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Short-circuit currents in power lines and substations induce electromagnetic forces acting on
the conductors. The forces generated by short-circuit forces are very important for highvoltage bundle conductor lines, medium-voltage distribution lines, and substations, where
spacer compression forces and interphase spacings are significantly affected by them.
Power Lines and Substations
Short-circuit mechanical design loads have been a subject of significant importance for
transmission line and substation design for many years, and numerous papers, technical
brochures and standards have been published (Manuzio 1967; Hoshino 1970; Havard et al.
1986; CIGRE 1996; CIGRE 2002; IEC 1993 and 1996; Lilien and Papailiou 2000). Under
short-circuit forces, there are some similarities and some differences between the behavior of
flexible bus and power lines.
For both the power lines and substations, the electromagnetic forces are similar in their origin
and shapes because they come from short-circuit current (IEC 1988). Nevertheless, as listed
below, there are some major differences between short-circuit effects on substation bus
systems and power lines:

Power lines are subjected to short-circuit current intensity, which is only a fraction of the
level met in substation bus systems. The short-circuit level is dependent on short-circuit
location, because longer lengths of lines mean larger impedance and lower short-circuit
level. The level also depends on power station location and network configuration.

Power line circuit configuration may not be a horizontal or vertical arrangement, thus
inducing other spatial components of the forces than in bus systems, and the movement
may be quite different.

Power lines have much longer spans and thus much larger sags than flexible bus and rigid
bus. This induces a very low basic swing frequency of the power line span (a fraction of
one Hz). Therefore the oscillating components of the force at the network frequency (and
its double) have negligible action on power lines.

Power line phase spacings are much larger than those in substations, and this has a
dramatic reduction effect on forces between phases.

Bundle conductors in power lines have much larger subspans than in substations, and
bundle diameter is often larger, too. Sometimes very large bundle diameter and a large
number of subconductors are used compared to bundled substation flexible bus. This has
significant effects on the phenomenon because long subspans reduce the effect of bundle
collapse upon the tension in the subconductors during short circuit conditions. Fig. 1
demonstrates the distortion of the subconductors of a quad bundle around a flexible spacer
during a short-circuit, known as the pinch effect, which causes the tension increase.

Due to differences in structure height and stiffness, power line towers have significantly
lower fundamental natural frequencies than substation structures. One result is that the
substation structures are more likely to respond dynamically to the sudden increase in
tension that results from the pinch effect.


Hoshino 1970). may have acceleration up to several tens of g. If the short circuit is long enough. This compressive force. Therefore design loads due to short circuits may be of the same order as design wind and ice loads in substations. showing distortion of the subconductors. there is a rapid propagation of the wave in the noncontact zone near the spacers. typically 50%. with a separation of 40 cm. 3 . the subconductors of the bundle move closer to each other due to strong attraction forces because of the very short distance between subconductors (Figure1). For example. The pinch is maximum when the wave propagation stops towards the spacer. but much less in transmission lines. One flexible spacer at mid-span (courtesy Pfisterer/Sefag). The compression is related to maximum pinch force in the conductor and the angle between the spacer and the subconductor. This jump results from the fact that subconductor length in the collapsed condition is greater than in the normal condition. which for power lines is typically around 40 to 100 ms after fault inception. during a fault. the spacer is strongly compressed. The subconductor movements occur at very high acceleration. depending on the instantaneous current value. position e in Figure 2. but with decreasing amplitude. During the fault. or “pinch.” while it is associated primarily with the change in angle. Bundle Conductor Lines For bundle conductor lines. Spacers are subjected to compression forces. except close to the spacer (Figures 1 and 2). sequence c-d-e of Figure 2. Detailed discussions of this phenomenon were given by Manuzio and Hoshino (Manuzio 1967. The inward slope of the subconductors at the spacer results in a component of subconductor tension that tends to compress the spacer. can be further increased by the rise in tension in the subconductors due to bundle collapse. the pinch oscillations result in a “permanent” oscillating force. a 40 kA fault on a twin bundle of 620 mm2 conductor. Figure 1 Example of quad bundle before and during short-circuit test at 50 kA. After first impact. The triangle of collapse then performs oscillations through positions d-c-d-e-d-c-ed-c and so on as long as electromagnetic force is still on. From their initial rest position. Power line design load includes severe wind action and in some cases heavy ice loads acting on much larger spans than in substations. and these instantaneous compression loads can be very high. sensibly lower than peak value. remaining more or less parallel in most of the subspan. the subconductors move towards each other.

