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JAWAHARLAL

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to Anna University)
COIMBATORE 641 105

NAME : ___________________________________________

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REG.NO

: ___________________________________________

SUBJECT

: ___________________________________________

COURSE

: ___________________________________________

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JAWAHARLAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


COIMBATORE 641 105

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

Certified that this is the bonafide record work done by

. in the AIRCRAFT DESIGN LAB I


of this institution as prescribed by the Anna University, Coimbatore for the
........ Semester during the year 2011-2012

Staff In charge:

Head of the Department

University Register No.:


Submitted for the Practical Examination of the Anna University conducted on

INTERNAL EXAMINER

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EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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AIRCRAFT DESIGN
PROJECT- I
DESIGN OF DESIGNING OF SUPER
JUMBO AIRCRAFT
(800- PASSENGERS)

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CONTENT
S.NO

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NAME OF THE EXPERINMENT

PAGE NO

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ABSTRACT
In the Aircraft Design Project we have decided to design a super
jumbo aircraft with a passenger seating capacity of 800 nos. The
aircraft parameters like cruise velocity, cruise altitude, wing loading
etc. And weight estimation, airfoil selection, wing selection, landing
gear selection has been made with extreme care after a several
comparison with a few same types of aircrafts. . The adequate details
have been collected to make our calculation easier and to make
design more precision. The details have been collected from various
sources which are given in the bibliography.
Even though there are huge jumbo aircrafts exist there such as A380,
B747, A340, MD-12LR which having a seat capacity around a 600 in
no. only A380 and B747 are the double deck aircrafts ever built for
civil aviation.

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SYMBOLS AND ABBBREVIATIONS


A

: area

A1 : intake highlights area


Ath : throat area
APR : augmented power rating
AR

: aspect ratio

AW : wetted area
a

: speed of sound; acceleration


: Average acceleration at 0.7 V2

ac

: aerodynamic centre

:breadth, width

:span

CR

: CB root chord

CD

: drag coefficient

CDi : induced drag coefficient


CDp : parasitic drag coefficient
CDpmin: minimum parasitic drag coefficient
CDw : wave drag coefficient
Cv

: specific heat at constant volume

CF

: overall skin friction coefficient; force coefficient

Cf

: local skin friction coefficient; coefficient of friction

CL

: lift coefficient

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Cl

: sectional lift coefficient; rolling moment coefficient

CLi

: integrated design lift coefficient

CL

: lift curve slope

CL

: sideslip curve slope

Cm

: pitching-moment coefficient

Cn

: yawing-moment coefficient

Cp
: pressure coefficient; power coefficient; specific heat at constant
pressure
CT

: thrust coefficient

CHT

: horizontal tail volume coefficient

: Drag

: Endurance

: Oswald efficiency

: Acceleration due to gravity

: Factor due to ground effect

JA, JT

: Symbols

: Height from ground

hOB

: Obstacle height

k1

: Proportionality constant

kuc

: Factor depends on flap deflection

KA , KT

: Symbols

: Lift

L

D loiter

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: Lift-to-drag ratio at loiter

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L

D cruise

: Lift-to-drag ratio at cruise

: Mach number of aircraft

mff

: Mission segment fuel fraction

: Time between initiation of rotation and actual

: Range

Re

: Reynolds Number

R/C

: Rate of climb

: Wing Area

Sa

: Approach distance

Sab

: Distance require to clear an obstacle after becoming airborne

Sf

: Flare distance

Sg

: Ground Roll

Sref.

: Reference surface area

Swet..

: Wetted surface area

: Power

Pcruise

: Thrust at cruise

Ptake-off

: Thrust at take-off

loiter

cruise

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Thrust

: Thrust-to-weight ratio at loiter

: Thrust-to-weight ratio at cruise

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takeoff

: Thrust-to-weight ratio at take-off

Vcruise

: Velocity at cruise

Vstall

: Velocity at stall

VLO

: Lift off Speed

VTD

: Touch down speed

Wcrew

: Crew weight

Wempty

: Empty weight of aircraft

Wfuel

: Weight of fuel

Wpayload

: Payload of aircraft

W0

: Overall weight of aircraft

W
S

: Wing loading

: Density of air

: Dynamic viscosity

: Co-efficient of rolling friction

: Tapered ratio

OB

: Angle between flight path and take-off

: Turning angle

: Gliding angle

R/C

: Rate of climb

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INTRODUCTION
Need for airplane design
An airplane is designed to meet the functional, operational and safety
requirements set by or acceptable to the ultimate user. The actual process of design is a
complex and long drawn out engineering task involving:

Selection of airplane type and shape


Determination of geometric parameters
Selection of power plant
Structural design and analysis of various components and
Determination of airplane flight and operational characteristics.

Over the year of this century, aircraft have evolved in many directions and
the design of any modern plane is a joint project for a large body of competent engineers
and technicians, headed by a chief designer. Different groups in the project specialize in the
design of different components of the airplane, such as the wing, fuselage etc.
A new experimental plane has to meet higher performance requirements
than similar planes already in service. Hence design laboratories involved in experimental
and research work are indispensable adjuncts to a design office. These laboratories as well
as allied specialized design offices and research institutions are concerned in helping the
designer to obtain the best possible solutions for all problems pertaining to airplane design
and construction and in the development of suitable components and equipment.
Airplane design procedure is basically a method of trial and error for the design
of component units and their harmonization into a complete aircraft system. Thus each trial
aims at a closer approach to the final goal and is based on a more profound study of the
various problems involved. The three phases of aircraft design are
Conceptual design
Preliminary design
Detailed design

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Phase of aircraft design

FIG: 1

FIG: 2

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Conceptual design
Aircraft design can be broken into three major phases, as depicted in figure. Conceptual
design is the primary focus of this book. It is in conceptual design that the basic questions of
configuration arrangement, size and weight, and performance are answered.
The first question is can an affordable aircraft be built that meets the requirements? if not,
the customer may wish to relax the requirements.
Conceptual design is a very fluid process. New ideas and problems emerge as a design is investigated
in increasing detail. Each time the latest design is analyzed and sized, it must be redrawn to reflect
the new gross weight, fuel weight, wing size, and other changes. Early wind tunnel test often revel
problems requiring some changes to the configuration.

