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ROLL NO. : - 2014087
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: - The researcher will have a doctrinal approach towards the
Project. Information for the Project will be collected from Books, Journals and Internet.

The earliest documents which throw light upon the history of India are the hymns of the RigVeda. The rig Veda consisted of 1017 hymns or Suktas. It consisted of 10 books or
Mandalas. The Rig Vedic period started from 1500 BC to 1000 BC. It was situated on the
Sapta Sindhu area, which mainly consisted of seven rivers. The theory of Sapta Sindhu was
given by Avinash Chandra Das. The base of the political organisation was the family or Kula.
Rajan was the head of the tribe. The king was controlled by two assemblies- Sabha and
Samiti. Customs and traditions were organised as the law of the land, which even the king
had to obey. Monarchy was the system of government, but the King had limited powers.
There was no strict social division, but there were four folders in the society, namely
Learning group, Protectors, Farmers and Working-class. Women enjoyed every right equal to
that of men in every sphere of life. There was no Sati system or child marriage. Wheat and
Barley were the main food grains. Chariot racing and music, both vocal and instrumental,
was well-known.

What was the value of the Rivers in the Rigvedic Age?

In the Rigvedic age the rivers were esteemed as sacred on account of the immense benefits
they conferred on humanity. Out of thirty-one rivers mentioned in the Vedic texts, about
twenty-five names occur in the hymns of the Rigveda alone. In the celebrated Nadistuti, the
Rigveda enumerates several streams most of which belong to the Indus system. Seven main
and several small rivers have been mentioned frequently. Since the Vedic times it became
almost a convention to describe the gradually widening Aryandom by the seven rivers called
'Sindhu'. Thus the entire country occupied by the Rigvedic Aryans has been designated as
Sapta Sindhu namely the five rivers of the Punjab together with Sindhu and one more
(perhaps the Saraswati or Khubha or Oxus). When Aryandom embraced the whole of India,
the name Sapta Sindhu was still retained and it came to be represented by seven principal
rivers called Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari, Saraswati, Narmada, Sindhu and Kaveri.

Religion in Rig Vedic Period

The Rig Vedic religion was very simple and the people worshipped various forces and
phenomena of nature. Thus they worshipped sky, surya, human forms and bestowed them
with human qualities. The various gods worshiped by the people during the Rig Vedic period
can be classified into three categories:

(a) gods of the sky or Heaven such as Dyayus (sky), varuna (sky-god proper), Usha (down),
Asvins (morning and evening stars) and Surya, Mitra, Savitri, Pushan and Vishnu (all forms
of Sun)
(b) Gods of the Atmosphere such as Indra (thunder), Rudra (storm), Maruts (storm-god),
Vayu (wind) and Prajanya (rain), and
(c) Gods of the Earth such as Prithvi (earth), Agni (fire) and Soma (the plant of that name)

Social Condition of the Aryans during the Vedic Age

In every sense of the term, Vedic culture was regarded as the cradle of Indian civilization that
boasts her so proudly before the world- Way back in ancient times, the whole of Aryavarta
resounded with static rhythms of Vedic culture. The contents of the Vedas have attracted the
admiration of the historians and researchers of India and foreign countries. The Vedic culture
was enriched by the original tastes and achievements of Aryans and every facet of this culture
drew the attention of the world to it. Really, the sun of Indian civilization rose towards
meridian from the horizon with the beginning of the Vedic culture. The social life of the
Aryans in the Rig Vedic age was as simple as it was sacred. It reflected the basic realities of a
village life style. The members of the family were bound by strong family bond of love and
affection and led an ideal life. The society was a true moral order. Their simple life-style is
reflected in their food, dress, dwelling houses, and recreational activities.

What was the condition of women in the Early Vedic Age?

If the Vedic period is divided into two halves then it may be said that the condition of women
deteriorated in the second half, that is, late! Vedic period than what it had been during the
Early Vedic period. In the Early Vedic (or Rig-Vedic) period the womenfolk had a high
status in the society. Women were highly respected in the family a well. A married woman
used to perform religious ceremonies as a partner of her husband. Despite the prominence of
men in family women were considered as the masters of the household. Unmarried women
could pursue their study staying in the house of their parents In Later Vedic period, however,
this position of women change for the worse. The family tended to be more patriarchal. In
contemporary books women have been depicted as one of the evils In the Later Vedic period
women were not allowed to participate in the tribal assemblies.

What were the salient features of Economy in Rigvedic Age?

Earlier it was believed that the Rigvedic economy was primarily an agricultural and peasant
based economy. However, recent researches have shown that the Rigvedic economy was
primarily pastoral even though, the roots are from which the term arya is derived means 'to
cultivate'. The Family Books of the Rig-Veda show this. They domesticated pashu (which
included cattle, horse and even human beings), as opposed to mriga, i.e. wild animals. The
term for cow (gau) in different forms is mentioned 176 times in the Family Books. Cattle
were synonymous with wealth (rayi), and a wealthy person was called gomat. The
importance of cattle was such that the terms of battle were derived from gau itself, such as
gavisti, gosu, gavyat, gavyu, and godhuli was a measure of time. Gopa and gopati were
epithets given to the king. Duhitri was the term used for daughter because she used to milk
the cow.

What was the education system in the early Vedic Age?

The frog hymn of the Rig-Veda (vii, 103) gives us a glimpse of the educational practices of
the early Vedic age. The above hymn gives a picture of the earliest Vedic school where the
poet has compared the croaking of the frogs with the chorus of the pupils repeating the words
of the teacher. Evidently the entire instruction was given orally. Art of writing does not seem
to have developed as yet.