flexible bus and high-voltage overhead lines and distribution lines. independently of whether the phases are bundled. but does not reduce the maximum forces on the spacers occurring during initial impact.Upward movement of the whole span follows the rapid contraction of the bundle and reduces the conductor tension. The momentum from the impulse carries the phases outward for a certain distance before their tension arrests and reverses the motion. Figure 2 Attraction of subconductors of a bundle at a spacer during a short-circuit (Manuzio 1967).be/ so it is brief relative to the fundamental period of the span. Fault currents produce an impulse tending to make the separate phases of a circuit swing away from each other.ulg. The impulse that causes this lasts only as long as the fault.tdee. This inward swing may be 4 . They then swing inward. Interphase Effects and Distribution Lines The video available on my web site (http://www.html) contains some short-circuit tests on rigid bus.

Figure 3 shows the motion produced during full-scale testing on an actual line. even if the short-circuit level is much lower. 5 . There may also be sag increases. This is from an actual three-phase short-circuit test on a 15-kV distribution line near Liège. The fault current level was 3 kA. Belgium (Lilien and Vercheval 1987). For double-circuit towers. if the phase spacing is less than the critical flashover distance. Even though the inward swing could be short of interphase contact. thus causing outages on both circuits. Moreover the busbar is installed on supporting insulators which have their own eigenfrequencies. Figure 3 Instantaneous position of the conductors taken during three-phase short-circuit test on 15-kV distribution line near Liège (Lilien and Vercheval 1987). Very large movements may be seen on distribution lines. up to several times the initial sag in distribution lines. The photo shows an instantaneous position of the conductors taken during the test. So that dynamics of such structures is far from obvious and case dependent. when high voltage (typically 400 kV) would have long bar length and large tubes. due to heating effects under short circuit. and the inward swing occurs at the time that voltage is restored by automatic reclosure.large enough to cause cable contact and even permanent wrap-up at the middle of the span. The transient response is thus very depending on the voltage as low voltage (say 70 kV) would have a short bar length and a reduced size tubular bar. Some example are shown on the next figure. Indeed electromagnetic forces includes pseudo-continuous component combined with a 50 Hz and a 100 Hz component. close to 50 Hz for 150 kV level. The reduction in phase spacing may be particularly dramatic on mediumvoltage lines. which may significantly affect the amplitude of movements. there will be a second fault. the circuit subjected to the short circuit could force its phases to come in contact with another circuit. Substation with rigid busbars The behavior of a rigid bus under short-circuit load is very depending of its first natural eigenmode and eigenfrequency.

The transient response is given for different busbar first eigenfrequency between 1. (extract from CIGRE brochure N° 105. Short-circuit of 16 kA during 135 ms with automatic reclosure after 445 ms and a second fault of 305 ms with same amplitude as the first one.7 Hz and 150 Hz. Fig xx : a tested rigid bus (all details in CIGRE brochure 105. 1996). 6 . I2.C3 (constrains). Measurement points are located as S2. 1996).Fig xx : rigid busbar response to ta given electromagnetic force similar to a two-phase fault with asymmetrical component in the short-circuit current.

3 Hz. 7 . The first eigenfrequency of the whole structure is about 3. There is quasi no effect of the 50 Hz nor of the 100 Hz component of the force. as time to reclosure was particularly dramatic compared to structure oscillation.Fig xx test results. As damping was negligeable. the second fault induced about twice as much constrains compared to the first fault.