Preliminary design
Preliminary design can be said to begin when the major changes are over. The big
questions such as whether to use a canard or an aft tail have been resolved. The
configuration arrangement can be expected to remain about as shown on current drawing,
although minor revisions may occur. At some point late in preliminary design, even minor
changes are stopped when a decision is made to freeze the configuration.
During preliminary design the specialists in area such as structure landing gear and
control systems will design and analyze their portion of the aircraft. Testing is initiated in
areas such as aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. A mockup may be
constructed at this point.
A key activity during preliminary design is lofting. Lifting is the mathematical
modeling of the outside skin of the aircraft with sufficient accuracy to insure proper fit
between its different parts, even if they are designed by different designers and possibly
fabricated in different location. Lofting originated in shipyards and was originally done with
long flexible rulers called splines. This work was done in a loft over the shipyard; hence
the name.
The ultimate objective during preliminary design is to ready the company for the detail
design stage, also called full-scale development. Thus, the end of preliminary design usually
involves a full scale development proposal. In todays environment, this can result in a
situation jokingly referred to as you-bet-your-company. The possible loss on an overrun
contrast o from lack of sales can exceed the net worth of the company! Preliminary design
must establish confidence that the airplane can be built in time and at the estimated cost.
Detailed design
Assuming a favorable decision for entering full scale development, the detail design
phase begins in which the actual pieces to be fabricated are designed. For example, during
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conceptual and preliminary design the wing box will be designed and analyzed as a whole.
During detail design, that whole will be broken down in to individual ribs, spars and skins,
each of which must be separately designed and analyzed.
Another important part of detailed is called production design. Specialist determine
how the airplane will be fabricated, starting with the smallest and simplest subassemblies
and building up to the final assembly process. Production designers frequently wish to
modify the design for ease of manufacture; that can have a major impact on performance or
weight. Compromises are inevitable, but the design must still meet the original
requirements.
It is interesting to note that in the Soviet Union, the production design is done by a
completely different design bureau than the conceptual and preliminary design, resulting in
superior reducibility at some expense in performance and weight.
During detail design, the testing effort intensifies. Actual structure of the aircraft is
fabricated and tested. Control laws for the flight control system arte tested on an ironbird simulator, a detailed working model of the actuator and flight control surfaces. Flight
simulator are developed and flown by both company and customer test pilot.
Detail design ends with fabrication of the aircraft. Frequently the fabrication Begins on
part of the aircraft before the entire detail-design effort is completed. Hopefully, changes to
already- fabricated pieces can be avoided. The further along a design progresses, the more
people are involved. In fact, most of the engineers who go to work for a major aerospace
company will work in preliminary on detail design.

Classification of airplanes design


Functional classification:
The airplane today is used for a multitude of activities in civil and
military fields. Civil applications include cargo transport, passenger travel, mail distribution,
and specialized uses like agricultural, ambulance and executive flying. The main types of
military airplane at the present time are fighters and bombers. Each of these types may be
further divided into various groups, such as strategic fighters, interceptors, escort fighters,
tactical bombers and strategic bombers. There are also special aircraft, such as ground
attack planes and photo-re-connaisance planes. Sometimes more than one function may be
combines so that we have multi-purpose airplanes like fighter-bombers. In addition to
these, we have airplanes for training and sport.

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Classification by power plants:


Types of engines used for power plant:

Piston engines (krishak, Dakota, super constellation)


Turbo-prop engines ( viscount,friendship,An-102)
Turbo-fan engines (HJT 16, Boeing series, MIG-21)
Ramjet engines
Rockets (liquid and solid propellants) (X-15A)

Location of power plant:


Engine ( with propeller) located in fuselage nose (single engine)
(HT-2,Yak-9,A-109)
Pusher engine located in the rear fuselage (Bede XBD-2)
Jet engines submerged in the wing
1. At the root(DH Comet, Tu-104,Tu-16)
2. Along the span (Canberra, U-2, YF-12A)
Jet engines in nacelles suspended under the wing (pod
mountings) (Boeing 707,DC-8,Convair 880)
Jet engines located on the rear fuselage (Trident, VC 10 ,i1-62)
Jet engines located within the rear fuselage (Hf 24,
lighting,MIG-19)
Classification by configuration:
Airplanes are also classified in accordance with their shape and structural
layout, which in turn contribute to their aerodynamic, tactical and operational
characteristics. Classification by configuration is made according to:
Shape and position of the wing
Type of fuselage
Location of horizontal tail surfaces
Shape and position of the wing:

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Braved biplane(D.H. Tiger moth)


Braced sesquiplane (An-2)
Semi-cantilever parasol monoplane (baby ace)
Cantilever low wing monoplane (DC-3,HJT-16,I1-18,DH Comet)
Cantilever mid wing monoplane (Hunter, Canberra)

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Cantilever high wing monoplane (An-22,Brequet 941 Fokker


Friendship)
Straight wing monoplane (F-104 A)
Swept wing monoplane (HF-24, MIG-21, Lighting)
Delta monoplane with small aspect ratio (Avro-707, B-58 Hustler,
Avro Vulcan)
Type of fuselage
Conventional single fuselage design ( HT-2,Boeing 707
Twin- fuselage design
Pod and boom construction (Packet, Vampire)
Types of landing gear:

Retractable landing gear (DC-9,Tu-114,SAAB-35)


Non- retractable landing gear (pushpak, An-14, Fuji KM-2)
Tail wheel landing gear (HT-2,Dakota,Cessana J85 C)
Nose wheel landing gear (Avro-748, Tu-134,F-5A)
Bicycle landing gear (Yak-25,HS-P,112)

THE DESIGN
Design is a process of usage of creativity with the knowledge of science
where we try to get the most of the best things available and to overcome the pitfalls the
previous design has. It is an iterative process to idealism toward with everyone is marching
still.
Design of any system is of successful application of fundamentals of
physics. Thus the airplane design incorporates the fundamentals of aerodynamics,
structures, performance and stability & control and basic physics. These are based on
certain degree of judgment and experience. Every designer has the same technical details
but each design prevails its own individuality and the mode of the designer.

