcher
Describe the role of the researcher in the data collection process in this
subsection.
Participants
Text begins here. Discuss procedures for gaining access to participants,
establishing a working relationship with participants, and measures to be taken to assure
that the ethical protection of participants is adequate. Note: if participants are not used in
the study, just note N/A and why.
Identify sample type: random, purposive, stratified, or other and fully describe the
participant selection and geographical location.
Research Method and Design
Text begins here. The research method and design includes (a) a description of the
research method and design, (b) provides justification for using the method and design,
and (c) derives logically from the applied business problem statement. The method and
design should be appropriate to researching the problem statement. Note: this subsection

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should be a significant expansion of the discussion on the Nature of the Study in Section
1.
Method
Text begins here. Identify and justify the use of a specific research method,
indicate whether the research project uses quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods
(hybrid), why it was selected, and why other methods were not selected. Expand on the
discussion in Section 1.
Research Design
Text begins here. Identify and justify the use of a specific research design within a
research method. Discuss why it was selected, and why other methods were not selected.
Finally discuss why this design is appropriate to the problem being studied. Expand on
the discussion in Section 1.
Population and Sampling
Text begins here. This section (a) describes the population from which the sample
will be drawn; (b) describes and defends the sampling method including the sampling
frame used, using appropriate methodology references and concepts; (c) describes and
defends the sample size using appropriate methodology references and concepts; (d)
describes the eligibility criteria for study participants; and (e) describes and explains the
relevance of characteristics of the selected sample.
Criteria for selecting participants are specified and are appropriate to the study.
There is a justification for the number of participants (in accordance with the qualitative
design/approach chosen) which is balanced with depth of inquiry. The fewer the

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participants used in the study, the deeper the inquiry per individual. If appropriate, the
rationale for specific types of subjects/representation in sampling is provided. Criteria for
selecting participants are specified and are appropriate to the study.
Note: Discuss sampling techniques such as purposive, convenience, random, or
stratified sample (subsets might include age, race, gender, or experience).
Ethical Research
Describe in rich detail step-by-step process:

The consenting process (and include form in appendix and list in the Table of
Contents).

Describe how you allow participants to withdraw from the study,

Describe incentives, if any, used.

Statement that data will be maintained in a safe place for 5 years to protect
rights of participants.

Agreement documents are listed in the (a) text of the study, (b) appendices and
(c) Table of Contents.

Reminder: No names of individual organizations or individuals are used,


Data Collection
Instruments
Text begins here. This section presents: (a) Descriptions of instrumentation or
data collection tools to include the name of the instrument, the type of instrument,
concepts measured by the instrument, how scores are calculated and their meaning,
processes for assessment of reliability and validity of the instrument(s), processes needed

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to complete instruments by participants, and where raw data are or will be available
(appendices, tables, or by request from the researcher). (b) Includes a detailed description
of data that comprise each variable in the study. (c) Addresses appropriate psychometric
properties of the scale used. (d) Discusses strategies used to address threats to validity,
test-retest reliability, internal consistency, among others. (e) Finally discuss any
adjustments or revisions to the use of standardized research instruments that were made.
Note: If you develop your own instrument, it must be piloted and validated. Some
surveys may be purchased from http://buros.unl.edu/buros/jsp/search.jsp. Survey Monkey
can be used to develop surveys or interview questionnairessee
http://www.surveymonkey.com.
Data Collection Technique
Text begins here. Describe the technique used to collect data such as a survey,
interview, observation, site visit, video recording, a sample of existing data or records and
so on. In addition, describe the process of how data will be collected. For example, will a
pilot study be used prior to the study? Finally, provide a list of any interview or survey
questions used, which may be referenced here and placed in the Appendix.
Data Organization Techniques
Text begins here. Describe the systems use for keeping track of data and emerging
understandings such as research logs, reflective journals, and cataloging systems.
Describe how data will be secured, how long data will be stored, and how its subsequent
disposition.