it is possible to have no asymmetry if = 0 rad. In the case of bundle conductors.i2 (t ) i1 (t ).i3 (t ) F2 (t )  0 x  1   2  a a    i (t ).2.i2 (t ) i2 (t ). reactance to resistance. typically 20 to 80 ms. For a single-phase fault. is an angle depending on the time of fault occurrence in the voltage oscillation (rad). = 2f is the network pulsation (rad/s) equal to 314 rad/s in Europe and 377 rad/s in the United States. FAULT CURRENTS AND INTERPHASE FORCES A short-circuit current wave shape consists of an AC component and a decaying DC component due to the offset of the current at the instant of the fault. as discussed in Section 3.i3 (t ) i2 (t ). applied on each of the phases can be expressed by: 0  i1 (t ). because the ratio X/R.i3 (t ) F3 (t )  0 x  1  2  2a a   F1 (t )  (N/m) 2 Where 8 .  t  i1 (t )  2 I rms (sin(t   )  e sin( )) t  2 2  i2 (t )  2 I rms (sin(t    )  e sin(  )) 3 3 t  2 2 i3 (t )  2 I rms (sin(t    )  e  sin(  )) 3 3 (Amperes) 1 Where Irms is the root-mean-square value of the short-circuit current (A). compared to substations where it is typically 70 to 200 ms. and even more in lowvoltage lines. and although the system through which the fault passes is multimesh. The force acting between subconductors of the same phase is an attractive force. According to the basic physics of electromagnetism for a three. The AC component generally is of constant amplitude for the duration of the fault. only one current is involved. In the general case of parallel conductors. the global time constant of the system “” is rather low. the force.i3 (t ) x   2  a 2a     i (t ).  is the network time constant (= L/R) at the location of the fault (s). In the case of a two-phase fault. there is always a repulsion force between phases from each other.or a two-phase arrangement. Fn(t) in N/m. is much less at low-voltage level. it can usually be assigned a single “global” time constant for the decay of the DC component. Asymmetry is very dependent on . it is generally considered that the short-circuit current is equally divided among all subconductors. In high-voltage lines.

Figure 5 shows the currents and forces applied to each phase during a three-phase fault with an asymmetry chosen to create the maximum peak force on one outer phase as calculated using Equation 2. very much depends on phase shift between currents. or purely vertical. In flat-phase configuration.4.8 kA rms with peak currents of 90. In the case of a three-phase fault. The loads shown are per unit length for a = 6 m clearance between phases. a repulsion between the two faulted phases. In the case of a two-phase fault. Therefore. and  Two oscillating AC components. a 34. illustrated by the top view of Figure 4. sometimes. The force. and the short-circuit duration is 0. In the case of an equilateral triangular arrangement. 79. and one at the double of the network frequency. similar to the force on phase 1 for the horizontal arrangement. The signs convention is positive in the directions shown in the upper diagram in Figure 4.or two-phase faults with a ratio 0.  Continuous dc component. The time constant is 70 ms. a is the interphase distance (m). the forces are similar on all three phases. one at network frequency.8 kA three-phase fault would give a 30. which is not damped. the middle phase has a zero mean value. a three-phase fault has to be considered for estimation of design forces.866 between them. On phase 2. Figures 4 (top) and 5 give examples of currents and forces on horizontal. On the outer phases.2 kA. For example. the force is proportional to the square of the current. The repulsion peak load on phase 1 is 228 N/m. But the time dependence of the forces is very different on the outer phases compared to middle phase. Figure 4 (bottom). 9 . This is for a horizontal or vertical arrangement of the circuit.0 is the vacuum magnetic permeability = 410-7 H/m.245 seconds. The fault current is 34. with a time-constant decay. and at least one of the outer phases has forces similar to those generated by a two-phase fault (Figure 5 left). The same location in a network gives two different values of current for three. Thus it always has the same direction—that is.2.1 kA two-phase fault at the same location. The current frequency is 50 Hz. being due to current flow. with a time-constant decay. the force is unidirectional and has a significant continuous component.39 rad). the continuous component is zero (except during the asymmetrical part of the wave). and 61. It generally includes:  Pseudo-continuous DC component. (= 1. it is much more complex. arrangements.

but acts. It must be noted that the level of the peak force. in the other direction. 10 . in most cases. is far greater than the conductor weight and is proportional to the square of the current. Figure 5 Example of calculated three-phase short-circuit current wave shape and corresponding loads on a horizontal or vertical circuit arrangement. 2.Figure 4 Two different geometric arrangements for a three-phase circuit and the electromagnetic force reference directions on each phase corresponding to Equation 2. about 30 N/m in this case. and 3 are phase numbers. about 200 N/m in Figure 5. it is closer to the conductor weight. But the continuous component is much lower. The numbers 1. See upper right panel in Figure 5. Under actual shortcircuit levels and clearances. as shown later.

This is the horizontal repulsion force for the horizontal arrangement. The continuous dc component acting after the short transient during the asymmetrical period of the current is obtained by using t = infinity in Equation 3.75  30. 2. The design force on the horizontal or vertical three-phase arrangement is the force due to a three-phase fault considering the outer phase with appropriate asymmetry. the continuous dc component after transient is given by: F 0.82 x0. t is time (s). may be summarized as: 1.2 34. For example. for the case of horizontal or purely vertical arrangement only.Thus the interphase effects. or the vertical repulsion force for the vertical arrangement: F 0.  is the network time constant at that location (s).2 2 I 3 (0.75  1. because the structural response to these loads has to be taken into account. The forces considered above cannot be directly applied to structure design loads. Taking into account the fact that only the continuous dc component has to be considered.3 N/m 6 11 . the force on an outer phase can be approximated by Equation 3. I3 the rms three-phase fault at that location (kA).616e 2t / ) a (N/m) 3 Where a is the interphase distance (m). in Figure 5.