Here the preliminary design has been done of an executive Transport


Aircraft. The basic requirements are the safe, comfortable and economic transport mode
with reasonable time period of flight. Here comfort and safety are given primary
importance.

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FIG: 3

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COMPARATIVE DATA SHEET


In the designers perspective it is necessary to compare the existing
airplanes that are of same type as that of our desired airplane. Their important parameters,
positive aspects to be considered and pitfalls to be overcome are taken into consideration.

Manufacturer

AIRBUS

BOEING

BOEING

McDON.

Type
Model

A340600

747400

777300

/DOUG.
MD-12LR

Initial service date

2002

1988

1998

Engine Manufacturer

R-R

P&W4062

R-R

R-R/GE/PW

Model / Type

Trent 556

4056

Trent 895

CF6-80C2

No. of engines

SFC
Bypass ratio
Dry Weight
Diameter
Length

.54lb/lbf-hr

.56lb/lbf-hr

.575lb/lbf-hr

.23lb/lbf-hr

36:03:01

5.0:1

38:04:01

5-5.31

4835kg

4890kg

5942kg

4472.42kg

2.5m

2.54m

3m

2.69m

3.9m

4.41m

4.36m

4.26m

Static thrust (kN)

249.1

252.4

423.0

284.7

Max. seats (single


class)
Two class seating

475

660

550

660

440

496

479

Three class seating

380

412

394

481

No. abreast

10

10

11/8

Hold volume (m)

187.74

171.00

200.50

126.40

Volume per
passenger
Mass (Weight) (kg):

0.40

0.26

0.36

0.19

Ramp

365900

397730

299600

Max. take-off

365000

396830

299370

430846

Max. landing

254000

285760

237685

291468

Zero-fuel

240000

242670

224530

273308

61186

68570

85489

Accommodation:

Max. payload

63000

Max. fuel payload

29311

Design payload

36100

39140

45695

Design fuel load

151890

176206

197332

Operational empty

177010

181484

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Manufacturer

AIRBUS

BOEING

BOEING

McDON.

Type
Model

A340600

747400

777300

/DOUG.
MD-12LR

Ops empty/Max. T/O

0.485

0.457

0.521

0.436

Max. Payload/Max.
T/O
Max. Fuel/Max. T/O

0.173

0.154

0.229

0.423

0.407

0.452

Max. Landing/Max.
T/O
Fuel (litres):

0.696

0.720

0.794

Standard

195620

204350

171170

Weight Ratios:

Optional

0.677

216850

Fuselage:
Length (m)

69.57

68.63

72.88

58.82

Height (m)

5.64

8.10

6.20

8.51

Width (m)

5.64

6.50

6.20

7.47

Finess Ratio

12.34

10.56

11.75

7.87

Area (m)

437.30

525.00

427.80

543.00

Span (m)

61.20

62.30

60.90

64.92

MAC (m)

8.35

9.68

8.75

9.80

Aspect Ratio

8.56

7.39

8.67

7.76

Taper Ratio

0.220

0.275

0.149

0.215

Wing:

Average (t/c) %
1/4 Chord Sweep ()

9.40
31.10

37.50

31.60

35.00

S2

S3

S2/S1

S2

0.625

0.639

2.758

High Lift Devices:


Trailing Edge Flaps
Type
Flap Span/Wing Span
2

Area (m )

78.7

Leading Edge Flaps


Type
Area (m)

Slats

Manufacturer

AIRBUS

Type
Model

kruger

Slats

slats

BOEING

BOEING

McDON.

A340600

747400

777300

/DOUG.
MD-12LR

Area (m)

47.65

77.10

53.23

96.10

Height (m)

9.44

10.16

9.24

12.90

48.1

Vertical Tail:

Aspect Ratio

1.87

1.34

1.60

1.73

Taper Ratio

0.350

0.330

0.290

0.345

1/4 Chord Sweep ()

45.00

45.00

46.00

40.00

Tail Arm (m)

27.50

30.00

31.65

24.50

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Sv/S

0.109

0.147

0.124

0.177

SvLv/Sb

0.049

0.071

0.065

0.067

Area (m)

93.00

136.60

101.26

113.80

Horizontal Tail:
Span (m)

21.50

22.08

21.35

22.55

Aspect Ratio

4.97

3.57

4.50

4.47

Taper Ratio

0.360

0.265

0.300

0.326

1/4 Chord Sweep ()

30.00

32.00

35.00

35.00

Tail Arm (m)

28.60

32.50

32.95

24.67

Sh/S

0.213

0.260

0.237

0.210

ShLh/Sc

0.729

0.874

0.891

0.528

Track (m)

10.70

11.00

11.00

11.59

Wheelbase (m)

32.50

25.60

25.80

26.84

42.80

41.00

2;16

2;12

1.250

1.118

Undercarriage:

Turning radius (m)


No. of wheels
(nose;main)
Main Wheel
diameter (m)
Main Wheel width
(m)
Nacelle:

2;12

Length (m)

6.10

2;16

0.457

5.64

7.30

7.27

Max. width (m)

3.05

2.90

3.20

3.10

Spanwise location

0.296/0.625

0.376/0.667

0.326

0.370/0.630

Manufacturer

AIRBUS

BOEING

BOEING

McDON.

Type
Model

A340600

747400

777300

/DOUG.
MD-12LR

366.32

393.06

353.87

378.33

834.67

755.87

699.79

793.45

0.2783

0.2593

0.2881

0.269

Loadings:
Max. power load
(kg/kN)
Max. wing load
2
(kg/m )
Thrust/Weight Ratio
Take-off (m):
ISA sea level

3100

3310

ISA +20C SL.

3550

3600

3080

ISA 5000ft

4250

4390

ISA sea level.

2240

2130

1860

ISA +20C SL.