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Data Analysis Technique
Text begins here. Data analysis logically and sequentially address all research
questions or hypotheses, where appropriate, outcomes of hypothesis-testing procedures
are clearly reported (e.g., findings support or fail to support, and do not contain any
evident statistical errors. Describe how data will be analyzed such as using software tools
such as NVivo, SPSS, Excel, and so on. Describe in detail any data coding used. Finally,
overall, data analysis (presentation, interpretation, explanation) is consistent with the
research questions or hypotheses and underlying theoretical/conceptual framework of the
study.
Reliability and Validity
Reliability
Text begins here. Discuss both the reliability of the study and the reliability of the
instruments or interview / survey questions used.
Validity
Text begins here. Discuss both the internal and external validity of the study.
Transition and Summary
Text begins here. This section summarizes Section 2 and the gives an overview of
the next section.

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Section 3: Application to Professional Practice and Implications for Change
Text begins here. Provide a brief one or two paragraph introduction to Section 3
in this subsection.
Overview of Study
Text begins here. The section begins with a brief overview of why and how the
study addressing effective business practice was done, reviewing the questions or issues
being addressed and a brief summary of the findings.
Presentation of the Findings
Text begins here. The presentation / interpretation of findings (a) includes
conclusions that address all of the research questions, (b) contains references to outcomes
in Section 2, (c) covers all the data, (d) is bounded by the evidence collected, and (e)
relates the findings to a larger body of literature on the topic, including the
conceptual/theoretical framework, and literatures on effective business practice. Themes,
patterns, and relationships found are elements that should be discussed in this section. In
addition, discuss any outliers or discrepancies found in the data. Finally, present the
findings in a manner that addresses the research questions and / or hypotheses.
Applications to Professional Practice
Text begins here. There is a detailed discussion on the applicability of the findings
with respect to the professional practice of business. This major sub-section argues in
detail why and how the findings are relevant to improved business practice.

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Implications for Social Change
Text begins here. The Implications for Social Change are clearly grounded in the
significance section of Section 1 and outcomes presented in Section 2. The implications
are expressed in terms of tangible improvements to individuals, communities,
organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies.
Recommendations for Action
Text begins here. Recommendations (a) should flow logically from the
conclusions and contain steps to useful action, (b) state who needs to pay attention to the
results, and (c) indicate how the results might be disseminated.
Recommendations for Further Study
Text begins here. Recommendations for Further Study, as they relate to either
practice or knowledge point to topics that need closer examination and may generate a
new round of questions related to improved practice in business.
Reflections
Text begins here. This section includes a reflection on the researcher's experience
with the research process in which the researcher discusses possible personal biases or
preconceived ideas and values, the possible effects of the researcher on the participants or
the situation, and her/his changes in thinking as a result of the study.
Summary and Study Conclusions
Text begins here. The work closes with a strong concluding statement making the
take-home message clear to the reader.

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References
Insert References here. Examples of some common types of references follow; see APA
6.22 and Chapter 7 for more details.
These sample entries are tagged with the APA Reference style tag, which means the
line spacing and hanging indent are automatic. Apply the APA Reference style
tag to your entries.
Pay special attention to italics, capitalization, and punctuation. The style tag does not
govern those aspects of the entry.

Print periodical (journal)


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
xx(x), xxx-xxx.
Online periodical (journal)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
xx(x), xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxx
Nonperiodical (book)
Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. City of Publication, ST: Publisher.
Chapter in a book
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C.
Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). City, ST: Publisher.

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The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, sixth edition,
Chapter 7 includes numerous examples of reference list entries. For more information on
references or APA style, consult the APA website or the Walden Writing Center website.

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Appendix A: Title of Appendix
Insert appendix here. Appendices are ordered with letters rather than numbers.
The appendices must adhere to the same margin specifications as the body of the
dissertation. Photocopied or previously printed material may have to be shifted on the
page or reduced in size to fit within the area bounded by the margins.
If the only thing in an appendix is a table, the table title serves as the title of the
appendix; no label is needed for the table itself. If you have text in addition to a table or
tables in an appendix, label the table with the letter of the appendix (e.g., Table A1, Table
A2, Table B1, and so on). These tables would be listed in the List of Tables at the end of
the Table of Contents.
If you include in an appendix any prepublished materials that are not in the public
domain, you must also include permission to do so.

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Curriculum Vitae
Include a copy of your curriculum vitaeyour academic resumehere. The CV
may be done in either basic outline form or full-sentence form. The CV must conform to
the margin specifications, be included in the pagination, and be listed in the TOC.

Congratulations! This is the end of your doctoral study! In your enthusiasm to be


done, do not forget to delete this text! (This template last updated January 2, 2014.)