52 kg/m.5 106 N/m First eigen frequency: about 14 Hz Figure 6 Test arrangement applying short circuits to a 60-m span length with one spacer at mid-span. with the following characteristics (Figure 6): Span length 60 m Sub conductor type ACSR CONDOR (455 mm². Time constant 33 ms Duration 0. The systematic single-phase fault tests on twin conductors were performed in the 1990s on a power line with a double deadended span. UTS 125 kN) Spacing 0.3. (Lilien and Papailiou 2000).457 m Current 35 kA (90 kA peak).  = 27. with a length of 60 m.2 s Sagging tensions 15.17 to 0. the return path is through the ground Supporting structure: Stiffness: about 8. 60 m measurement 12 . Some results from a program of tests at the Veiki substation in Hungary are used here for that purpose (Lilien and Papailiou 2000). or 35 kN (per subconductor) All cases are single-phase faults.7 mm. 1. BEHAVIOR OF BUNDLE CONDUCTORS UNDER SHORT CIRCUITS Detailed behavior of bundle conductors under short circuit is most easily illustrated through short-circuit tests in actual bundles. 25.

35/90 kA 6000 4000 5000 3000 4000 3000 2000 C om pressiveloads(N ) com pressiveload(N) 2000 1000 0 0 0. On the left hand side.4 -1000 -1000 -2000 -3000 -2000 time (s) subspan length 60 m time (s) subspan length 30 m 13 . The installation of measurement is such that actual load for spacers in power lines would be twice the measured value.2 1. Figure 7 shows installation of rigid spacers and measurement points (bold lines) for the 60-m subspan (Figure 7 top) and 30-m subspan (Figure 7 bottom).4 0. the 60-m span length results are presented.2 seconds. It should be noted that the actual “pinch” occurs during the first approximately 0. and on the right-hand side. Sagging tension 15 kN . the 30-m span length results are presented. and that the other “spikes” in the records arise from subsequent motion of the bundle. For the 30-m sub-span. while the fault current is on.2 0. two spacers were installed close to each other so as to receive half the contribution.6 0.2 0.8 1000 0 0 1 0.30 m 30 m measurement Figure 7 Two test span arrangements for spacer compression tests (Lilien and Papailiou 2000).4 0.35/90 kA Sagging tension 15 kN . The following oscillograms were recorded (Figure 8).6 0.8 1 1.

Note the shorter repetition time in the 30-m span.30/90 kA 7000 Sagging tension 35 kN .6 0.2 0.4 1.2 1.4 0.8 1 1.4 0. at 35 kA on twin-bundle line 2x Condor.2 0. as predicted by Manuzio (the pinch being proportional to the square root of the tension). the effect of these tension forces on the spacer must be considered separately.4 0.8 1 1.5% EDS) to 35 kN (28% EDS). The graphs in Figure 8 show the effect of gradually increasing initial tension before the fault from 15 kN (12.4 0. (Courtesy Pfisterer/Sefag).2 0. These loads decay very slowly. During that transient.6 -2000 -2000 -4000 -4000 time (s) time (s) subspan length 30 m subspan length 60 m Sagging tension 35 kN . with different sagging tensions.4 -1000 -1000 -2000 -2000 -3000 -3000 time (s) time(s) subspan length 60 m subspan length 30 m Figure 8 Typical tests results on spacer compression on 60-m and 30-m subspan length. The effect on propagation speed can be seen in the after short-circuit peaks. so that many repeated such loads have to be taken into account.2 1.30/90 kA 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 Compressive loads (N) 7000 Compressive loads (N) 3000 2000 1000 2000 1000 0 0 0 0 0.6 0. After the short circuit.Sagging tension 25 kN .6 0.35/90 kA Sagging tension 25 kN . and it 14 . In spite of their smaller magnitude.4 0. The drawings are covering short-circuit and significant after short-circuit time to better see the wave propagation effects after the end of the short circuit.4 0. A particular example is the attachment using an open or “saddle” clamp.8 1 1. but the influence on maximum pinch is limited in actual range. significant tensile forces (the opposite of compression) are applied on the spacers. Half of the compression is given.8 1 1.2 2000 0 0 1.6 0. the level of which reach about 50% of the maximum compression load. with helical rods to capture the subconductor.2 1.2 0.35/90 kA 8000 8000 6000 6000 4000 Compressive load (N) Compressive loads (N) 4000 2000 0 0 0. with wave propagation along each subspan (as can be seen in the video that accompanies this book and in Figure 8). the subconductors separate from each other during a long transient. These loads are repeated with every passage of the wave up and down the span. because some spacer attachments are not as strong in tension as they are in compression.