2240

2130

1860

3540

ISA +20C 5000ft


Landing (m):

ISA 5000ft

2410

ISA +20C 5000ft

2410

2577

Speeds (kt/Mach):

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V2

185

Vapp

144

153

Vno/Mmo

330/M0.86

365/M0.92

Vne/Mme

365/M0.93

445/M0.97

CLmax (T/O)
CLmax (L/D @ MLM)

330/M0.87

/M0.85

1.92
2.87

2.38

Max. cruise :
Speed (kt)

507

Altitude (ft)

35000

Fuel consumption
(kg/h)
Long range cruise:

11370

Speed (kt)

490

Altitude (ft)

35000

Fuel consumption
(kg/h)

9950

Manufacturer

AIRBUS

BOEING

BOEING

McDON.

Type
Model

A340600

747400

777300

/DOUG.
MD-12LR

Max. payload

5700

6857

Design range

7500

7100

Max. fuel (+ payload)

7800

8310

Ferry range

8800

Range (nm):
8000
5604

Design Parameters:
W/SCLmax

2857.63

3117.51

W/SCLtoST

3912.54

4579.90

Fuel/pax/nm (kg)

0.0460

0.0500

Seats x Range
(seats.nm)

3300000

3521600
TABLE: 1

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DESIGNING OF SUPER JUMBO AIRCRAFT


REQUIRMENTS:
Passengers: 820(1-class)
Range: 10300 km
Pay load: 83900 Kg
Cruise Mach: 0.85
Altitude: 35000ft
CALCULATION OF CRUISE VELOSITY
Temperature at 35000ft: 216k
Velocity of sound at 35000ft.=297.88m/s
V cruise = M * velocity of sound
=0.85*297.88
=253.055
=253m/s

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MISSION PROFILE

FIG: 4

0-1 Take-off
1-2 Climbing
2-3 Cruising
3-4 Descending
4-5 Loitering
5-6 Descending
6-7 Landing

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SEGMENT DETAILS

MISSION

DESCRIPTION

ALTITUDE

DISTANCE

TIME

GROUND

2750m

5min

SEGMENT

0-1

RUN

1-2

ASCENT

0-13Km

20 Km

6 min

2-3

CRUSING

13 Km

10300 Km

9 hrs.

3-4

LOITER

5 km

30min

4-5

DECENT

15 Km

5 min

5-6

LANDING

2050 m

2min

13 Km

13-0 Km

0
TABLE: 2

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ESTIMATION OF WEIGHT
The weight of the aircraft (W) is the key factor in almost aircraft performance problems. The
gross weight is distributed in the following manner:

W = Wstruc + Wcrew + Wpass + Wfe + Wpp + Wf


Here,

Wstructure consists of the wing, fuselage, under-carriage & the empennage and accounts
for about 32% of the gross weight, i.e., 0.32W.

Wfixed

equipment includes the passenger seats, food, baggage racks, lavatories, air-

conditioning, avionics and other passenger amenities. This adds to the weight by about
0.05W.

Wpowerplant is the weight of the engine and its systems. The initial assumption of engine
weight is assumed to be 0.055W which may be modified later to suit thrust requirements.

Wfuel is the weight contribution of the fuel to the total weight. It depends on the range also
includes the Reserve fuel that is used in case of an emergency. It adds to the gross weight by
a factor of 0.3W.

Wcrew + Wpassengers accounts for the remaining weight. i.e., 0.275W. Taking passenger &
baggage weight into consideration, a maximum of 1800N per passenger is permissible. As
for a crew member, 1000N would suffice.

WARMUP AND TAKE OFF:


W1/W0=0.97
W0 =Takeoff weight
W1 = Weight at the end of take off

CLIMB:
W2/W1-0.985
W1 = Weight at the start of climb
W2 = Weight at the end of climb

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CRUISE:
( )

W3/W2=

W2 = Weight at the start of cruise


W3 = Weight at the end of cruise
RANGE: HEAD WIND CORRECTION
Gross safe range = Gross still in air range/1.5
=10300/1.5
=6866.667

Vcru = 253m/s
Vcr = 910.8km/hr.
Time=7.539 hr.

Head wind = 15m/s


= 54km/hr.
Additional distance = 7.539*54
=407.106km
TOTAL RANGE = FERRY RANGE+RANGE CORRECTION FOR THE HEAD WIND
= 10300+407.106
=10707.106km
(L/D)cru =0.866*(L/D)max
TO FIND (L/D)max
Aspect ratio = 7.5
From the Wetted area ratio chart (chart 1)
For swept back wing Swet/Sref =6
2

Wetted aspect ratio = b /Swet


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Chart: 1 Wetted area ratios

Wetted aspect ratio = A/(Swet/Sref)


= 7.5/6
=1.25
From Maximum lift to drag ratio trends chart (chart-2)
(L/D)max = 17
For cruise,
(L/D) = 0.866*(L/D)max
=0.866*17
= 14.722

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Chart 2

W3/W2=

( )

=
= 0.6708
W3/W2 =0.6708

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LOITER:
W3/W4

E = (1/ct)*(L/D) max*ln(W3/W4)
E = 30 min = 0.5 hr.
0.5 = (1/0.4)*17*ln(W3/W4)
0.5 = 42.5*ln(W3/W4)
Ln (W3/W4) = 0.0117647

0.0117647 = 1.011834
W4/W3 = 1/1.011834
= 0.98813
W4/W3 = 0.98813

LAND:
W5/W4 = 0.995

W4 = Initial weight while landing


W3 = Final weight while landing

HALTING:
Wf/Wg = 1.06(1-Wh/Wg)
Wh/Wg =W5/W4*W4/W3*W3/W2*W2/W1*W1/W0
= 0.995*0.98813*0.6708*0.985*0.97
= 0.63014
Wf/Wg = 1.06(1-0.63014)
= 0.392052
Wf/Wg = 0.392052
Page | 28

ADL

WEIGHT RATIOS FOR DIFFERENT (L/D) cru VALUES

(L/D)m W1/
ax
W0

W2/
W1

W3/
W2

W4/
W3

W5/
W4

Wf/
Wg

(L/D)crui
se

11

0.97

0.985

0.539

0.978

0.995

0.502

9.526

12

0.97

0.985

0.568

0.981

0.995

0.530

10.392

13

0.97

0.985

0.593

0.982

0.995

0.554

11.258

14

0.97

0.985

0.616

0.984

0.995

0.576

12.124

15

0.97

0.985

0.636

0.985

0.995

0.595

12.99

16

0.97

0.985

0.654

0.986

0.995

0.613

13.856

17

0.97

0.985

0.671

0.991

0.995

0.630

14.722

17.43

0.97

0.985

0.677

0.989

0.995

0.637

15.094

TABLE: 3

Page | 29

ADL

EMPTY WEIGHT
We = Empty weight of the aircraft.
We/Wg = AWgC
A=1.02
C= -0.06
We/Wg = 1.02(Wg) ^-0.06

DIFFERENT Wg VALUES FOR VARIOUS (L/D)

Wf/Wg

(L/D)max

Wpay/Wg

Wg

We/Wg

0.5277

11

0.0108

550000

0.4615

0.4985

12

0.0401

551000

0.4614

0.4727

13

0.0666

555000

0.4613

0.4497

14

0.0891

557000

0.4612

0.4289

15

0.1101

560000

0.4610

0.4103

16

0.1291

565000

0.4607

0.3921

17

0.1475

569000

0.4605

0.3852

17.43

0.1543

571000

0.4604

TABLE: 4

Page | 30

ADL

TO FIND THE GROSS WEIGHT


Wg= Wpay + Wf + We
1=Wpay/Wg + Wf/Wg + We/Wg
Wg= Wpay/(1- Wf/Wg We/Wg)
We/Wg = 1.02(Wg)^(-0.06)
Wg = Wpay/ {1-Wf/Wg-[1.02(Wg)^(-0.06)]}

FOR
(L/D) max = 17;
Wf/Wg = 0.3921
By substituting the values in above equation we get
We/Wg = 1.02(569000) ^ (-0.06)
= 0.4601
Wg = (Wcrew + Wpayload )/ {1-Wf/Wg-[1.02(Wg)^(-0.06)]}
= (73800+10100) / (1-0.3921-0.4601)
=569199.46 kg
Wg = 569199.46

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ADL

We/Wg = 1.02(569000) ^ (-0.06)


= 0.4601

Wpay/Wg = 83900/569199.46
= 0.1474
Wpay/Wg + We/Wg + Wf/Wg = 1
0.1474+0.461+0.3921 = 1.0005
1.0005 ~ 1

Page | 32

ADL

(L/D)maxvs Wf/Wg

Wf/Wg
0.6

Wf/Wg

0.55
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

10

12

14

16

18

(L/D)max
20

GRAPH: 1

(L/D)max

Wf/Wg

11

0.5277

12

0.4985

13

0.4727

14

0.4497

15

0.4289

16

0.41025

17

0.39205

17.43

0.38518
TABLE: 5

Page | 33

ADL

(L/D)maxVsWg
572500
570000
567500
565000

Wg

562500
560000
Wg

557500
555000
552500
550000
547500
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

(L/D)max

GRAPH: 2

(L/D)max

Wg
11

550000

12

551000

13

555000

14

557000

15

560000

16

565000

17

569000

17.43

571000

TABLE: 6

Page | 34

ADL

SELECTION OF WING LOADING BASED ON


LANDING SPEED/LANDING DISTANCE
Approach Velocity:

Va ~ 1.3(Vs) land
VTD ~ 1.15(Vs) land
Sland (feet) = 0.3{ Va (in knots)} 2
Vs = {2Wland/(S*CLmax*0*)} 0.5
= (2Pland/CLmax*0) 0.5

Pland = (CLmax* 0*Vs2)/2


=1.0, In the sea level unless otherwise prescribed landing altitude.
CLmax =3
Landing Distance, land (in ft.)=6725.72ft.

Approach Velocity.
Va = (Sland /.3).5=149.7299knots.
1 Knot=1.853km/hr.
=0.5148m/s
Va=77.08m/s

Stalling Velocity.
Vstall=Va/1.3
=59.2923m/s
Pland=(3*1.225*1*59.232)/2.
=6446.30N/m3.
Page | 35

ADL

Pland = 6446.30

Pland for Vs=6446.30N/m3.


Pland for Vs+10% =7816.445N/m3.
Pland for Vs-10% =5232.4966N/m3.

W/S = Pland*(WTO/Wland).
For Stalling Velocity of 59.8m/s.
Pland =(3*1.225*1*59.82)/2
=6570.97N/m2

S =Wg/Pland
= (569000*9.81)/6570.97
= 849.476m2.

S = 849.476m2

Page | 36

ADL

W/S vs Vs
110
100
90
80
70
Vs

60
50

Vs

40
30
20
10
0
0

2500

5000

7500

10000

12500

15000

17500

20000

W/S

GRAPH: 3

W/S

Vs
4593.75

50

6615

60

9003.75

70

11760

80

14883.75

90

18375

100

TABLE : 7

Page | 37

ADL

SELECTION OF WING LOADING BASED ON


MAXIMUM SPEED
For a High Subsonic Aircraft
Mmax = Mcric+0.04
=0.9+0.04
=0.94
So Maximum Velocity Vmax = 278.18m/s.

t`=Tvmax/W
t`=(.5**Vmax2*s*Cd)/W
0.5Vmax2=qmax ; W/S=P
t`=(Cdqmax)/P
CD0=Cfe*Swet/S
Estimation Of Wetted Area:
CD0(approximate)=0.015

Log10Swet =C+d*log10WTO
WTO in lbs.& Swet in ft.2
Cfe= 0.0030
From reference 2 Table 3.5,Page 122
C=0.0199
d=0.778

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ADL

Log10Swet = 0.0199+0.778*log10 (1254430.18*0.97)


=3.0625
Swet = 56780.57ft2
=5223.813m2
Cd0 = Cfe*(Swet/S)
=0.003*(6)
=0.018~0.015

Determination Of Drag:Drag is the resolved component of the complete aerodynamic force which is parallel to the
flight direction (or relative oncoming airflow). It must always act to oppose the direction of
motion.
It is the undesirable component of the aerodynamic force while lift is the desirable
component.
There are only two sources of aerodynamic force on a body moving through a fluid- the
pressure distribution and the shear stress distribution acting over the body surface.
Therefore there are only two general types of drag:
Pressure Drag : due to a net imbalance of surface pressure acting in the drag direction.
Friction Drag : due to the net effect of the shear stress acting in the drag direction.
Amount of drag generated depends on the Planform area (S), air density (), flight speed (V),
drag coefficient (CD) CD is a measure of aerodynamic efficiency and mainly depends upon
the Section shape, Planform geometry, angle of attack (), compressibility effects (Mach
number), and viscous effects (Reynolds number).