8 times the initial static sagging tension. Depending on the configurations of the spacer and spacer dampers. due to the increment in tension caused by the pinch.18 s) in the conductor has a smaller tension rise than that which occurs. as used in power lines and as validated by Manuzio’s test arrangements (Manuzio 1967). as the phase falls. This behavior induces some tension changes in the conductors. Irms 35 kA (peak 90 kA). there could be a large increase of these tensile loads acting on spacer attachment as the relaxation of energy stored in spring compression during short-circuit is released after the end of the short circuit. Figure 9 Typical tension oscillogram in one subconductor during and after the fault. limited to one-phase fault. 0. as can be seen in Figures 9 and 10. at 0. the short-circuit forces could cause large bending moment in the conductor and the elements of the spacer. the whole phase jumps up after short-circuit inception and falls down afterwards.18 s courtesy Pfisterer/Sefag). In both cases. the latter is limited to 1. It is notable that the pinch effect (the first peak during the fault in the first 0.9 seconds. for the 60-m span length configuration (15 kN initial). In case of spring-type dampers. which could be compressed by the pinch. there is no interphase effect particularly valid for long subspans. 15 . In these tests.

There exists a critical subspan length under which no contact is possible and over which contact occurs on a significant part of the subspan. Smaller conductor separation thus leads to less deformation in that area. Irms 35 kA (peak 90 kA). there is no increment in tension. Subconductor Separation Effect A closer bundle spacing results in a smaller increment in subconductor tension. That critical value corresponds to extreme loading (for pinch effect in substations [El Adnani 1987. (courtesy Pfisterer/Sefag).Figure 10 Typical tension oscillogram in one subconductor during and after the fault for the 2 x 30-m span length configuration (15 kN initial). but the tension increment is generated by conductor deformation into the triangles of Figure 2 after contact. At the limit. Subspan Length Effect Bundle pinch is very much related to subspan length. if conductors are in contact all along the span. Of course. that length depends on short-circuit level and some other parameters. 0.18 s. In fact. 16 . and most of deformation is located in those triangles. initial electromagnetic force are stronger. Lilien and El Adnani 1986]). For the power lines with typical subspan lengths. subconductors experience contact in all cases except in jumpers.

1 s) is indicated in Figure 11 right). tt occurs always after the end of the short circuit (the cable position at the end of the short circuit (0. Peak design load could occur under the following three conditions: 1. and in particular to show that the short circuit ends before there is significant movement of the phase. which is discussed below. Maximum swing-out Ft (at time tt in Figure 11left and square 1 in Figure 11 right): very little kinetic energy (cable speed close to zero) and potential energy with reference to gravity. Typically. Typical maximum loads (Figures 11 and 12) that could influence design appear when total energy (including a large input during short circuit) has to be mainly transformed to deformation energy. three maxima (and their corresponding time on the abscissa) have been indicated. The pinch effect only occurs with bundle conductors. Maximum Ff at the extreme of downward motion (at time t f in Figure 11 left and square 2 in Figure 11 right): generally more critical because of a loss of potential energy of gravity due to the cable position at that moment. when subconductors come close to each other: tpi always occurs during short circuit. Tt +1. tf always occurs after the end of the short circuit. Figure 11 Left Figure: Tensile force (left) time evolution of a typical twin-bundle span during two-phase short circuit between horizontal phases. Ft at time Tt (the maximum of the force due to maximum swing of the span represented by circle point 1 on the right figure). due to bundle collapse). On the phase movement curve at mid-span. Tpi -40 ms. The pinch effect Fpi (at a very short time after short-circuit inception at t pi). Three maxima: F pi at time Tpi (so-called pinch effect. the curve has been marked by dots every 0.4. On the cable tension curve.2 s and Tf = 4 s 17 . Both cable tension versus time (Figure11 left) and phase movement in a vertical plane at mid-span (Figure 11 right) are shown. In power lines. 3.1 s to get an idea of the cable speed. 2. so that a large part is converted in deformation energy—that is. and F f at time Tf (the maximum of the force due to cable drop represented by circle 2 in the right figure. increase of tension. INTERPHASE EFFECTS UNDER SHORT CIRCUITS Maximum Tensile Loads during Movement of the Phases Figure 11 shows a typical response of a bundle conductor two-phase fault in a horizontal arrangement (CIGRE 1996).