Cd=Cd0+KCl2.
Cd0 Parasite Drag Coefficient.

D0 = D0wing+D0Fus+DoNac+D0HT+D0VT+D0ETC
CD0 =D0/ (0.5V2S)
Page | 39

ADL

K = 1/ (*A*)
e = 0.85
A = 7.5
K = 1/(*0.85*7.5)
K = 0.04993
Cd= Cd0+KCL2
= 0.4671

Estimation of drag polar


Configuration Cd0

Clean

0.8 to 0.85

Take off flaps

0.01 to 0.02

0.75 to 0.8

Landing flaps

0.05 to 0.075

0.7 to 0.75

Landing gear

0.015 to 0.025

No effect

TABLE : 8

1. Clean configuration

CD clean = KCL2
= 0.04993*32
= 0.4494

2. Take- off flaps (gear up)

CD = CD0 + KCL2
e (1) = 0.8
CD0 (1) = (0.02+0.025)

Page | 40

ADL

Cd = 0.5225
2. Take- off flaps (gear up)

CD = CD0 + KCL2
e (2) = 0.8
CD0 (2) = 0.07

Cd = 0.5475
4. Landing flaps (gear up)
CD0 (3) = 0.095
e(3) = 0.75

Cd = 0.6043
5. Landing flaps (down up)
CD0 (4) = 0.1
e(4) = 0.75

Cd = 0.6093
Break up Drag Polar
CD = F1 + F2 (w/s) + F3 (w/s) 2
F1 = sum of the CD values of wing, stabilizers area.

F1 = Cfe * (Swet/s) wing*(1 + Sstabilizer/S)


= 0.003*(Swet/s) wing*(1 + Sstabilizer/S)

Page | 41

ADL

(Swet/s) wing = 6.0


( Sstabilizer/S) = 0.26

F1 = 0.003*3*(1+0.26)
F1 = 0.02275

F2 = (CD-F1)/ (w/s)
= 0.4671-0.02275/6446.30
F2 = 6.893*10-5

F3 = (*A**(0.5**V2max) 2)-1; {K/q2}


At 13km the density is 0.266kg/m3
F3 = (*7.5*0.85*(0.5*0.266*278.182)2)-1
F3 = 4.9337*10-10

dt`/dP = 0;{Recall thrust loading equation}


qmax*(-F1/P2+0+F3) = 0
Pvmax =
=
Pvmax= 6791.0220

Page | 42

ADL

W/S vs Vmax
400
350
300

Vmax

250
200
Vmax

150
100
50
0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

W/S

GRAPH : 4

W/S

Vmax
877.5039

100

1974.38

150

3510.016

200

5484.399

250

7897.535

300

10749.42

350
TABLE : 9

Page | 43

ADL

SELECTION OF WING LOADING BASED ON


ABSOLUTE CELING
t `Hmax =Dmin/W
= 1/ (W/D) max
CL/ (L/D) max = (CD0/k) 0.5
(CD)(L/D) max = 2CDo
t `Hmax = 1/(L/D)max
=

=
=
q Hmax = 0.5*Hmax*Vmax2
t `H = Treq/W
= qHmax*(
P=

CDo = 0.018; K = 0.04993; Hmax = 0.266


P=
P = 6179.579

Page | 44

ADL

For different values, we get the results as shown in the below table.

W/S vs VHmax
400
350
300

VHmax

250
200
VHmax

150
100
50
0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

W/S

GRAPH : 5

W/S

VHmax
789.55

100

1796.738

150

3194.22

200

4990.938

250

6179.508

278.18

7186.95

300

9782.238

350

TABLE: 10

Page | 45

ADL

SELECTION OF WING LOADING BASED ON


RATE OF CLIMB
Vc = V (T D)/W
Vc = V

(t `R/C)r = (Vc/V) + 0.5*0*V2/P*CD0


CD = F1+F2P+F3P2
(t `R/C)r = (Vc/V) + q[F1/P+F2+F3P]
Dt`R/C/dP = 0
PR/C = (F1/F3)0.5
= q (F1A) 0.5
(t `R/C)r = (Vc/V) + q[

W/S =

V(R/C) max =

( )

L/D = 17; T/W = 0.222; mean = (1.225+0.266)/2 = 0.7455


(VR/C) 2 = {0.222/ (3*0.7455 *0.018)}*W/S*[

= 11.58W/S
Page | 46

ADL

W/S vs V(R/C)max
350

300

V(R/C)max

250

200

V(R/C)max

150

100

50

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000 10000

W/S

GRAPH: 6

W/S

V(R/C)max
5397.236

250

5837.651

260

6295.337

270

6770.294

280

7262.522

290

7772.02

300

8298.79

310

8842.83

320

TABLE: 11

Page | 47

ADL

COMPARATIVE GRAPH

W/S vs V(R/C)max
400

350

300

V(R/C)max

250
Vs

200

Vmax
VHmax

150

V(R/C)max

100

50

0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000


W/S

GRAPH: 7

Page | 48

ADL

COMPARATIVE TABLE
W/S

Vs

W/S

Vmax

W/S

VHmax

W/S

V(R/C)max

4593.75

50

877.5039

100

789.55

100

5397.236

250

6615

60

1974.38

150

1796.738

150

5837.651

260

9003.75

70

3510.016

200

3194.22

200

6295.337

270

11760

80

5484.399

250

4990.938

250

6770.294

280

14883.75

90

7897.535

300

6179.508

278.18

7262.522

290

18375

100

10749.42

350

7186.95

300

7772.02

300

TABLE: 12&13

S. No.

Design Parameter

Value

Unit

1.

Aspect Ratio

7.5

(no unit)

2.

Wing Span

79.75

3.

Height

24.45

4.

Length

72.73

5.

Wing Area

849.47

m2

6.

Max Speed

1001.448

km/hr

7.

Cruise Speed

910.8

km/hr

8.

Range

10300

km

9.

Service Ceiling

43,028

ft

10.

Rate of Climb

55.55

m/s

11.

Max Take-Off Weight

569000

kg

12.

Empty Weight

262000

kg

13.

Payload

83900

kg

14.

Crew Members

(no unit)

Page | 49

ADL

FUSELAGE DESIGN
INTRODUCTION
The fuselage (from French fusel "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body
section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will
usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single
engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as
a floating hull. The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization
surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, required for aircraft
stability and maneuverability.
Common practice to modularise layout:
Crew compartment, power plant system, payload configuration, fuel
volume, landing gear stowage, wing carry-through structure,
empennage, etc.
Or simply into front, centre and rear fuselage section designs.

Functions of fuselage:
Provision of volume for payload.
Provide overall structural integrity.
Possible mounting of landing gear and power plant.
Once fundamental configuration is established, fuselage layout proceeds
almost independently of other design aspects.
PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS
Most of the fuselage volume is occupied by the payload, except for:

Single and two-seat light aircraft.


Trainer and light strike aircraft.
Combat aircraft with weapons carried on outer fuselage & wing.
High performance combat aircraft.

Page | 50

ADL

Payload includes:

Passengers and associated baggage.


Freight.
Internal weapons (guns, free-fall bombs, bay-housed guided weapons).
Crew (significant for anti-sub and early-warning aircraft).
Avionics equipment.
Flight test instrumentation (experimental aircraft).
Fuel (often interchangeable with other payload items on a mass basis).

Pressurisation:
If required, has a major impact upon overall shape.
Overall effect depends on level of pressurisation required.

Low Differential Pressurisation:


Defined as no greater than 0.27 bar (4 psi).
Mainly applicable to fighters where crew are also equipped with
pressure suits.
Cockpit pressurisation primarily provides survivable environment in case
of suit failure at high altitude.
Also used on some general aviation aircraft to improve passenger
comfort at moderate altitude.
Pressure compartment has to avoid use of flat surfaces.

Normal (High) Differential Pressurisation:


Usual requirement is for effective altitude to be no more than 11 km
(32000 ft) ISA for passenger transports.
Implied pressure differentials are:
o 0.37 bar (5.5 psi) for aircraft at 7.6 km (25,000 ft).
o 0.58 bar (8.5 psi) for aircraft at 13.1 km (43,000 ft).
o 0.65 bar (9.4 psi) for aircraft at 19.8 km (65,000 ft).
High pressure differential required across most of fuselage for passenger
transports so often over-riding fuselage structural design requirement.

Page | 51

ADL

Particular need to base outer shell cross-section on circular arcs to avoid


significant mass penalties.
Pure circular sections best structurally but double-bubbles sometimes
give best compromise with internal layout.

Fuselage Aerodynamics:
Aim is to achieve reasonably streamlined form together with
minimum surface area to meet required internal volume.
Both drag and mass heavily influenced by surface area.
Require absence of steps and minimum number of excrescences.
Fundamental
applications.

differences

between

subsonic

and

supersonic

Concerned with: cross-section shape, nose shape & length, tail


shape/length, overall length.

Cross-Section Shape Subsonic Aircraft


Not too critical aerodynamically, but should:
o avoid sharp corners
o provide fairings for protuberances
Constant cross-section preferable for optimized volume utilization and
ease of manufacture.

Nose Shape
Should not be unduly bluff.
Local changes in cross-section needed to accommodate windscreen
panels.
Windscreen angle involves compromise between aerodynamics, birdstrike, reflection and visibility requirements.
Windscreen panel sizes should be less than 0.5 m2 each.
Starting point for front fuselage layout is often satisfactory position for
pilots eye.
Reasonable nose length is about:
o 1.1 to 2.0 x fuselage diameter (subsonic).
o 4 x fuselage diameter (supersonic).
Page | 52

ADL

Tail Shape
Smooth change in section required, from maximum section area to
ideally zero.
Minimisation of base area especially important for transonic/supersonic
aircraft.
Important parameter for determining tail upsweep angle is ground
clearance required for take-off and landing rotation.
Typically 12o to 15o.

FIG: 5

Typical tail section lengths are:


o 2.5 to 3.0 x diameter (subsonic)
o 6 to 7 x diameter (supersonic)

Centre Fuselage & Overall Length - Subsonic Aircraft


Theoretically minimum drag for streamlined body with fineness ratio
(length/diameter) of 3.
In reality, typical value is around 10, due to:
o Need to utilise internal volume efficiently.
o Requirement for sufficiently
stability/control purposes.

large

moment

arm

for

o Suitable placement of overall CG.

Wing Location - Aerodynamics Considerations


Mid-wing position gives lowest interference drag, especially well for
supersonic aircraft.
Top-mounted wing minimises trailing vortex drag, especially good for
low-speed aircraft.
Low wing gives improved landing gear stowage & more usable flap area.

Page | 53

ADL

From the above given locations of wings, the one chosen is the Low wing
configuration which gives improved landing gear stowage & more usable flap
area.

Empennage Layout
Vertical Surface
Single, central fin most common arrangement, positioned as far aft as
possible.

Horizontal Surface
Efficiency affected by wing downwash, thus vertical location relative to
wing important.
Usually mounted higher than wing except on high wing design or with
small moment arm low tail can give ground clearance problems.

Avionics & APU


Including navigation, communications and flight control/management
equipment.
Provision necessary for adequate volume in correct location with ease of
access.
Location of radar, aerials, etc also important
o Sensors often have to face forward/down in aircraft nose.
o Long range search & early warning scanners sometimes located on
fuselage.
Auxiliary power unit (APU) commonly located at extreme rear of
fuselage on transport aircraft.