The timing of this inward swing may be such that the phase spacing is less than the critical flashover distance at the time that voltage is restored by automatic reclosure. Figure 12 shows cable tension versus time in different dynamic loading conditions. Figure 12 Simulated longitudinal loads applied on attachment point on a cross arm on a “Beaubourg” tower (the circuit configuration is shown by points T. That means a phase-spacing reduction of more than 8 m. two-phase fault of 63 kA 3. and X is horizontal and transverse to the cable).Right figure: Movement of one phase (right) in a vertical plane at mid-span (X and Z are the two orthogonal axes taken in the vertical plane at mid-span. shedding of ice sleeve of 6 kg/m Reduction in Phase Spacing After the initial outward swing. and S in Figure 13) for loading conditions (Lilien and Dal Maso 1990): 1. Such movement has been calculated for a two-phase fault of 63 kA (duration 0. three-phase fault of 72. For the case illustrated in Figure 11. It can be seen that cable tensions due to short-circuit currents are significantly smaller than other causes such as ice shedding.1 s end of short circuit being noted on the figure) on a 2 X 570 mm 2 ASTER on a 400-m span length (sag 10 m) (Lilien and Dal Maso 1990). R. 18 . with all its consequences (power outage). Other cases are shown in Figures 13 and 14 (only the rectangular envelope of the movement is given) for different configurations and short-circuit level. Z is vertical. Figure 11 shows results of such a case calculated by simulation on a typical 400-kV overhead line configuration. -10 m is the initial point showing sag.3 kA 2. That would induce a second fault with the dramatic consequence of a lock-out circuit breaker operation. It is interesting to compare the level of these loads with typical overhead line design loads related to wind or ice problem (Electra 1991). as explained in the legend. initial wind of 60 km/h followed by a gust at 100 km/h for 5 seconds on a quarter of the span 4. this inward movement exceeds 4 m per phase. the phases move towards each other. perpendicular to the cable.

Distribution Lines As mentioned earlier. Figure 15 shows a case of two circuits on the tower. inducing a fault in the other circuit so that both circuits trip out. Figure 14 Calculated envelope of phase-conductor movements for two-phase faults of different rms amplitude (Lilien and Dal Maso 1990). initial wind speed of 60 km/h followed by a wind gust at 100 km/h during 5 s on a quarter of the span. very large movements may be seen on distribution lines (Figure 3). and T are their phase locations in still conditions) (Lilien and Dal Maso 1990): 1.3 kA 3. How to estimate the required interphase spacing is discussed further in Section 5 (Equation 8) 19 . or TS 2.Figure 13 Calculated envelopes of phase-conductor movements for three types of loading conditions on a “Beaubourg” tower (the figure is drawn in a vertical plane located at midspan: R. two-phase short-circuit 63 kA either RT. S. RS. three-phase short-circuit 72. where the faulted circuit forces some of its phases to get in contact with the second (healthy) circuit.

20 . with autoreclosure. a = fault inception. conductor 93. and d = 1. c =0. end of the first fault.4 s.Figure 15 Three-phase short-circuit on 15-kV line (left circuit).3 mm2 AAAC (Lilien and Vercheval 1987). Short-circuit of 2700 A on a 165-m span length. time of reclosing.1 s.4 s end of the second fault and definitive removal of the voltage on the line. b = 0.

44. Stein et al 2000) may be used for any situation.5. s is the bundle diameter. ktwin = 1.57. k is a correction factor depending on the number of subconductors. and one to have a three-phase fault. The loads under no. To a much lesser extent. but particularly for distribution lines: reduction in phase spacing (Equation 8 for high-voltage line). Fc  kI Fst log10 ( s / s ) (N) 4 Where: Fst is initial sagging tension for each subconductor (N). Advanced calculation methods (Lilien 1983. 3. For bundle conductors: spacer compression (Equation 4). Declercq 1998. El Adnani 1987. of course. For power lines in general. 2. They must. Since there are three ways to have one phase fault. I is the rms short-circuit value/phase (kA).27. Wendt et al 1996. since these events cannot occur simultaneously. ktripple= 1. kquad = 1. there may be seven different loading conditions. 3 above due to short circuits should be considered by line designers by including them in the loading schedule for structures. and generally having negligible effect compared to other kind of loading: tension increase generating longitudinal and transverse loads (Equation 7 for longitudinal load due to interphase effect). Example: 21 . ESTIMATION OF DESIGN LOADS The most critical effects on power lines are: 1. three to have a two-phase fault. be taken separately. Bundle Conductors in Transmission Lines Manuzio developed a simple method for spacer compression effect in bundle conductors (Manuzio 1967). related to subconductor separation “as” by the formula (n = number as of subconductors): s  (m) 5 sin(180 / n) s is the subconductor diameter (m).

that stiffness is not simply the static stiffness of supporting structure. Pon et al. Manuzio’s method can be safely applied to faults with maximum asymmetry through a correction factor of 25% (multiply all k factors by 1. Other methods to estimate spacer compression forces have been proposed (Hoshino 1970. That is because a stronger short-circuit current will increase contact length. Equation 4 gives a spacer compression force of: Fc  1. after about 40 to 90 ms. At such current levels.6 m at ends and 0. In fact. But IEC 60865 gives no recommendation for spacer compression. In such cases.8 m at mid-span. It may not be accurate enough for use with respect to substation flexible bus. the bundle is turned in vertical or slightly oblique position. and conductor separation is increased compared to a spacered bundle. but using Fpi pinch value instead of initial static pull. It can be shown 22 . because electromagnetic forces also act under load current.Consider a case of a short circuit of 35 kA (rms/phase) acting on a twin ACSR Condor (27.57 x35 25000 x log10 (0. the electrostatic repulsion (due to voltage) cannot be neglected.25). That has been taken into account in IEC 60865 for evaluating the maximum tension in the conductor during fault. but must take into account insulator chain movement during the first tens of milliseconds of the fault to arrive at an equivalent stiffness (which in fact would permit evaluation of span end movement. F pi can be evaluated by IEC 60685 method.457 m conductor separation. there is a need to introduce the socalled “ supporting structure stiffness. Fpi increases linearly (and not with the square) with short-circuit current.457 / 0. thus reducing acting parts of the conductors. if we define Fpi (as shown in Figure 11) as the maximum tensile load in one subconductor during the bundle pinch. it has been recommended to use larger subconductor spacing at the middle of the span (compared to end of the span)— for example. An heuristic evaluation indicates that a good estimate for such equivalent stiffness may be to consider in most of the practical cases a value of 105 N/m. short-circuit current asymmetry was neglected.” In this application. Despacering as a Means to Limit Pinch Effect Despacering (removal of spacers) is an antigalloping measure (see Section 4. Manuzio’s method is very simple to apply compared to other methods. Alternatively. from short-circuit inception up to the maximum pinch value. another best fit would be to use Manuzio method (without correction factor). Lilien and Papailiou 2000).5) for some power lines. Such configurations may suffer from the “kissing” phenomenon under high electrical load. Moreover.0277)  9586 N However. 1993) on spacer dampers for power-line-estimated spacer-compression design load up to 20 kN for typical configurations and anticipated short-circuit levels. tensioned at 25 kN/subconductor.7 mm diameter) conductor with 0. It has been used up to the 245-kV level for twin bundles of limited diameter. in the analysis by Manuzio (Manuzio 1967). 0. nevertheless. 1993. Note: In the use of IEC method 60865 to evaluate Fpi. Some tests performed in Canada (Pon et al.

R = maximum displacement (m). Power flows are often several times (up to four times) the SIL. As electromagnetic forces depend on distances. K = tower stiffness (N/m) (order of amplitude 105 N/m). and it is very difficult to separate them without opening the circuit. there is little increment in tension. 1. in the case of hoop spacers or similar. Tst = phase conductor static tension before the fault condition (N). line designers have developed several proposals like the “hoop” spacer (see Section 4. at surge impedance loading (SIL). Irms = root mean square of the three phase short-circuit current/phase (kA). equilibrium exists between attraction and repulsion forces. Sticking induces large permanent noise and increase in corona. But. tcc = duration of the fault (= time of first fault + time of second fault if auto-reclosing) (s). One of the major problems of such configurations is linked to possible sticking of the subconductors following a perturbation. Under short circuit. a = interphase distance (m). L = span length (m). as “subspan” length (= span length in this case) is very large. m = mass per unit of length of one phase (kg/m). f = initial sag (m).  = time constant of the short-circuit asymmetric component decay (s). these configurations result in clashing between subconductors and. Only one span is considered. The energy imparted to the conductor is given by: 23 . To avoid such problems. EA/L = conductor extensional stiffness (product of Young modulus times cross section divided by span length) (N/m). so that attraction forces are generally stronger than repulsion. there exists a distance under which the subconductors always come together and stick together.5).that. the conductor clashing destroys these light spacers beyond a certain level of short-circuit current. Interphase Effects: Estimation of Tension Increase and Reduction in Phase Spacing The following discussion pertains to the case of horizontal/vertical configuration and neglects temperature heating effects (Lilien and Dal Maso 1990).