Page | 54

ADL

TYPICAL FLIGHT DECK LAYOUT:

FIG: 6

FIG: 7

Fuselage sizing:
Length of the fuselage(lf)=aw0c
a 0.1 to1.8,c 0.5 to 0.25
Assuming a =0.2335
c =0.25
Where length of the fuselage (lf)
=0.2335*1254430.189*0.25
= 72753.56
=72.75 m

Page | 55

ADL

2D VIEW OF FUSELAGE

FIG: 9

Page | 56

ADL

SELECTION OF AIRFOIL
The aircraft which is to be designed having a High Subsonic cruise speed say
Mach 0.85 which belongs to transonic speed, so that to avoid profile drag
SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOILS are chosen.
From the aerofoil data book various airfoils of required t/c are taken and are
tabulated for maximum lift coefficient and minimum drag.

TABLE: 14

Page | 57

ADL

TESTING OF AIRFOIL
Airfoils For Wing:
Airfoil at wing root is a NASA SC(2)0610 and at wing tip the airfoil is NASA SC(2)0606.

FIG: 10 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0610 created using JAVAFOIL software by entering the co-ordinates.

FIG: 11 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0610 imported to XFLR5 An Airfoil Testing software.

Page | 58

ADL

FIG: 12 Plots of Cl vs CD and Cl vs from XFLR5.( NASA SC(2)0610)

FIG: 13 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0606 created using JAVAFOIL software by entering the co-ordinates.

Page | 59

ADL

FIG: 14 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0606 imported to XFLR5 An Airfoil Testing software.

FIG: 15 Plots of Cl vs CD and Cl vs from XFLR5.( NASA SC(2)0606)

Page | 60

ADL

COMBINED PLOT FOR ROOT AND TIP AIRFOILS.

FIG: 16 Plots of Cl vs CD and Cl vs from XFLR5.( NASA SC(2)0610 & NASA SC(2)0606)

Page | 61

ADL

Airfoil for Horizontal Tail Plane.


Airfoil used in Horizontal Tail Plane is NASA SC(2)0710.

FIG: 17 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0710 created using JAVAFOIL software by entering the co-ordinates.

FIG: 18 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0710 imported to XFLR5 An Airfoil Testing software.

Page | 62

ADL

FIG: 19 Plots of Cl vs CD and Cl vs from XFLR5.( NASA SC(2)0710)

Airfoil for Vertical Tail Plane.


Airfoil used in Vertical Tail Plane is NASA SC(2)0010.

FIG: 20 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0010 created using JAVAFOIL software by entering the co-ordinates.

Page | 63

ADL

FIG: 21 The airfoil NASA SC(2)0010 imported to XFLR5 An Airfoil Testing software.

FIG: 22 Plots of Cl vs CD and Cl vs from XFLR5.( NASA SC(2)0010)

Page | 64

ADL

2-D VIEW OF THE WING

FIG: 23

Page | 65

ADL

VERTICAL TAIL
VERTICAL TAIL = 30.5*(t/c) wing
ASPECT RATIO =1.39
TAPER RATIO = 0.424
t/c = 8
VERTICAL TAIL =1.73*8
= 13.66 m

LANDING GEAR SELECTION


In aviation, the undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually
wheels) that supports an aircraft and allows it to move across the
surface of the earth when it is not in flying. More importance is to be
given as it carries the entire load on the ground. Landing gear usually
includes wheels equipped with shock absorbers for solid ground, but
some aircraft are equipped with skis for snow or floats water, and
skids or pontoons (helicopter)
FUNCTIONS OF LANDING GEAR
carry aircraft max gross weight to take off runway
withstand braking during aborted take off
retract into compact landing gear bay
Damp touchdown at maximum weight.

Page | 66

ADL

TYPES OF GEAR ARRANGEMENTS


Wheeled undercarriage comes in two types: conventional or tail
dragger undercarriage, where there are two main wheels towards
the front of the aircraft and a single, much smaller, wheel or skid at
rear; tricycle undercarriage where there are two main wheels under
the wings and a third smaller wheel in the nose. most modern
aircraft have tricycle undercarriage. Sometimes a small tail wheel or
skid is added to aircraft with tricycle undercarriage arrangements.
RETRACTABLE GEAR
To decrease drag in flight some undercarriages retract into the wings
and/or fuselage with wheels flush against or concealed behind doors,
this is called retractable gear. It was in late 1920s and 1930s that
such retractable landing gear became common. This type of gear
arrangement increased the performance of aircraft by reducing the
drag.

FIG: 24

STEERING OF LANDING GEAR


The steering mechanism used on the ground with wheeled landing
gear varies by aircraft, but there are several types of steering.
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RUDDER STEERING
DIRECT STEERING
TILLER STEERING
Maximum Takeoff Weight of the aircraft (from Weight Estimation) =
272.655t = 2672kN
TYRE SIZING
During landing and takeoff, the undercarriage supports the total
weight of the airplane. Undercarriage is of three types
Bicycle type
Tricycle type
Tricycle tail wheel type

FIG: 25

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2D VIEW DIAGRAM OF AIRCRAFT

FIG: 26

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ISOMETRIC VIEW DIAGRAM OF AIRCRAFT

FIG: 29

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Conclusion
The aircraft is designed and the parameters like cruise
velocity, wing loading, span etc... have been selected for our
aircraft. The weight estimation had been done to estimate
the weight of our aircraft. The wings, airfoil, landing gear
have been selected for our aircraft. The performance
calculations were also made to estimate the performance.
The aircraft parameters are in the optimum range and design
characteristics have been found to be satisfactory.

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REFERENCES
1. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach 2ND Edition
Daniel P. Raymer
President, Conceptual Research Corporation
2. Airplane Design: Preliminary Sizing of Airplanes 3RD Edition
Dr. Jan Roskam
3. Lecture Notes on Aircraft Design, Department of Aerospace Engineering
I.I.T Madras, 2007
Tulapurkara.E.G
4. The Design of the Airplane
Darrol Stinton
5. Aircraft Design, Cambridge Aerospace Series
Ajoy Kumar Kundu
6. Aircraft Performance and Design 2ND Edition
John D. Anderson, Jr.
7. Janes All the Worlds Aircraft 1999-2000,
Janes information group ltd., Surrey,UK, 1999.
Jackson, P. (Editor)
8. Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge 2ND Edition
Federal Aviation Administration
9. Wikipedia
www.wikipedia.org
10. Airfoil Investigation Database
www.worldofkrauss.com
11. The Cambridge Aerospace Dictionary
Bill Gunston,

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