m  2 . 80% of the separation movement). But phase spacings can be critical when the phases move back towards each other. In this case. The maximum tension in the conductor during movements: Tmax  Tst2  2 E0 L 2  EA K 7 3. in which case there is generally lower displacement (say. the clearances may be reduced (the most dramatic case being a two-phase fault) by 2 x 0.8 x R or 1.2 (tcc   ) 1  0.6 R.2 I rms E0  m   2  a. 24 . The maximum displacement of one phase (zero to peak):   2  E0  2 R2   f   f 2  mgL  3   8 That maximum may be observed in the case when the conductors are moving away from each other. 3L (Joules) 4 6 2.

1x9. consider the following: Short-circuit current at 63 kA during 100 ms (with time constant 60 ms) on a twin ASTER 570 mm2 (m = 2 x 1.060) 3L 1 .2 m. Example: For example.3 = 0.1 kg/m) with interphase distance a = 8. span length of 400 m and initial sagging tension of 2 x 31000 = 62000 N: Energy imparted to the conductor using Equation 6: 2 (tcc   ) 1  0.2 I rms E0  m   2  a.6 x 1010 N/m2 and tower stiffness of K= 5 x 105 N/m.2 m Thus the reduction in phase spacing is 2 x 0. the maximum conductor tension is calculated as: Tmax  620002  2 x10803  77127 400 2  Newtons    10 6 5 510   2 x5.32 m. For the same case at 45 kA. It is estimated that these formulas give results with 20% precision on the conservative side. because full-scale tests on power lines have not been conducted.2 x 632 (0.The combined values of Tmax and R result in a transverse load on the suspension tower in the case of a horizontal arrangement.1   4 2  8. It means that the remaining clearance is 8.1  2 .5 m.m  2  0.55 = 3. for example.81x 400   3 3     2  9.100  0. 3 x 400  10803 Joule 4 s With conductor Young modulus = 5.82  27.8 m.88 means R = 5. There is very limited experimental validation of these formulas.8.2 = 8. It must be noted that advanced methods (finite elements) can be used to evaluate these effects (details are given in CIGRE brochure 214-2002).8    2 2    mgL 3. the maximum displacement of one phase is :   2     E0  10803  R2   f   f 2  9.  3.8 x 5. the results are: E0 = 2812 Joules Tmax = 66270 N 25 .5 x3.5 .610 x57010 Assuming an initial sag of 9.

Remaining clearance = 4. Tests can be performed. and some are available on the video accompanying this book. This is due to the fact that short-circuit forces vary with the square of the current. 26 .3 m It can be noted that that energy varies as the fourth power of the short-circuit current. Their use in substations may be of interest in that connection. jumpers are used to connect the adjacent spans. Reference (CIGRE 1996) explains how to choose short subspans to avoid conductor clashing. These jumpers also react during short circuit: Interphase forces may cause jumper swing with possible drastic reduction of clearance with tower legs or cross arms. Interphase Spacers as a Mean to Limit Clearances Problem Linked with Short Circuit Interphase spacers have been proposed to solve the phase-clearance problem during short circuits (Declercq 1998). the pinch effect may cause the jumpers to bound upward toward the tower cross arms. Advanced calculation methods may also help to define these loads. Use of short subspans in jumpers may be recommended to avoid clashing. and energy in the system varies with the square of that speed. In case of bundle configuration. Such effects may easily be limited by installation of appropriate hold-down weights. Thus. Interphase spacers may be subjected to bending stresses induced by conductor movements. The Case of Jumpers At deadend structures. A major challenge is defining the design load on these interphase spacers. subspan length in the jumper cannot be large. Experience has shown that appropriate installation of such devices may effectively maintain appropriate clearances since conductor movement is restricted at some location in the span. so the speed of the conductor at the end of the short-circuit also varies with the square of the current.

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